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Copyright, 1902, 1904, 1005, 1906, 11)07, 1909, 191], 1912, 1914 

All rit/hts resened 

Copyright, 1917, 1921, 1922 

All rights reserved 

Printed in the U. 8. A. 












BRAZIL . 680 




BEARS . 10 






BELLINI, GIOVANNI (The "Doge Leonardo Loredano") 112 



BIGNONIA, etc. 276 





BOAS, Showing Specific Markings 432 


BONESET, etc. 504 




BOTTICELLI ("Primavera" [Spring]) 586 







BRAZIL NUTS, etc 688 





BRIDGES, Arch Bridges 746 

BRIDGES, Bridge Erection 747 

BRIDGES, Steel Arch and Lift Bridges 748 

BRIDGES, Suspension Bridge 749 

BRIDGES, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge 750 

BRIDGES, Military Bridges 751 


For a full explanation of the various sounds indicated, see the KEY TO PRONUNCIATION in Vol. I. 

I as in ale, fate. 

5 " " senate, chaotic. 

A " " glare, care, and as e in there. 

ft " " am, at. 

ft " " arm, father. 

6 " " ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. 
a " " final, regal, pleasant. 

a " " all, fall. 

S " " eve. 

S " " elate, evade. 

* " " end, pet. 

8 " " fern, her, and as i in sir, etc. 

e " " agency, judgment. 

I " " ice, quiet. 

i " " quiescent. 

I " " ill, fit. 

? " ' old, sober. 

5 " ' obey, sobriety. 

6 " ' orb. nor. 

6 " ' odcl, forest, not. 

" ' atom, carol. 

01 " ' oil, boil. 

65 " ' food, fool, and as M in rude, rule, 
ou " ' house, mouse, 
fl " ' use, mule. 
" ' unite. 
tt " ' cut, but. 

u " ' full, put, or as oo in foot, book. 
u " " urn, burn. 
y " " yet, yield. 

B " " Spanish Habana, C6rdoba, where it is like 
English v but made with the lips alone. 

ch as in chair, cheese. 

D " " Spanish Almodovar. pulgada, where it is 

nearly like th in English then. 
g " " go, get. 

Q " " German Landtag = ch in Ger. ach, etc. 
H " j in Spanish Jijona, g in Spanish gila; like 

English h m hue, but stronger. 
hw " wh in which. 
K " ch in German ich, Albrecht = g in German 

Arensberg, Mecklenburg, etc. 
n " in sinker, longer. 
ng " " sing, long. 
N " " French bon, Bourbon, and m in the French 

fitampes; here it indicates nasalizing of 

the preceding vowel, 
sh " " shine, shut. 
th " " thrust, thin. 
" " " then, this. 

zh " z in azure, and s in pleasure. 

An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used as in 
(table), k&z"m (chasm), to indicate the elision of 
a vowel or its reduction to a mere murmur. 

For foreign sounds, the nearest English equiva- 
lent is generally used. In any case where a special 
symbol, as G, H, K, N, is used, those unfamiliar with 
the foreign sound indicated may substitute the Eng- 
lish sound ordinarily indicated by the letter. For 
a full description of all such sounds, see the article 



Dr. Alfred Charles True. 

Mr. Howard Lawton Knight. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Mr. Howard Lawton Knight. 

Professor Samuel Macauley Jackson.* 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Mr. Howard Lawton Knight. 

Mr. Howard Lawton Knight. 

ProfesHor Alfred Homy. 


Mr. 0. William Beebe. 

Mr. Leon Dominian; Professor Walter 
Phelps Hall; Mr. Edward Lathrop 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 

Professor George W. Kirch wey. 
BELLINI (Family) 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 


Professor Evandor Bradley MeGilvary. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Dr. Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Professor Samuel Macauley .Jai-kson.* 

Professor Charles Foster Kent. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Mr. Allen Leon Churchill. 

Mr. John Fox. 


Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Miss Isadore G. Mudge. 


Mr. Herbert T. Wade. 


Professor A. V. W. Jackson. 

Mr. Charles Quincy Turner. 

Mr. George Gladden. 

Professor Francis M. Burdick. 

Dr. Roland P. Falkncr. 

Dr. Alvin Saundcrs Johnson. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 

Professor William Keith Brooks.* 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Mr. Castjius Miller Stanley. 


Professor Edwin A. Start. 

Professor Walter Phelps Hall. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Dr. David G. Yates. 


Dr. Alvin Saunders Johnson. 


Dr. H. A. Gushing; Dr. Talcott Wil- 
liams; Dr. Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Mr. Louis Doremus Huntoon. 


Dr. Herman T. Vultc. 


Dr. David G. Yates. 

Mr. Michael Anagnos.* 
Dr. David G. Yates. 


Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 


Professor George W. Kirchwcy. 


Mr. Charles Shattuck Hill. 

Mr. William Everett Hooper. 

Dr. David G. Yates. 


Mr. Frederick Remsen Hutton. 


Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 


Mr. C. William Beebe. 



Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer. 

Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper. 

Dr. Albert Arthur Livingston. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle; Professor 
Walter Phelps Hall ; Professor Dana 
Carleton Munro; Mr. Cyms C. Ad- 


Mr. Frederick Remsen Hutton. 


Professor Martin A. Rosanoff. 


Professor Walter Phelps Hall; Pro- 
fessor Dana Carleton Munro; Mrs. 
Allan E. Engle. 

Professor Walter Phelps Hall. 


Mr. Wolfgang L. G. Joerg; Mr. Ed- 
ward Lathrop Engle; Professor John 
Driscoll Fitz-Gerald. 


Professor Arthur L. Frothingham ; Dr. 
George Kriehn; Professor Charles 
Knapp; and others. 


Captain James J. Mayes. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Mr. Cyrus C. Adams. 

Professor Edwin A. Start. 

Professor Waller Plielps Hall. 

Dr. Frederick Randolph Bailey. 

Dr. David G. Yates. 

Mr. George Haven Putnam. 

Dr. William Dawson Johnston. 


Mr. Russell Sturgis.* 
Mr. Wharton Miller. 


Professor David Eugene Smith. 
Dr. Alvin Saundcrs Johnson. 


Mr. Charles Dexter Allen. 
Miss Clara Therese Hill. 


Mr. George Haven Putnam. 
Mr. Frederick W. Jenkins. 


Dr. William Elliot Griffis; Mr. Cyrus 
C. Adams; Mr. Edward Lathrop 
Engle; Dr. Robert H. Lowie; Pro- 
fessor Walter Phelps Hall. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle; Professor 
Walter Phelps Hall; Mr. Cyrus C. 


Mr. Edward M. Bacon. 


Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 


Dr. George Kriehn. 

Mr. W. B. Keller. 

Professor Walter Phelps Hall. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. Charles Quincy Turner. 

Mr. George Gladden. 

Professor A. V. W. Jackson. 

Dr. John Lawrence Gerig. 

Professor Alfred Remy 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 
Professor Dana Carleton Munro. 

Mr. Henry Gannett*; Mr. George Par- 
ker Winship; Mr. Edward Lathrop 
Engle; Mr. Wolfgang L. G. Joerg; 
Professor John Driscoll Fitz-Gerald; 
and others. 

Dr. Alfred Charles True. 
Dr. Edwin West Allen. 


Mr. Frank C. Wight. 

Dr. Alfred Charles True. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Professor Walter Phelps Hall. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor Heinrich Ries. 

Professor A. D. F. Hamlin. 

Professor A. D. F. Hamlin. 

Mr. Charles Shattuek Hill. 

Mr. Frederick E. Schmitt. 

Lieut. Col. Edgar Jadwin, b. S A. 


Professor Walter Phelps HalL 


Dr. David G. Yates. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 
Professor Walter Phelps Hall. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle; Professor 
Walter Phelps Hall; Mr. Wolfgang 
L. G. Joerg; Mr. John W. Russell. 


Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 


Mrs. Allan E. Engle. 
Professor Charles Knapp. 

* Deceased. 


(1811-88). A marshal of France. 
Entering the army in 1831, he 
served with distinction in Algeria, 
in Spain, in the Crimea, and in the 
Italian campaign of 1850. As head 
of the French army in Mexico, his African train- 
ing stood him in good stead. His success with 
the guerrilla bands, however, led him to regard 
his abilities at too high a rate. He quarreled 
with Maximilian and was believed by his sol- 
diers to be planning to set himself at the head 
of an independent empire in Mexico. Whatever 
his plans, the attitude of the United States 
forced the withdrawal of the French troops, 
and Bazaine returned to France in 1807. At 
the outbreak of the great \\ar with Germany 
liaznine was at the head of the Third Army 
Corps, near Metz. After the battles of Worth 
and Spichern he took command of the main 
French armies, and on Aug. 14, 1870, began 
a retreat from Metz. Defeated at Vionville, 
Mars-la-Tour, and dravelotte, lie retired within 
the fortifications of Metz, which was immediately 
invested by Prince Frederick Charles. Attempts 
to escape failing, Bazaine capitulated October 27, 
when 173,000 men, including three marshals arid 
over 0000 officers, laid down their arms and be- 
came prisoners of war. In 1873 Bazaine was 
tried by a court-martial and sentenced to degra- 
dation and death for having failed to do his duty. 
The sentence was commuted to 20 years' im- 
prisonment. But in 1874 Bazaine contrived to 
escape from the fortress on the lie Sainte-Mur- 
gue'rite, where he was confined, and ultimately 
made his way to Madrid, where he died, 1888. 
Bazaine was a man of great personal bravery, 
but unfitted by training to cope with the large 
situation at Mrtz. The role of politics and 
intrigue he played at Metz will probably never 
be understood, although much light has been shed 
on the subject by M. Emile Ollivier in vol. xvi of 
his Empire Liberal. Hia dilator iness was due 
largely to the overcaution be observed, which, 
justifiable in Mexico and Africa, was unsuited 
to central Europe and war with Prussia. In 
his own defense Bazaine published Rapport ftom- 
maire sur les operations de Varmee du Rhin du 
13 Aout au 29 Octobrc, 1810 (Geneva, 1871), 
and Episodes dc la guerre de 1810 et le blocus de 
Metz (Madrid, 1883). Consult also La Brugere, 
L f Affaire Bazaine (Paris, 1874), for an official 
account of the court-martial, and Corate f - 

son, La Ugende de Metz (Paris, 1888), for a 
vindication of Bazaine. 

01). An English civil engineer, born at Enfield 
(Middlesex). He was appointed chief engineer 
to the London Board of Works, and as such built 
large portions of the embankments and sewerage 
systems of that city. He constructed three 
bridges across the Thames and also the famous 
embankment bordering the river. As an ex- 
pert on practical questions of municipal engineer- 
ing, he was well known. 

BAZAN, ba-than', EMILIA PARDO. See PAB- 


DE (1810-65). A French military historian, di- 
rector of the Library of Compiegne under Louis 
Philippe. He was born in Paris and was ap- 
pointed official historiographer by Napoleon III, 
whom he accompanied during several campaigns. 
The results of these expeditions appeared in his 
works on L' Expedition de Crimee jusqu'a la 
prise de Sevastopol, chronique de la guerre 
d'Orient (1856) ; La campagne a* Italic de 1859 1 
chronique de la guerre (1859); Les expeditions 
de Chine et de Cochinchine (2 vols., 1861-62). 
His other works include a Histoire de Sidle sous 
la domination des Normands (1846), and the 
novels, Georges le montagnard (1851), Noblesse 
oblige ( 1851 ) , and La princesse Pallianci ( 1852) . 

BAZAR, ba-zttr', or -RASA^R (Ar., Hind., 
and Pers. bazar, a market). An Oriental mar- 
ket, covered or open ; the region of the city given 
up to shops. Such a market when the shops are 
grouped about a square is called usually a 
meidan. The bazar generally comprises a num- 
ber of streets partly or wholly roofed over and 
devoted to shops of the better class. The shops, 
grouped in streets or sections according to the 
goods dealt in, are mere recesses with open 
stalls or platforms in front. In the most monu- 
mental bazars the streets are covered with 
vaults, perforated with numerous apertures for 
light. Usually there is at least a central dome. 
The bazar is usually one of the principal monu- 
ments of a Mohammedan city; many cities had 
several ; Aleppo is said to have had 40. A good 
example is the chief bazar of Adrianople, that of 
AH Pasha a brick structure, 1800 feet X 500 
foet with a gate at each end and four side en- 
trances, entirely surrounded by walls and covered 


with vaults, making it comparatively fireproof. 
Of the two principal bazars in Constantinople, 
the oldest portion (the Bezesten in the Grand 
Bazar) was built in 1461, shortly after the cap- 
ture of the city. The term is also applied in 
the East to the open-air markets or sales on 
special days of particular commodities, like the 
Monday Cloth Bazar at Constantinople in the 
court of the Yeni Jami. In English use the 
word is also applied to any sale of mixed goods 
for charitable or commercial purposes. 

BAZARD, ba'zar', AMAWD (1701-1832). A 
French Socialist and founder of Carbonarism 
in France. He was born in Paris, early entered 
the National Guard, and at the age of 25 was 
appointed a knight of the Legion of Honor. 
Shortly after the establishment by him of the 
Republican Society known as Amis de la Vcrite, 
he organized in 1820 the famous French asso- 
ciation of the Carbonarists, founded upon the 
Italian organization of the same name, but 
adapted to the needs of the French revolutionists. 
The society grew rapidly in numbers and influ- 
ence; within two years after its establishment 
it embraced more than a quarter of a million 
members. In 1825 Hazard joined the St. Simon- 
ists and subsequently became the principal apos- 
tle of that movement, which under his influence 
spread rapidly. He followed up his public 
career on the new gospel by the publication of the 
famous journal, L'Organisateur, issued by the 
followers of the St. Simonist school in 1829. The 
chief work of the school, however, was the Ex- 
position de la doctrine Saint Simonicnne (2 vols., 
1820-30; 1854). Bazard severed his connection 
with the movement in 1831 and retired from 
public life. 

BAZABJIK, ba'zar- jgk', now officially en lied 
DOBBITGII. A district town of Bulgaria, about 
26 miles north of Varna (Map: Balkan Penin- 
sula, F 3). It contains a mosque and a number 
of churches and has an important annual fair. 
Pop., 1900, 13,430; 1905, 15,397. The town was 
twice taken by the Russians, in 1774 and 1810. 

"BAZAR, ba'zas'. The chief town of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Gironde, France, 
on the Beuve, 33 miles southeast of Bordeaux 
(Map: France, S., D 4). It is built on a rock, 
rising from the river; has a cathedral and re- 
mains of fortified walls dating from the thir- 
teenth century, and several interesting mediaeval 
housety, It carries on a trade in cattle and 
white wine. Bazas anciently belonged to the 
Vasates; during the Religious Wars it was the 
scene of atrocious excesses and reprisals on 
both sides. Pop., 1896, 4806; 1901, 4695; 1906, 
4684; 1911, 4704. 

BAZIGARS, bii'zS-garz'. A nomadic people of 
India, somewhat analogous to the gypsies of 
Europe. They recognize caste, are largely Mo- 
hammedan in faith, and forbid intermarriage 
with Hindus. 

BAZIN, ba'zfiN', REN FRANCOIS ( 1853- ) . 
A French novelist, born at Angers. He studied 
law at Paris and in 1878 became professor on the 
law faculty in Angers University. He published 
sketches and novels laudatory of provincial life 
and the domestic virtues. His novels include: 
Stephanette (1884); Lea Noellet (1890); Ma- 
dame Corentin (1893); Humble amour (1894); 
De toute son dme (1897) ; La terre qui meurt 
(1899) ; Lea OberU (1901) ; Donatienne (1903). 
He also wrote books of travel, including A Vaven- 
ture (1891), Bicile (1892), Terre d'Espagne 
(1896), and Croquit de France et d' Orient 


(1901). In 1903 he was elected to the French 
Academy. His later work includes : L'Ame also- 
oienne (1903) ; L'lsoUe (1905) ; Le Ue qui lev* 
( 1907 ) ; Le mariage de Mademoiselle Oimel 
(1908; Eng. trans., 1913); Nord-Sud Amerique, 
Angleterre, Corse, Spitzberg (1913). The book 
by which Bazin is best known to English and 
American readers is that on modern Italy, ren- 
dered into English under the title The Italians 
of To-Day (1904), a careful and sympathetic 

BAZOCHE, ba'zosh', or BASOCHE. A guild 
consisting of the clerks attached to the Parle- 
ment of Paris as well as the provincial parle- 
ments. When the French Parlement ceased to be 
the grand council of the King and confined itself 
exclusively to administering justice, a distinction 
of name necessarily sprang up between those no- 
blemen who formed the royal train and the at- 
taches of the court of justice. The former were 
called courtiers; the latter, basochians. To keep 
up their dignity the Bazoche gathered round a 
mock king of their own, who redded at the Cha- 
teau des Tournelles or the Hotel Saint-Pol. The 
Bazoche was divided into chapters, each wear- 
ing the livery of its captain. In Paris there 
were several of these chapters: Bazoche of 
Parlement (du Palais) ; Bazoche of Chatelet; 
Bazoche of the Ohambre des Comptes, which last 
body took the name of "High and Sovereign Em- 
pire of Galilee." Parlements in other parts of 
France also had their Bazoche. Their historical 
existence can be traced to the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, when Philip the Fair con- 
ferred on the brotherhood certain privileges. The 
President was called King, PreV6t, or Emperor. 
Henry ITI suppressed the regal titles, and con- 
ferred all the privileges and right attached to 
these offices on the chancellor. Still, the Bazoche 
continued to exist as a kingdom, minus its head, 
and affected on all occasions the language of roy- 
alty. Its jurisdiction included the consideration 
and decision of all processes and debates that 
arose among the. clerks. It also caused a species 
of coin to be struck which had currency among 
its members ; but, judging from the proverb about 
la monnaie de basoche, it did not enjoy an im- 
mense credit in the outer world of hard cash. 
The mock monarch also enjoyed the privilege of 
selecting at his pleasure yearly, from the French 
royal forests, a tall tree, which his subjects, the 
clerks, were in the habit of planting on the 1st 
of May before the grand court of the palace to 
the sound of tambourines and trumpets. But 
this was not all. In public sports this fantastic 
little kingdom was worthily honored; its chan- 
cellor had rooms at the HAtcl de Bourgogne; at 
the carnival the basochians joined themselves to 
the corps of the prince of fools and to the per- 
formers of low farces and "mysteries." They also 
acted a species of satirical "morality" (see MYS- 
TERIES), in which they made extensive use of 
the liberty granted to them in ridiculing vices 
and the favorites of fortune. Louis XII patron- 
ized these amusements. In 1500 he gave the 
brotherhood of the Bazoche permission to per- 
form plays in the grand salon of the royal palace. 
Francis I witnessed them in 1538, but in 1540 
thev were interdicted. The Bazoche took an 
active part in the early Revolutionary proceed- 
ings, but the order was suppressed by the general 
decree of Feb. 13, 1791. 

BAZZI, bat'se. See SODOMA, IL. 

BAZZINI, bat-se'ne, ANTONIO ( 1818-97 ) . An 
Italian violinist and composer, born at Brescia, 


1. GREATER YELLOW LEGS (Totanus melanoleucua). 

2. SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actltla macularla). 
8. DOWITCHER (Macrorhamphua grlseus). 

4. BLACK-NECKED STILT (Hlmantopus mexloana). 

5. LONG-BILLED CURLEW (Numenius longiroatrla) 

6. AMERICAN WOODCOCK (Phllohela minor). 


Italy* At the age of 12 he was a successful 
concert performer and made many tours through 
Germany, France, Italy, and Belgium. At 17 he 
was appointed organist of a church in his native 
town. For four years, from 1843, he studied at 
Leipzig, devoting himself to Bach and Beethoven 
almost exclusively. lie had met Paganini when 
but 18 years old and became completely influ- 
enced by that master's art and style. He has 
been classed with the Paginini school, and al- 
though criticised for mannerisms and sentimen- 
tality, was acknowledged to have brilliant tech- 
nique of left hand and bow as well as great 
vivacity of style. He was appointed professor of 
composition in the Milan Conservatory and di- 
rector seven years later. His compositions, which 
exhibit an assimilation of the beauties of Italian 
melody with the profundity and wealth of Teu- 
tonic harmony, include five string quartets, a 
string quintet, many compositions for the Church, 
an opera, Turandot, produced in 1867, and a 
symphonic poem, Francesco, da Rimini (1890). 

BDELLIUM, del'H-iim (Lat. from Ok. 0&X- 
Xtop, bdellion, the equivalent of the lleb. b'dolakh 
in Gen. ii. 12). A gum resin, resembling myrrh. 
High medicinal virtues were ascribed to it by 
the ancients, but it is no longer used. The 
bdellium mentioned in Gen. ii. 12 was probably 
not a gum resin at all. 


An American composer and pianist, born at Hen- 
niker, N. II. After elementary instruction from 
her mother she studied harmony under Junius 
W. Hill, and piano with Ernst P'erabo and Karl 
Bacrmann. Advanced musical theory she stud- 
ied independently, making her own translations 
of Berlioz and Gevaert. Under her maiden name 
of Amy Marcy Cheney, and up to the time of 
her marriage to Dr. Henry Harris Aubrey Beach, 
in 1885, she was known as a successful concert 
pianist; since then she has devoted herself 
almost entirely to composition. The Gaelic 
Symphony, for full orchestra, conceded to be 
her best work, has been played by all the 
great national orchestras. Of scarcely less im- 
portance is the Jubilate, composed for the dedi- 
cation of the Woman's Building, at the Colum- 
bian Exposition; a mass in E flat (Opus 5, 
1892), for organ and small orchestra; a cantata 
for women's voices, The Roses of Arontown, and 
The Minstrel and the King, a similar work for 
male voices; a concerto for piano and orchestra: 
a quintet for piano and strings; many composi- 
tions for piano, and songs. 

BEACH, DAVID NELSON (1848-1920). An 
American theologian, born at South Orange, 
N. J., and a brother of liar Ian Page Beach. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1872 and 
from the Yale Divinity School in 187C. In the 
same year he was ordained a Congregational 
minister and became pastor at Westerly, R. I. 
He subsequently served in pastorates at Wake- 
field, Mass., Cambridge, Mass., Minneapolis, and 
Denver. In 1903 he was chosen president of the 
Bangor Theological Seminary, at the same time 
receiving the chair of homiletics. He took a 
prominent part in civic and social movements 
and during his residence at Cambridge was promi- 
nent in ridding that city of saloons. He advo- 
cated the adoption of a modified Norwegian 
liquor system in Massachusetts, and became 
known as an enthusiastic worker for church 
unity and a better theology. His published writ- 
ing* include: Plain Words on Our Lord's Work 

(1S86) ; The Newer Religion* Thinking (1803) ; 
The Intent of Jesus (1896); Statement of Be- 
lief (1897); The Annie Laurie Mine (1903); 
Meaning* of the Battle of Bennington (1903). 

BEACH, HARLAN PAGE (1854- ). An 
American missionary, brother of David Nel- 
son Beach. He was born at South Orange, 
N. J., and graduated at Yale (1878) and 
at the Andover Theological Seminary (1883). 
He was missionary to China from 1883 to 1890 
and at the head of the School for Christian 
Workers in Springfield, Mass., from 1892 to 1895, 
when he became educational secretary of the Stu- 
dent Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. 
He became professor of the theory and practice 
of missions at Yale University in 1906. His 
works include: The Cross in the Land of the 
Trident (1895); Knights of the Ldbarum 
(1896); Dawn on the Hills of Tang (1900); 
Geography and Atlas of Protestant Missions 
(1901-03); India and Christian Opportunity 

BEACH, MOSES YALE (1800-68). An Ameri- 
can inventor and publisher. He was born in 
Wallingford, Conn., and in early life was a cab- 
inetmaker. He invented a rag-cutting machine 
for paper mills and engaged in the manufacture 
of paper. In 1835 he acquired an interest in the 
New York &un, a penny daily paper begun in 
New York about three "years earlier, and soon 
became sole proprietor. Leaving the paper to 
his sons, he retired in 1857 with an ample 

An American author, born at Atwood, Mich. 
He was educated at Rollins College, Winter Park, 
Fla., and later studied at the Chicago College of 
Law and the Kent College of Law (Chicago). 
It was not, however, as a lawyer that he became 
known, but as a writer of stories of adventure. 
Among these arc: Gardners (1905) ; The Spoilers 
(1906) ; The Barrier (1907) ; The Silver Horde 
(1909) ; Going Some (1910) ; The Ne'er-do-Well 
(1911); The Net (1912); The Iron Trail (1913). 
Two of these he dramatized, collaborating with 
Paul Armstrong in Going Some, and with James 
McArthur in The Spoilers. 

BEACH BIRDS. A collective term used by 
American sportsmen for such small wading birds 
as freauent marshy bays along the seacoast or 
seek their food on ocean beaches. They are 
limicoles, such as snipes, sandpipers, willets, 
curleys, avocets, etc., described separately else- 
where. Compare SHORE BIRDS, and see Plates 

BEACHES, RAISED. Tracts of ground at 
various elevations above the present sea or lake 
levels, which have evidently been beaches at some 
former time. Such beaches owe their present 
position to earth movements, which may have 
taken place in connection with earthquakes, or 
as part of the general system of changes attend- 
ing the development of the earth's surface. It is 
now found that wherever the ocean waves and 
surf are acting upon the bolder headlands of 
islands or continents, the de'bris is being carried 
seaward, and a comparatively smooth floor is 
being formed over a belt of variable extent lying 
below sea level. If this belt should rise sud- 
denly, it would be recognized as a terrace of 
raised beach. The characteristics of such beaches 
are: first, the nearly uniform elevation of the 
level terrace running approximately parallel to 
the present shore line; second, the presence of 
beds of water-worked aand and gravel; third, the 

in' the 'beds of marine or fresh-water 
shells belonging to species that were living at the 
time the sand was underneath the water. In 
America such beaches have boon found around 
the coast of Maine, of California, along the west 
coast of South America, and the shores of many 
fresh-water lakes, and of Great Salt Lake. 

In Scotland a terrace extends around the bold 
coast of the west highlands and the western 
islands at an elevation of about 25 feet above 
present sea level. The famous parallel Roads 
of Glenroy extend on each side of the valley of 
the Roy, the first pair at an elevation of 1139 
feet, the second of 1000 feet, and the third of 
948 feet, above sea level. These were origi- 
nally supposed to be raised marine beaches, but 
are now considered as beaches cut by the waters 
of a lake which once filled the valley. 

The most interesting raised beaches are those 
surrounding the Great Lakes of Nortli America. 
A -survey of these beaches, made by G. K. Gil- 
bert, shows that they are at present not abso- 
lutely horizontal, but rise as much as 5 feet per 
mile as one proceeds northward and eastward; 
further, the southern shores of tlie present lakes 
show a tendency to flooding or drowning. This 
leads to the conclusion that the whole plain bear- 
ing the Great Lakes is being tilted, rising towards 
the northeast (north 27 degrees east) and sink- 
ing towards the southwest. 


terrestrial, amphipod crustacean which abounds 
upon scabeaches and hops away with flea-like 
agility when disturbed. In summer they collect 
in vast numbers under windrows of seaweeds, 
etc., where they serve as scavengers by devouring 
decaying animal matter. They form an impor- 
tant part of the food of shore birds, tiger beetles, 
etc. Those of the eastern United States belong 
commonly to the family Orchestridie. See AM- 



or LITTORAL PLANTS. Plants that grow above 
the water lino along the shores of oceans or 
great lakes. They form one of the edaphic groups 
of xerophytes (q.v.). Hie beacli, as the term 
is here used, is composed of sand or gravel 
and is essentially a product of wave action; 
it comprises the zone which is, or has been, 
worked over by the waves. It is commonly de- 
limited on the one side by the water line and on 
the other by dunes or sea cliffs. The lower por- 
tion of the beach is washed by the waves of sum- 
mer storms and is devoid of life. Water plants 
cannot grow there because of excessive exposure, 
while land plants arc excluded because of fre- 
quent wave action. Beyond this zone is another, 
which is washed by the high waves of winter 
storms; here annual plants are found, but not 
permanent perennials, since the winter waves 
destroy them. Bevond the reach of any but 
exceptional waves is the upper beach, and here 
the conditions for life are much improved; not 
only annuals, but also biennials and perennials, 
become more or less abundant. 

The most characteristic type of beach plant is 
the succulent annual, of which the sea rocket 
(Cakile) may be considered a good example, 
since it is a common beach plant along the ocean 
shores of America and Europe and also along 
the shores of the Great Lakes. The development 
of -succulent annuals on the beach is a fact of 

great interest, since this type of vegetation is 
peculiarly characteristic of deserts. This sug- 
gests that the beach is a highly xerophytic habi- 
tat; and such is indeed the case, for there is no 
habitat in ordinary climates where the exposure 
to wind, light, heat, and cold is greater than here. 
Higher up on the beach there are often found 
biennial rosette plants, and perennials with 
long, underground stems, such as the beach 
pea (Lathyrus maritime s) and the sand reed 
(Ammophila) . 

The vegetation of beaches is almost always 
sparse. But few species can endure the severe 
conditions, and even in the case of these few spe- 
cies, the individuals are commonly scattered. As 
a consequence, the sandy or gravelly soil gives 
the dominant tone to the landscape, as is the case 
in deserts. A comparison of the ocean beach 
with the beach of the Great Lakes brings out the 
fact that the floras are almost identical. It 
might be supposed that the influence of salt (see 
HALOPIIYTES) would be indicated by a different 
assemblage of plants along the seashore, but 
scarcely any inland and coastal plant societies 
are so* much alike as those of lake and ocean 
beaches. This fact shows that the xerophytic 
character of the beach conditions determines the 
nature of its flora. See ECOLOGY. 


BEACH / Y HEAD (corrupted from Fr. bel- 
chcf, beau-chef, l>eautiful head or headland). The 
loftiest headland on the southern coast of Eng- 
land, projecting into the English Channel, 2% 
miles south-southwest of Eastbourne, Sussex 
(Map: England, GO). It consists of perpen- 
dicular chalk cliffs, 504 feet high, forming the 
cast end of the South Downs. Near tins point 
occurred a famous naval battle, in which the 
French fleet under Tourxille defeated the com- 
bined English and Dutch under Torring-ton 
(1090). The Belle Toute or Beachy Head Light- 
house, 2 miles to the west, was built in 1831. 
This lighthouse is 285 feet above the sea, in lat. 
50 44' 24" N., long. 12' 42" E. Jts revolv- 
ing light can be seen 23 miles out at sea. 

BEA'CON (ME. bchen, AS. bedrm, bC-cen, 
Ger. Bake; cf. AS. bracnian, Eng. bcvk, brc-Aon, 
to make a sign). Any signal set upon a height, 
but especially the alarm fires used at one time to 
spread the intelligence of foreign invasion or 
other important event. These five signals were in 
use in the earliest times. An instance is found in 
the book of the prophet Jeremiah, in bis call 
(chap. vi. 1) to the people of Benjamin to "set 
up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem: for evil ap- 
peareth out of the north, and great destruction." 
Notices of beacons are found in the literary re- 
mains of ancient Persia, Palestine, and Greece. 
Another occurs in the tragedy of Agamcnnion by 
the Greek poet ^Eschylus. The commander in 
chief of the Greek army at the siege of Troy is 
represented as communicating the intelligence of 
the fall of the city to his Queen, Clytemnestra, 
at Myeena, in the Peloponnesus. The line con- 
sists of eight mountains, and the news is sup- 
posed to be conveyed from Troy in one night. 

In England the beacons were kept up by a 
rate levied on the counties and had watches 
regularly stationed at them. They were care- 
fully organized while the Spanish Armada was 
expected. (For a vivid description of this consult 
Macaulay's Armada.) In the United States, as 
early as 1635, on Beacon Hill in Boston alarms 
were sent out by signal Ares in case of attack 
by Indians. During the Revolution a line of 
signals was established reaching across New 


England towards New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
crossing New York at the Hudson Highlands. 
Two of these, above Fishkill, are now known as 
Bouth Beacon and North Beacon. The latter 
was relighted at a celebration in 1883. In 1899 
its site was marked by a monument erected by 
the Daughters of the Revolution. 

In maritime affairs a beacon is a guide or 
warning signal. In former times signal fires, 
placed either in a cresset on top of a pole or in 
a tower on an eminence, were used to signal the 
approach of an enemy or to spread a call or 
warning for any purpose, a chain of them often 
conveying intelligence to groat distances. Vari- 
ous hills have received the name of beacon from 
the fact that signal fires have at one time been 
lighted on them. At present light houses or 
other objects, placed conspicuously on a coast or 
over a rock or shoal to give notice of danger, as 
well as signals erected for facilitating the tri- 
angulation of the coast, are known as beacons. 
Two principal features arc used for distin- 
guishing beacons color and shape; and the opin- 
ion given by the International Marine Confer- 
ence held in Washington in 1889, was that the 
first object to be attained, from an international 
standpoint, was uniformity. For this purpose 
color is the best means, applying to all systems 
of whatever kind, while the shape admits of 
numerous exceptions. The color is also applicable 
in all countries and with little expense, whereas 
the immediate adoption of shape would involve 
changes of several existing systems. In conse- 
quence it was recommended to adopt a uniform- 
ity in color, the shape to remain optional. From 
an immense amount of data it was clearly shown 
that there has been a far greater lack of uni- 
formity in beacons than in buoys (q.v.) and 
that even the different countries have not in 
themselves adhered rigidly to a fixed rule in 
the construction of lioucons. Perhaps the most 
intensive system of day marks and beacons in 
use along the coast of the United States is found 
along the Florida reefs. There the beacons are 
either lettered or numbered. The cage, shaft, 
vane, letter, or figure is of different color in 
adjacent stations, so that there may be no con- 
fusion. Combinations of red, white, and black 
are used; and us a full description of each is to 
be had in the sailing directions of that section, 
the navigator is always able to determine his 
position. See LIGHTHOUSE. 

BEACON HILL. The hill north of Boston 
Common, so called from the fact that in the 
early history of Boston a beuoon was set on it 
to give notice of threatened attacks by the In- 
dians. The summit is occupied bv the State 
House. Beacon Street, a noted residence street 
of Boston, extends along the slope of the hill 
skirting the Common and Public Garden west- 
ward through the Back Bay district. 

BEACONSFIELD, bek'onz-feld. A market 
town of Buckinghamshire, England, 7% miles 
northwest of Windsor. It was tht birthplace 
and residence of Waller, the poet; Edmund 
Burke was buried in its parish church: and it 
gave its name to the title of Benjamin DNr.-ieli, 
Earl of Beaconsfield. Pop., 1891, 1773; 1901, 
1570; 1911, 2511. 

BEACONSFIELD. A municipality of Cape 
Colony, South Africa, 2 miles southwest of Kim- 
berley, with which it is connected by tramway 
(Map: Cape Colony, A 7). It owes'its growth 
and importance to the diamond-mining industry. 
Pop., 1881, 4259; 1891, 10,478; 1904, 9374; 1911, 



BEAD. In architecture, a small, convex, 
round molding, sometimes called an astragal. It 
is of frequent occurrence in architecture, particu- 
larly in the classical styles. When carved into 
the form of a string of beads, long and short, 
it is called the bead-and-reel of bead-and button 
molding. In woodwork any fine rounded mold- 
ing is a bead; if sunk between two grooves, a 
sunk bead or plowed bead. The inner molding, 
usually gilt, in a picture frame, which mediates 
between the picture and the frame proper, is 
called a bead, whatever its section. 

BEAD. A varietv of personal ornament, made 
of various materials, as glass, pottery, metal, 
bone, ivory, wood, jet, amber, coral, etc., and per- 
forated so that it can be strung on threads and 
made into necklaces, bracelets, rosaries, etc., or 
worked on cloth as a kind of embroidery. The 
use of beads is of great antiquity, for they are 
found in the most ancient of the Egyptian tombs 
as decorations of the dead, and beads supposed 
to Lave been used as barter by the Phoenicians 
in trading with various nations in Africa are 
still found in considerable numbers, and are 
highly valued by the natives under the name 
of "Aggry" beads. Ever since the fourteenth 
century tho manufacture of gloss beads has been 
chiefly engrossed by the Venetians. (See GLASS.) 
The manufacture is curious; the melted glass, 
colored or uncolorod, is taken from the pot by 
two workmen, who slightly expand the collected 
mass by blowing down their blowpipes; they then 
open up the expanded glass and join the two 
together while still very soft. This done, they 
walk rapidly away from each other in opposite 
directions, in a long shed like a small ropewalk, 
and draw the glass, which retains its tubular 
character given by the blowing, etc., into rods of 
great length, and often extremely small diame- 
ter. On cooling, which takes place very quickly, 
these long rods are broken up into short lengths 
of about a foot, and a small number of these 
shorter rods arc placed on a sharp cutting edge, 
after being annealed, and are chopped into 
lengths. The roughly cut beads are next mixed 
very thoroughly with fine sand and ashes, then 
put into a metal cylinder over a brisk fire, and 
turned round rapidly as they begin to soften 
with the heat. They are then agitated in water, 
which cleans away the sand and ashes and leaves 
the holes free, after which they are strung. 

BEAD, BEADE, or BEDE (allied to lid). A 
word which in Anglo-Saxon and Old English sig- 
nified a prayer, and hence by extension came to 
mean the small perforated balls of gold, silver, 
glass, ivory, hard wood, etc., used for keeping 
uccoiint of the number of prayers repeated. A 
certain number strung on a thread makes a 
rosary (q.v.). A bedesman or bcdcswoman is 
one who prays for another. Persons of station 
prd wealth in old times "had regularly appointed 
bo.lcsmrn, who were paid to weary Heaven with 
their supplications." Bedesmen appointed to 
pray for the King and State sometimes lived 
together, and hence bedehouse is synonymous 
with an almshouse. A common form of si^a- 
turc at one time was: "Your bounden bedes- 
man," meaning 'Your obedient servant.' 

BEADLE, be'd'l (OF. bedel, of Teutonic ori- 
gin, akin to AS. bydel, proclaimer, from bid). 
Formerly an important parish officer, appointed 
by the vestry. He attended the vestry meetings, 
executed its orders, and assisted the constable in 
minor matters. He has been largely supplanted 

by the verger, the visitor of the poor, and various 
jx'ttv town clerks. 

BEADS, SAINT CUTHBEBT'S, A title popularly 
given to the single joints of the articulated stems 
of encrinites. The central perforation permitted 
them to be strung as beads, and from the fancied 
resemblance of this perforation to a cross, they 
were formerly used as rosaries and associated 
with the name of St. Cuthbert. They are also 
known as entroehites, or wheel stones. 

BEAGLE, be'g'l (origin obscure). A breed 
of small-sized foxhounds, used in hare hunting: 
very similar to the harrier. For illustration, see 
Dou. See MOUND. 

BEAGLE, THE. A small brig of war, of 235 
tons, engaged in surveying the southern coasts of 
South America and Tierra del Fuego and mak- 
ing a cruise round the world (1831 30) under 
command of Capt. Robert Fitzroy, K.N. Charles 
Darwin was the naturalist of the expedition. 

BEAK, or BEAK1IEAD'. A brass prow 
fixed at the head of the ancient galleys, to pierce 
the enemy's vessel by ramming. The term was 
applied later to a small platform at the fore 
part of the upper deck. 

BEAL, SAMUEL (1825-^89). An Oriental 
scholar, and the first Englishman to translate 
direct from the Chinese the early records of 
Buddhism, thus throwing light also upon Indian 
history. He was born at Davenport *nd gradu- 
ated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1847. 
After filling several curacies he became a chap- 
lain in the 'Royal navy. He was 011 the KyliHe 
during the China War of 1856-58, and also vis- 
ited Japan. In 1857 he printed for private cir- 
culation a pamphlet showing that the Tycoon 
of Yedo, with whom foreigners had made treaties, 
was not the real Kznperor of Japan. He retired 
from the navy in 1877, and was elected to the 
chair of Chinese in the University College in 
London. His reputation was established by his 
series of works which traced the travels of the 
Chinese Buddhist pilgrims in India from the 
fifth to the seventh century, A.D., and by his 
books on Buddhism, which have become classics. 
Among his works are: TJte Travels of Mung-Yun 
and Fa-Hien (1809); The Catena of Buddhist 
Scriptures from the Chinese (1872); The Ro- 
mantic Legend of Buddha (1876); Texts from 
the Buddhist Canon, Dhammapada (1878) ; Bud- 
dhism in China (1848); tii-Yu-Ki, Buddhist 
Records of the Western World (2 vols., 1884); 
a Life of Buddha, from the Chinese version of 
a Sanskrit original ( vol. xix of The Sacred Books 
of the East) ; and the Life of Eiouen-Tsiang 
(1885), the great Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. 
He catalogued the set of books in the Buddhist 
Canon as known in Japan a work of enormous 
proportions, sent to England by the Mikado's 
junior premier, Iwakura. 

American botanist, born at Adrian, Mich. Ho 
graduated at the University of Michigan in 1859 
and at the Lawrence Scientific School in 1805, 
and in 1870 was appointed professor of botany 
at the Michigan Agricultural College. In 1881 
he was first president of the Society for the 
Promotion of Agricultural Science. He is the 
author of brasses of North America (2 vols., 
1886-96); The New Botany (1881), and Seed 
Dispersal (1898). He became professor emeri- 
tus in 1910. 

BEALE, LIONEL SMITH (1828-1906). An 
English physiologist and microscopist. He was 
professor in the University of London, but re- 
signed in 1893. He was physician to the King's 


College Hospital for 40 years and was elected 
emeritus professor of medicine in 1890. He has 
written in opposition to Darwin's tlieories. 
Among his works are: How to Work with the 
Microscope (1857); The Structure and Growth 
of the Simple Tissues of the Body (1861) ; Pro- 
toplasm (1869) ; Life Theories: Their Influence 
on Religious Thought (1871) ; Urinary Deposits 
and Calculous Disorders (1868); Our Morality 
and the Moral Question (1880) ; Life and Vital 
Action in Health and Disease (1875). 

BEALE, TBUXTOX (1850- ). An Ameri- 
can diplomat, born in San Francisco. In 1874 
he graduated from the Pennsylvania Military 
College, and four years later, after studying law 
at Columbia University, was admitted to the 
bar. Instead of practicing, however, he became 
manager of his father's ranch in California, 
where he remained for 13 years. In 1891 he was 
appointed United States Minister to Persia, and 
a year later Minister (afterward Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary) to 
Greece, Rumania, and Scrvia. The years 1894- 
96 he devoted to travel in Siberia, Central 
Asia, and Chinese Turkestan. Many articles on 
international questions were contributed by him 
to reviews and magazines. 

BEAM (AS. beam, Ger. ftcrwm, tree). In en- 
gineering and architecture, a long piece of wood, 
stone, or metal used in a horizontal position to 
support a weight. Timber beams are usually 
rectangular in section and may consist of one 
large piece of timber or of several smaller pieces 
joined, butted, or spiked together. Beams of 
steel or iron may be a single-rolled steel shape, 
such as an I -beam, or they may be composed of 
a number of suitable steel shapes riveted together 
to form a single structure. ( See STEEL SHAPES ; 



1, I-beam ; 2, channel beam ; 3, deck beam ; 4, box beam. 

The term also has many special technical ap- 
plications. In shipbuilding the beams are the 
strong, transverse pieces of timber, iron, or steel 
stretching across a ship from side to side to 
support the decks and retain the ship's aides at 
their proper distance. For this reason the term 
is used to denote the widest part of -a vessel's 
hull, and on the beam is an expression applied 
to any point or object at right angles to the 
keel, aa on the starboard, or port, beam, accord- 
ing to the side of the ship. The ends of a ves- 
sel's beams are supported by clamps and knees, 
and the centre by stanchions. The beams are 
given a crown in order that the decks may have 
a slight convexity to shed water. When made 
of wood, a built-up beam is formed of smaller 
beams, notched, scarfed, and bolted together; 
when of metal, it is composed of a web plate 
having angles or other sections riveted to it. 
Cellular beams are formed of wrought-iron plates 
riveted together with angle irons in the form of 
longitudinal cells, with occasional cross-stubs. 
Composite beams are composed of wood and 
metal, or of two different metals. Kerfed beams 
have slits in one side, made by saws, in order 


to facilitate bending the beam in that direction. 
Beam also means the oscillating lever of a steam 
engine vibrating about a centre and forming the 
medium of communication botwoen the piston- 
rod and the crank shaft; also called working 
beam or walking beam. 

BEAM. The English translation for a num- 
ber of Hebrew words. It refers to the beam of a 
building (2 Kings vi. 2, 5; 2 Chron. iii. 7; 
Song of Songs i. 17; 1 Kings vi. 9, and else- 
where) ; but in Judges xvi. 14 the reference is 
to a weaver's loom, as also in 1 Sam. xvii. 7. 
The famous passage in which "beam" occurs is 
in Matt. vii. 3-5 and Luke vi. 41-42: "And why 
beholdent thou the mote that is in thy brother's 
eye, but considerest not the beam (Gk. 5o/c6s, 
dokos) that is in thine o\vn eye?" "Mote" 
signifies any light, dry particle, such as a dust 
grain or bit of straw. 


BEAM'ING. A preliminary process to hand 
and power loom winning, which consists in wind- 
ing the warp threads on the weaver's beam, the 
two essential requirements being firmness in the 
winding and evenness in the spreading of the 
yarn. Beaming was a special employment fol- 
lowed by workmen trained to the business as 
beamors. See LOOM; WEAVING. 

BEAM TREE (Pyrus aria}. A tree from 
20 to 40 feet in height, native of almost all 
parts of Europe and of corresponding climates in 
Asia, not uncommon in the mountainous districts 
of Great Britain, and frequently planted. It 
has a straight, erect trunk, and a round or oval 
head; the lea\es are o\ate. cut and serrated (in 
some varieties, deeply lobed ) , white and downy 
beneath; the flowers in large terminal corymbs; 
the fruit scarlet, of the si/.e of small peas.' The 
fruit is acid and astringent, but Incomes agree- 
able by incipient decay; it is sometimes called 
sorb or sen ice berry and resembles the true ser- 
\ice berry (q.v.) in quality, although it is much 
smaller. Beer is made fiom it by fermentation. 
Jts very hard and fine-grained wood is used for 
cogs for the wheels of machinery. The white- 
ness of the foliage makes the tree ornamental 
in plantations. See PYRITS. 

BEAN. An annual plant of the family Legu 
minosflp; widely cultivated for its seeds (beans) 
and pods, which are used as a food for both man 
and animals. The whole plant of some species 
is frequently grown for forage and gieen manur- 
ing. The broad bean ( Yicia faba) is the com- 
mon bean of Europe, of which the broad \Vindsor 
and Mazayan are the best-kno\\n varieties. It 
has been in cultivation from remote times. The 
plant is erect, 2 to 4 feet high: has thick, an- 
gular stems, leaves with 2 to 5 oval leaflets; 
Sowers in clusters, generally white with black- 
eyed wing; pods large and thick, and beans 
thick, flattened, and generally angular. 'I he 
varieties and subvarieties in cultivation are nu- 
merous and variable. They are grown both in 
the garden and field for forage and as human 
food. The plant is not well adapted to the hot, 
dry summers of either the United States or 
continental Europe, but succeeds well in England. 
It requires a heavy, rich, and well-drained soil. 
The Scotch, or horse bean, belongs to this species 
and is cultivated to a considerable extent as a 
forage crop. Phaseolun vulgaris, the kidney bean 
of Europe, is the common garden and field bean 
of the United States. It was introduced into 
Europe in the sixteenth century, probably from 
South America. New varieties of this 'species 
are easily originated, and several hundred dis- 

tinct varieties are grown throughout the world. 
Kidney beans are commonly divided into two 
groups green-podded and wax-podded. There 
are bush and pole varieties of each group. Prac- 
tically all of the wax-podded beens, and many 
of the green -podded beans are eaten as snaps or 
string beans. Several varieties of the green- 
podded group are extensively grown as field 
crops, and the product is sold as dry beans. 
They may be planted either in hills or drills 
after all danger of frost is past, and require a 
warm, loose soil. 

The Lima bean (Phaftvolus lunatuft) is a climb- 
ing species of South American origin, bearing 
very flat, broad pods, with short, flat seeds, 
slightly kidney -shaped. It is grown to a limited 
extent in various parts of the United States, and 
especially in California, where most of the seed 
is now raised. Some bush Limas have been de- 
veloped in recent years. The soy bean (Raja 
hispida or Glycinc 'soja) is the common bean of 
China, Japan, and India. Tt is grown in Europe, 
and in some of the Southern and Southwestern 
States to some extent as a forage and soiling 
crop. (See SOY BEAN.) The cowpea (Vigna 
unguiculata) belongs to the bean family. It is 
the chief forage, soiling, and green manure crop 
of the southern United States, where the beans 
are also frequently used as food. ( See COWPEA. ) 
Tho scarlet-runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus) 
is an ornamental climber which is also largely 
grown as string and green -shell bean in Europe, 
especially in England, where the Lima cannot be 
successfully grown. The frijole (Phaseolus spp.) 
is a small flat bean, raised in the southwestern 
United States, as well as in Mexico and other 
Spanish-American countries, where it ranks next 
to maize as a staple food. Tho tepary (Phaseo- 
lus amitifoliuft latifolius), a small variable bean 
which has long been grown by Indians in the 
same region as the frijole, has recently proved 
to be especially adapted to the exacting climate 
of the Southwest, and much more prolific than 
the frijole. Other beans, grown to a considerable 
extent in Oriental countries, but rather uncom- 
mon elsewhere, are the Lab In b bean (Lablab vul- 
garis), asparagus beans ( Viyna s&uiuipedalis) , 
Mungo beans {Phascolvs nnwfjo), and locust or 
carob beans (Crratonia siliqua), grown in the 
Meditenanean region as a cattle food. The vel- 
vet bean ( Wunnia utilis, now Stizolobium spp.) 
has lately come into cultivation in a number of 
Southern States as a forage crop and soil reno- 
vator. It has about the same feeding and fer- 
tilizing value as the cowpea. The velvet bean 
does not rij>en its seeds north of Florida and 
the Gulf -coast States. For illustration see 

Feeding and Food Value. The ripe seeds of 
the bean are used to a limited extent in the 
United States as a feed for farm animals, while 
the whole plant is sometimes used as forage. In 
bean-growing districts the culls (which are not 
of good enough quality for human food) can 
usually be purchased at a low price and are a 
cheap 'feed, as they are rich in proteid matter. 

Tn Europe horse beans are frequently fed to 
horses, especially to those required to perform 
long-continued or severe labor. Sheep are fond 
of raw beans. For other farm animals, it is 
stated, beans may profitably be cooked. Beans 
are suitable for combining* with corn or other 
grain rich in carbohydrates. Like other legu- 
minous crops, bean forage is comparatively rich 
in proteids. 

As a food for man, beans are extensively used, 

green or dry, or as the young tender pod, which, 
in many varieties, has little fibrous matter and 
is eaten with the seeds as string beans. Dry 
shelled beans have the following percentage com- 
position: water, 12.6; protein, 22.5; fat, 1.8; 
carbohydrates, 59.6; mineral matter, 3.5. The 
fuel value per pound is 1G05 calories. Fresh- 
shelled beans contain 58.9 per cent of water. 
String beans contain water, 89.2; protein, 2.3; 
fat, 0.3; carbohydrates, 7.4; mineral matter, 0.8 
per cent; the fuel value is 195 calories per 
pound. The Windsor bean is used green or 
ripe, being the common bean of manv regions of 
Europe. In America the navy or kidney is the 
bean most commonly used green or dry. Moat 
of the varieties of string beans belong in this 
class. The Lima beans are of excellent flavor 
and quality, and are favorites, green or dry. 
The asparagus bean is becoming favorably known 
as a string bean. 

Green shell beans and string beans arc usu- 
ally cooked in water, and prepared and served 
in a variety of ways. Dry beans are used for 
soups, purges, "baked beans," and other dishes. 
To develop their flavor long cooking is desirable. 
Judged by their composition, fresh beans com- 
pare favorably with other green vegetables. Dry 
beans are certain Jy a very nutritious food, beinij 
especially rich in protein, and thus fitted to 
replace meat to some extent in the diet. Taking 
into consideration the high food value of beans, 
their cost is usually low. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that, if eaten in lar^e quanti- 
ties, beans are less thoroughly digested than 
cereals, although usually well assimilated. Ow- 
ing to the production of methane by fermenta- 
tion in the intestines, beans are liable to cause 

Beans are sometimes ground to "bean flour." 
Large quantities of string beans and shell beans 
are dried by evaporation or canned. Cooked dry 
beans are also canned. String beans are some- 
times preserved with salt, and allowed to un- 
dergo a peculiar process of fermentation. 

The frijole is used green or dry. The dry 
bean is cooked in a variety of ways and is often 
highly seasoned with chilies. The pods of the 
locust or carob bean are often sold by confec- 
tioners under the name of St. John's bread. The 
seeds of this bean are surrounded by a sweet 
mucilaginous pulp, which is eaten to a consid- 
erable extent, especially in the Mediterranean 
region, as are also similar portions of the pods 
of the honey locjust (Oleditschm triacanthos), 
soybeans (q.v.), and cowpea (q.v.). See CAROH. 

Bean Diseases. The principal fungus disease 
to which the bean is subject is known as an- 
thracnose, and is caused by the fungus Collet otri- 
chum lindemuthianum. The fungus attacks 
stems, leaves, and pods of the bean, its presence 
being most conspicuous upon the pods, in which 
it causes deep, dark pits, seriously depreciating 
their value. The disease may be* carried from 
one crop to another through the seed. Infected 
seeds are wrinkled and discolored, and all such 
should be rejected, as plants growing from them 
are sure to be affected, and they may convey the 
disease to otherwise healthy plants. Various 
treatments have been suggested for combating 
bean anthracnose, but careful selection of seed 
will probably give the most satisfactory results. 

A rust of bean leaves, caused by Vromyces 
phaseoli, is sometimes troublesome, ' causing in- 
jury by defoliating the plants. The first appear- 
ance of rust may be recognized by small, nearly 
circular brown dots, which contain a brown 


powder, the spores of the fungus. Later the 
spots are larger and the spores black. The lib- 
eral use of Bordeaux mixture (see FUNGICIDES) 
will prevent this disease. A mildew of Lima 
beans, due to Phytophthora phaseoli, is some- 
times destructive. Loss pf the crop may be pre- 
vented by the use of suitable fungicides. 


American ichthyologist, born at Bainbridge, Pa. 
In 1892 he became associated with the United 
States Fish Commission. From 1880 to 1895 
he was curator of fishes at the United States 
National Museum and from 1895 to 1898 was 
director of the New York Aquarium, which he 
organized. He was the commissioner in charge 
of fishes at the World's Columbian Exposition, 
1893, at the Atlanta Exposition in 1895, at Paris 
in 1900, and chief of the departments of fish, 
game, and forestry at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exhibition, 1905. He published, with G. Brown 
Goode, Oceanic Ichthyology ( 1896) ; also descrip- 
tive lists of the fishes of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and other districts; and many contribu- 
tions to government reports. 

BEAN FEAST, also called WAYZ GOOSE. 
The English custom of an annual outing and 
dinner of workmen. It is either given by the 
employers or subscribed for by the workmen 
themselves. The name or nanies are possibly 
derived from the fact that beans, or a bean 
goose, figure prominently in the repast. 

BEAN GOOSE. The small gray goose of 
Great Britain and northern Europe. See GOOSE. 

BEAN KING'S FESTIVAL. A social rite 
observed principally in France, from which coun- 
try it would seem to have been transplanted to 
Germany. On the e\cning of Twelfth Day, the 
Feast of the Epiphany (January 6), companies 
assemble to spend a few hours in mirthful re- 
luxation. A large cake is baked, with a bean 
hidden somewhere in it. The cuke is then di- 
"\idcd into pieces, each person present receiving 
one, and whoever obtains the piece with the bean 
is king for the year. In this capacity he holds 
a mock court and receives the homage of the 
company, \\ho amuse themselves also with other 
diversions. The Itean King, however, is com- 
pelled to pay for his dignity, for he has to give 
an entertainment on the next Twelfth Night, that 
an opportunity may be afforded to choose an- 
other king. In France this custom was, at an 
earlier period, so common that even the court 
indulged in it, although the Church, in the seven- 
teenth century, exerted itself zealously for its 
suppression. It has left a trace in the popular 
expression for a lucky man, // a trourt la feve 
au (/at can ('lie has found the bean in the cake'). 
r Jhe theory that the Bean King's Festival owes 
its origin to the Roman saturnalia, when even 
the children partaking in the universal glee 
were wont to elect a king, appears quite plausible. 


BEAN WEEVIL. A small, dark-colored 
downy beetle (Bruchus fabce or obtectus), which 
infests dried beans. The eggs are deposited on 
the young bean pods. This beetle continues to 
breed also in dry stored beans. It is therefore 
necessary to treat weeviled beans with biscul- 
phide of carbon or hot water before storing 
them away. See WEEVIL. 

BEAK, bar (AS. bera, Ger. Bar, possibly 
akin to Lat. /era, wild beast, Gk. <t>jp, ph&r, beast, 
Skt. bhalla, bear). A large, shaggy plantigrade 
beast of prey, representing the carnivorous fam- 
ily Ursid. Bears are native to all the wilder 


parts of Europe, Asia (with its closely adja- 
cent islands), North America, and the Andean 
region, but are absent from Africa, except the 
Atlas Mountains, and Australasia. As they 
thrive in confinement, they have always been 
familiar objects in menageries, and are thus 
among the best-known of beasts. 

Characteristics. Most bears arc bulky, and 
some exceed in size any other carnivore; but 
this appearance of bulk is largely due to the 
looseness of the skin, the length of the coarse 
fur of their coats, the rudimentary tail, and the 
comparative shortness of their legs, the whole 
sole of the foot being pressed to the ground, in- 
stead of the toes only, as in most carnivores. 
In their relationships they stand between the 
dogs and the fur bearers ( Mustelidte ) , but their 
nearest relatives nre the raccoons. Their fossil 
ancestry is largely represented, and may be 
traced back to generalized forms in the early 
Tertiary, whence both dogs and bears seem to 
have descended by divergent lines. 

The bear's head is broad and massive, with 
extended and somewhat pointed jaws, well fur- 
nished with teeth, but Incking the muscular 
power possessed by dogs. They have cutting 
teeth above and below, 1 canine tooth on 
each side in each jaw, with 4 false molars and 
2 molars (or grinders) on each side alx>ve, and 
4 false molars and 3 molars below. The false 
niolnrs in general are soon shed. The true 
molars aie very large, and have tuberculous 


Skull of a young grizzly, showing characteristic dentition. 

crowns suitable for grinding the vegetable food 
which forms a large part of their fare, and 
which the loose articulation of the jaw per- 
mits. The skeleton is massive and the muscles 
"plated" and of very great length, while the 
feet are armed with powerful claws adapted to 
digging in the ground and to moving or tear- 
ing to pieces logs or rocks. All but the heaviest 
bears are able to climb trees. Their ordinary 
mo\ements are slow and rather clumsy; yet, 
when impelled by rage or fear, they will run 
for a short distance upon level ground with a 
speed that taxes a horse to follow and will make 
their way over rocks, rough ice, or up and down 
steep declivities, or among trees, with surprising 
quickness and agility. Their eyes are small, 
and their eyesight is probably not very effec- 
tive; but their hearing, though the ears are ex- 
ternally small, round, and furry, is acute, and 
their sense of smell is keen. Unless provoked 
or fearful for the safety of their young, they 
are not usually aggressive in disposition, but 
are likely to display curiosity, rising upright 
upon their hind legs and surveying the intruder 
calmly. They are rarely cowardly, and when 
angered or brought to bay will defend them- 
selves or attack most fiercely, seeking to strike 


their enemy down or to seize him in a crush- 
ing hug and tear him to pieces, with their teeth. 
The larger northern bears are therefore justly 
regarded as very dangerous beasts. 

Food and Reproduction. Bears are adapted 
by their teeth and digestive organs to a wide 
variety in food, and no animal is more omnivor- 
ous. Besides the flesh of such animals as they 
can capture, including pigs, calves, colts, and 
sheep, they eat fish (the chief diet with some 
species) and reptiles. They are also fond of 
fruits, berries, bulbous roots, leaves, herbs, grass, 
and birds' eggs, and of insects and honey, for 
which they will dig up ant hills and tear to 
pieces bees' nests and logs. They require an 
abundance of water and are not loth to enter it, 
some species being remarkably strong swimmers. 
They go about in pairs, or sometimes in small 
bands, and are diurnal rather than nocturnal 
in their habits, though often abroad at night. 
Each family has some sort of lair in a cave, 
dense thicket, or some similar place, varying 
with the circumstances; and there, in the early 
spring, are brought forth from one to four (us- 
uiilly two) young, which will remain with the 
mother until fairly well grown. ' The period of 
gestation is about seven months. In cold coun- 
tries the birth of the young finds the mother 
still in hibernation, which is more or less com- 
plete for all the northern species, according to 
the degree of cold and the amount of snow, 
which prevents their seeking or obtaining much 
food. Hence, when they corne out in the spring, 
they are likely to be thin and weak. The voice 
of bears is expressed in whines and coughing 

Fur. The skin of bears forms a fur pelt use- 
ful for robes, overcoats, and rugs, and increas- 
ing in value with its growing rarity. A com- 
plete and ornamentally mounted skin, in the 
form of a rug, is worth in New York from $75 
to $1000 for that of a polar bear, $100 to $500 
for a grizzly, and $50 to $250 for a black or 
brown bear. The flesh is good food, the fat is 
valuable for the unguent called bear's grease, 
and the teeth and claws are turned into orna- 
ments by civilized as well as savage artisans. 

Classification. The classification of bears is 
not yet satisfactorily determined, for several 
so-called species of wide distribution vary and 
blend confusingly. Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of 
Washington, is at work upon a monograph of 
American bears of the most elaborate type, 
which, when published, will greatly add to our 
knowledge, taxonomic and otherwise, of these ani- 
mals. The following are the leading species and 
groups of the bears of the world: Polar Bear of 
circumpolar distribution; Brown Bear of north- 
ern Europe and Asia; Himalayan Black Bear; 
Japanese Bear; Sloth Bear and Sun Bear of the 
Old World; Spectacled Bear of South America; 
Big Brown Bears of North America, represented 
by the Kodiak Bear and Peninsula Bear; Grizzly 
bears of North America, represented by the Sil- 
vertip Grizzly and the Sonora Grizzly; and 
the Black bears of North America, represented 
by the common Black Bear and Glacier Bear. 
See Plate of BEARS. 

The POLAB, WHITE, or ICE BEAR. The Polar 
Bear (Ursus, or TJiala&aarctus maritimus) is an 
inhabitant of the entire Arctic regions, where it 
seems to be extremely numerous upon all coasts 
and islands, and may wander a vast distance 
from land upon the ice, or even by swimming, 
for it has been encountered in the open sea many 



miles from shore, and sometimes drifts a long 
way south on ice floes. In color it is creamy 
white, with black claws, and the color does not 
change to white in winter, as is the case with 
most Arctic animals. It is one of the largest of 
bears and has an elongated neck and straight 
head, so that specimens may exceed 9 feet from 
nose to tail. Its limbs are comparatively slender, 
its feet disproportionately long and hairy 
upon the soles, giving it a firm hold upon the 
ice and power in swimming. Its food is mainly 
seals, which it captures both on land (or ice) 
and in the water with great activity and cun- 
ning; but it also feeds upon such fish as it can 
catch in shallows or find dead, and in summer it 
regales itself on marine grass. Its sense of smell 
enables it to detect concealed food, and Arctic 
travelers find it difficult to build "caches" strong 
enough to withstand its efforts. Although a 
dweller in the coldest and most wintry part of 
the globe, this bear is abroad at all seasons, and 
brings forth its young in no better chamber than 
a cavern scratched in the snow, which may cover 
the mother and her nursing young for many 
days before she is able to lead forth the cubs. 

The "EUBOPEAN" BBOWN BEAR ( Ursus arctos ) 
has been well known in captivity, as well as wild, 
ever since the days of the Roman arena, and it 
is still a resident in every "zoo" and the docile 
companion of wandering "bear tamers." It sur- 
vived in Great Britain until nearly the twelfth 
century and is still to be found in the Pyrenees, 
eastern Alps, and thence through Russia, Syria, 
and Central and northern Asia to the Himalayas 
and Kamtchatka. It is probable, also, that the 
so-called barren-ground bear of the Hudson's Bay 
region and the great brown bears of Alaska 
(see below) are geographical races of this spe- 
cies, of which, also, the almost white Isabelline, 
or snow bear, of the Himalayas, and the Syrian 
bear (mentioned in the Bible and still ranging 
the mountains of Palestine) are local varieties. 
Everywhere it is a solitary denizen of forests and 
mountains, affording good sport in Europe, and 
of great service to the barbarians of northeast- 
ern Asia, who depend largely upon it for food 
and clothing. It is too well known to require 
particular description. For its history as an 
object of ancient sport and its employment in 
"bear baiting," etc., consult Harting, British Ani- 
mals Extinct within Historic Times (London, 

quatus) and the JAPANESE BEAR ( Ursus japoni- 
cus) are rather smaller species, usually glossy 
black. They resemble the American black bears 
and are held in high respect by sportsmen. 

The SUN BEAB, or BBUANG ( Ursus malayanus), 
of the Malayan Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and 
Borneo, represents a distinct genus (Helarctus), 
in the view of many students, which is known 
also by several fossil species, including the huge 
CAVE BEAB (Ursus spelwus) of ancient Europe, 
supposed to have been exterminated by prehis- 
toric man. The size is much less than that of 
either the brown or the sloth bear, the head 
broad and short, the fur short and close, and the 
tongue and lips are remarkably strong and flexi- 
ble. With this go very long, strong claws, fitted 
for tearing to pieces ant hills and other insect 
retreats, whose inhabitants are easily gathered 
by means of the extensile, glutinous mouth. It 
inhabits dense mountain jungles and climbs ex- 
pertly. Its color is black, marked with a white 
crescent (orange in the Bornean variety) on 

the breast. It is peaceably inclined but fierce 
and aggressive when brought to bay, rising upon 
its hind legs and attacking with its long, sharp 
claws; but taken young, or bred in captivity, it 
becomes an amusing and somewhat intelligent 
ally of the showman. One kept as a pet by Sir 
Stafford Raffles, the most prominent of the 
early English governors and describers of Ma- 
laya, has become famous in ursine chronicles. 

(Ursus, or Melursus, labiatus) is a species in- 
habiting the jungles of all peninsular India and 
Ceylon, and is the juggler's bear of that region, 
where its facial grimaces and generally comical 
appearance are of great service to the wander- 
ing showman. This quaintness of countenance 
is due to the toothless condition of the front of 
the gums, where the incisors are lost in early 
youth, and to the fact that the lips are very 
long, and they and the whole snout are soft, 
extensile, and mobile to a surprising degree. 
These and other features are so pronounced that 
this bear has been separated in the genus Mel- 
ursus by most students. It is submissive and 
teachable in captivity; but in freedom, when it 
habitually makes its home in Home rockv cave in 
the jungle, it is brave and held in much respect 
by hunters. Its size equals that of the brown 
bear, yet it climbs about fruit trees with great 
ease. Its fur is peculiar, long, shaggy, and un- 
kempt, remotely suggesting that of a sloth, and 
black in color, except for the whiteness of the 
muzzle and space about the eyes and a conspic- 
uous V-shaped white mark on the breast. It 
seems to oat very little flesh, but lives mainly 
on fruit and insects, especially ants, termites, 
and the combs of honeybees, in securing which 
its extensile lips and tongue find their special 
use; hence the term ''honey bear." 

The AMERICAN BEARS are confusingly alike, 
and const* rvative naturalists have heretofore 
been unwilling to admit the reality of so many 
species as are distinguished in the list below. 
Some even question whether the Spectacled Bear 
(Ursus ornatus) of the high forests of the cen- 
tral Andes be not merely an isolated subspecies 
of the black bear, distinguished by its small size 
and the yellowish, goggle-like rings around its 
eyes. The latest account of the North American 
Ursidse makes the following list of species, fol- 
lowing the views of Dr. C. Hart Merriam: 
Grizzly Bears, Ursus alascrnsis, californicus, 
Jiorriceus harribilis, phoronyx and richardsoni ; 
Brown Bears, Ursus dalli, cnloplnis, fli/as, krnai- 
ensis, kidderi, middcndorffi, sheldoni, sitkensis; 
Black Bears, Enarctos altifrontalis, amblyceps, 
americanus, carlotlcr, emmonsi, eremicus, flori- 
danus, luteolus; Polar Bear, Thalassarctus or 
Thalarctus maritimus. 

The KODIAK BEAB attains the largest size of 
all known bears, and is the most bulky of carni- 
vores, specimens not regarded as the heaviest 
having weighed 1200 pounds ; many, however, are 
comparatively small. This huge species was dis- 
covered to science about 1895, on Kodiak Island, 
Alaska, where it is said to be numerous, but 
hard to get; and it is also believed to range 
the forested mountains of the neighboring main- 
land. It seems to subsist mainly on fish, which 
it scoops from the water with its paws, espe- 
cially at the season when the streams are filled 
with salmon and other species ascending them to 
spawn. In color this bear "varies greatly among 
individuals, being of various shades and com- 
binations of dark and yellowish browns.** Dall's, 


1. INDIAN SLOTH BEAR (Melursus I a hiatus). 3. GRIZZLY BEAR (Ursus horrlbilisj. 

2. MALAYAN SUN-BEAR (Ursus malayanus). 4. POLAR BEAR (Thalassarctus mantimus) 

5. AMERICAN BLACK BEAR (Ursus amencanus). 


or the Sitka Bear, seems separable from the 
Kodiak by points of skull-structure. It inhabits 
the Alaskan coast country, between Copper River 
and Baranov Island. 

The GRIZZLY BEAR of western North America 
is perhaps, on the average, the largest, and cer- 
tainly is the most formidable, of the family. It 
is justly regarded by sportsmen as the most 
dangerous beast in America, and at close quar- 
ters is the equal of any elsewhere in its reckless 
courage, muscular power, and ability for offense; 
the name horribilis, however, was a mere trans- 
lation by Ord of his "grisly" into Latin and re- 
fers to color, not to character. When the moun- 
tain men speak of it as "Old Ephraim," they pay 
the respect of knowledge to power. Its range, 
before the encroachments of civilization, was 
northern Mexico to the Arctic Circle, and from 
the Pacific coast eastward into the plains east 
of the Rockies as far as circumstances favored, 
probably as far as the great bison herds were 
wont to travel; but everywhere it preferred 
forests. It is still to be found throughout the 
higher parts of the Rocky Mountains and the 
Sierra Nevada, increasing in frequency towards 
the north and reaching its acme of both size and 
numbers in Alaska. The size varies greatly, but 
a length of 9 feet and a weight of 1000 pounds 
are given as dimensions reached by many speci- 
mens. Their color is equally variable, the typi- 
cal form being described by Elliot us "usually 
brownish yellow, with a blackish dorsal stripe; 
mane reddish brown, darkest near tips or hairs, 
which are brownish yellow or brown ; legs gen- 
erally black or blackish brown." Some speci- 
mens ("silvertips") are prevailingly light gray, 
due to the points of the hairs being white; others 
'"cinnamons") are warmly reddish, and others 
nearly coal black. Their habits and methods 
of life seem as diverse as their appearance and 

These great bears hibernate little, if any, 
and are abroad by day as well as by night; 
range the heated plains and jungly valleys or 
climb to the snowy peaks with equal ease. 
Often they go alone, but frequently travel in 
pairs or gather in small herds. One striking 
peculiarity, due, perhaps, to the great weight, 
is that they never climb trees, even as cubs. 
Nothing edible comes amiss as food. Tn former 
days they seized upon the stupid buffalo and 
were able to vanquish even the heavy bulls by 
the weight and tearing power of their mighty 
paws, and in these days range cattle are fre- 
quently destroyed; while those of the northwest 
coast region arc expert in scooping up fish and 
subsist largely on salmon and the like. All are 
fearless of water. Although so terrible when 
enraged, there is no evidence that the grizzly is 
more quarrelsome than other species; and the 
tales of an undying feud between it and the 
black bear or the puma are largely romances. 
The attitude of these bears towards mankind can- 
not be stated dogmatically, nor foreseen in any 
particular instance. They may quietly with- 
draw or run away in a panic (as the present 
writer has known them to do), or stand their 
ground without aggression if let alone; on the 
other hand, many a man has lost his life by a 
totally unexpected and terrifically impetuous at- 
tack. Says J. H. Porter (Wild Beasts, 1894, 
p. 371), in a wise summary: 

"No writer of any note except General Marcy 
has, as far as the author knows, denied that a 
grizzly bear soon comes to bay, and that he then 
VOL. III. 2 


devotes his energies to destruction with entire 
single-mindedness. Those who have met him, 
alike with those who have acquainted themselves 
with any completeness with the observations of 
others, know that this brute's patience under 
aggression is of the briefest, and his inherent 
ferocity easily aroused. When it is injured, the 
animal is exceptionally desperate, and fights 
from the first as a lion, tiger, and jaguar are 
apt to do only in their death rally. Colonel 
Dodge expresses the best opinions upon this point 
in saying that 'when wounded, a grizzly bear at- 
tacks with utmost ferocity, and regardless of 
the number and nature of his assailants. Then 
he is, without doubt, the most formidable and 
dangerous of wild beasts. 1 'In some way it has 
come about/ says Lockwood, *that . . . Bruin 
has secured for himself an almost superstitious 
respect. 1 The way he did so has just been men- 
tioned. Men had reason to fear him, and their 
veneration followed as a matter of course. It 
was because he proved 'most formidable and 
dangerous* that Schwatka found among the Chil- 
kat Indians the highest clan called brown bears, 
and for a like reason the native warrior wore his 
claws as a badge of honor. Ferocity, prowess, 
and tenacity of life appear most conspicuously in 
accounts of actual conflict. Enough has been 
said with respect to the first-named trait, and 
no one ever called the others in question." 

The Indians and early hunters captured the 
animal in pitfalls and very strong traps, or 
worried it to death by numerous shots. A single 
bullet fortunately planted in heart or brain may 
overcome it, but it has been known to survive 
many heavy balls. It remains one of the prime 
objects of sportsmen's ambition, and one of the 
most valuable prizes of the professional hunter, 
since its pelt, when in good condition, will bring 
a large price in the market. 

These remarks apply in a greater or less degree 
to the Alaskan bears already mentioned, and to 
the Barren-ground Bear, a smaller, whitish- 
brown form inhabiting the treeless regions be- 
tween Hudson's Bay and the Coppermine River, 
whose separate specific identity is still subject 
to discussion. 

The BLACK BEAR remains to be described. It 
is more widespread than any other in America, 
being found primitively wherever forests existed 
on the continent north of Mexico. Civilization 
has restricted this area of residence; yet these 
bears remain wherever any considerable tracts of 
forest exist and arc frequently a pest to farm- 
ers by their forays upon the pigsty and sheep- 
fold. Their size varies, but never reaches the 
bigness of the grizzly; the color seems normally 
black, but varies through brown and reddish to 
yellow. Some so-called "cinnamon" bears are of 
this species, and some are grizzlies. Their habits 
and food are closely similar to those of the Eu- 
ropean Brown Bear. They climb trees easily, 
are courageous, and may be very ugly customers 
when brought to bay, but are not often aggres- 
sive towards men. Those of Texas and Florida 
arc by some regarded as separate species. 

Possibly this is equally true of the small 
GLACIER BEAR, first described in 1896, which in- 
habits the St. Elias Alps of the central coast 
region of Alaska; but this will probably be found 
a tenable "species." It is smaller than the aver- 
age of black bears, and unique in its color, which 
is hoary gray, closelv resembling that of a silver 
fox, most nearly white on the under surfaces. 
"The fur is not very long, but remarkably soft, 


and with a rich under fur of a bluish-black shade, 
numbers of the long hairs being white 1 ' or white- 
tipped. The sides of the face are bright tan, 
and the claws are small, much curved, sharp, 
and black. Little is known as yet as to the 
special habits or food of this interesting little 

Bibliography. In addition to standard works, 
consult: Mivart, Proceedings Zoological Society 
of London (London, 1885); Blanford Fauna of 
British India: Mammals (London, 1888): Pol- 
lok, Sport in British Burmah (London, 1879) ; 
Hornaday, Two Years in the Jungle (New York, 
1886) ; Baker, Wild Beasts and their Ways (Lon- 
don, 1890) ; Sanderson, Thirteen Years among 
Wild Beasts in India (London, 1893), and other 
books of East Indian travel and sport; Reid, 
Bruin, or the Grand Bear Hunt (London, 1800) ; 
Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana (London, 
1837), and Arctic explorations generally for the 
polar bear; Roosevelt, The Wilderness Hunter 
(New York, 1893) ; Proctor, Wild Beasts (New 
York, 1894) ; Ward, Century Magazine, vol. i 
(New York, 1882) ; Merriarn, Proceedings Bio- 
logical Society of Washington (Washington, 
1890) ; Seton, Life Histories of Northern Ani- 
mals, vol. ii (New York, 1909). 


BEAR BAITING. A sport which consisted 
of setting a pack of dogs upon a bear, which 
was usually tied to a stake. It was an estab- 
lished amusement in many countries. In Eng- 
land it was known as early as the reign of Henry 
II, but was prohibited by Parliament in 1S35. 
Queen Elizabeth not only allowed them the bene- 
fit of her royal patronage, but attended the bear 
baitings in person. The Puritans hated the 
sport, "not because it gave pain to the bear," as 
Macaulay has recorded, "but because it gave 
pleasure to the spectators," and it was suppressed 
during the period of Puritan rule, 1049-60. The 
places where bears were kept and publicly baited 
were called bear gardens. "Looks like a bear gar- 
den," is a common English expression used to 
this day to designate any disarranged or ill-kept 
room or grounds. 

BEARD. The hair which grows on the chin 
and cheeks of men. The beard is the distinctive 
sign of manhood, although exceptional instances 
occur of women with beards equal to those of 
men. The presence of the beard is the ethnologi- 
cal characteristic; it is found especially luxu- 
riant among the Celtic and Slavic races, and 
scarcely at all among the North Americam, 
aborigines, who customarily eradicate the few 
hairs which grow on their faces. It is usually 
the same color as the hair on the head, although 
shorter, stronger, and more wiry. In early times 
the beard was considered by almost all nations 
as a sign of strength and manhood, and was care- 
fully cherished as being almost sacred. Its 
removal was regarded as a degrading punish- 
ment. (See 2 Sam. x, for the case of David's 
ambassadors.) The Moslems have habitually 
observed a great care of the beard, carrying 
combs about with them for the purpose of dress- 
ing it. It is their custom to do so immediately 
after prayers, while still on their knees; the 
hairs that fall out are carefully picked up and 
preserved for burial with their owners. The 
practice of dyeing the beard was common among 
the Arabs and Persians ; the former usually dyed 
it red, not only because dye of that color (be- 


ing merely a paste of henna leaves) was easily 
obtainable, but because it was an approximation 
to golden yellow, the color recommended by Mo- 
hammed, who hated black, the color preferred by 
the Persians. The Egyptians commonly shaved 
their beards, except in time of mourning; and 
an unkempt, neglected beard was also a sign of 
grief among the Jews. In Greece the beard was 
universally worn until the time of Alexander the 
Great, who ordered his soldiers to shave, that 
their enemies might not seize them by the beards 
in battle. Shaving was introduced among the 
Romans about the same time. Pliny says that 
Scipio Africanus was the first Roman who shaved 
every day. Subsequently, the first day of shav- 
ing (generally the twenty-second birthday) was 
regarded as the entrance upon manhood and cele- 
brated with great festivities. From the time 
of Hadrian to that of Constantine, the beard was 
again commonly worn. The ancient Germans, 
according to Tacitus, regarded a clean-shaven 
face as a sign of servitude, and the Lombards 
(Longobards) received their name from their 
long beards. The beard was commonly worn in 
France until the time of Louis XIII, when, the 
monarch being young and beardless, the fashion 
changed. French fashions in the mutter have, 
in fact, usually followed that set by the mon- 
arch an illustration of which is preserved in 
the English \\ord ''imperial" for the little tuft on 
the chin. In like manner the loyal Spanish 
courtiers removed their beards on the aci-esMon 
of Philip V, who was unable to glow one. 
Peter the Great compelled shaving in lUissia by 
positive enactment, imposing a tax on beards in 
proportion to the rank of tho wearer. A similar 
tax was for a while imposed in England under 
Henry VIII and Elizabeth; but fashion proved 
rebellious here, and the latter reign, with that 
of James I, was distinguished by a fantastic 
extravagance which clipped the heard into as 
many formal shapes as the old-fashioned box 
hedges. The Vandyke beard, familiar to us in 
the portraits of Charles I, characterized that 
period ; but in the eighteenth century the smooth 
face became usual, so continuing until compara- 
tively recent times. In fact, the wearing of a 
beard was regarded in the early part of the 
nineteenth century as a symbol of dangerous 
and revolutionary opinions, arid as such was 
restricted by the police regiilations of some Eu- 
ropean countries. The Roman Catholic clergy 
in modern times, although most of the mediaeval 
Popes wore beards, are obliged to shave an 
exception being made in the case of missionary 
orders and of a few individuals who receive 
special permission for reasons of health. Those 
of the Greek church have constantly worn full 
beards since the middle of the ninth century. 
As a general rule, the wearing of beards is dis- 
couraged by army regulations, and favored in 
the navy; but climatic conditions or assignment 
to exceptional duty may modify this rule. 

Physicians recommend that the beard should 
be allowed to grow on the chin and throat in 
cases of liability to disease of the larynx or 
bronchial tubes, because of the unavoidable re- 
moval of cuticle in shaving the throat. The 
beard itself is liable to the same diseases as the 
hair, and, to a peculiar disease called "barber's 
itch" (q.v.). Consult Philippe, Histoire philo- 
sophique, politique, et religieuae de la barbe 
( Paris, 1845 ). See BABBEE. 

American political economist and educator, born 


at Knightstown, Ind. After graduating from 
DePauw University in 1898 he took advanced 
work abroad at Oxford and in this country at 
Cornell and Columbia. Having received the 
degree of Ph.D. from Columbia in 1904, he be- 
came, three years later, a member of the faculty 
of that university, and was appointed, first, 
adjunct professor, then (1910) associate pro- 
fessor, of politics. His published writings in- 
clude: The Office of Justice of the Peace (1904) ; 
Introduction to the English Historians (1906); 
Development of Modern Europe, with J. H. Rob- 
inson (2 vols., 1907 ) ; Headings in Modem Euro- 
pean History, with the same (2 vols., 1908-09) ; 
Readings in American Government (1909); 
American Government and Politics (1910) ; Di- 
gest of Short Ballot Chapters (1911) ; American 
City Government : A Survey of Newer Tendencies 
(1912); The Supreme Court and the Constitu- 
tion (1912); Economic Interpretation of the 
Constitution of the United States (1913). 

American artist, author, and naturalist, born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. His academic education he re- 
ceived at Covington, Ky., and his art training 
(1880-84) at the Art Students' League in New 
York City. For many years he made illustra- 
tions for leading magazines, and he also illus- 
trated many books, of which the most notable is 
Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee tit the Court 
of King Arthur. He was the originator and first 
instructor of the pioneer claws in illustra- 
tion, and was teacher of animal drawing 
at the Woman's School of Applied Design. 
In 1905-06 he was the editor of Recreation. 
An enthusiast in outdoor life, he instituted 
what later became an international movement 
when he founded the first Boy Scouts' So- 
ciety in the United States. The Boy Seouts of 
America (q.v.), an outgrowth of the early or- 
ganization, chose Beard as its national com- 
missioner. He is also credited with the dis- 
covery of a mountain, which has been named 
for him, adjoining Mount McKinley. He became 
"a member of several zoological societies and was 
|chosen president of the Society of Illustrators 
and of the Camp Fire Club of America. Be- 
tsidcs many articles on nature subjects and sport- 
ling, his writings include: American Boys' Handy 
f Book (1882; 1903) ; Moonblight and Six Feet of 
Romance (1890): Jack of AH Trades (1904); 
Field and Forest Handy Book (IftOO); Boy 
Pioneers and Sons of Daniel Boone ( 1909 ) ; Boat 
Building and Boating (1912). 

BEABD, GEORGE MILLER (1839-83). A cele- 
brated American neurologist. He was born in 
Montville, Conn., graduated at Yale, 1862, be- 
came a physician at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in New York in 1866, and devoted 
himself especially to nervous diseases. During 
the Civil War he served as assistant surgeon in 
the United States navy and later investigated 
the relation of the brain and nerves and made 
special studies of clairvoyance, animal magnet- 
ism, mind reading, and spiritualism. He con- 
tributed to numerous medical journals and pub- 
lished many books and pamphlets. His chief 
works are: The Medical Use of Electricity 
(1867); Eating and Drinking (1871); Hay 
Fever (1876) ; Writer's Cramp (1879) ; Nervous 
Exhaustion, Neurasthenia (1880); American 
Nervousness (1881); The Psychology of the 
Salem Witchcraft Excitement of HM2 (1882); 
and Seasickness: Its Nature and Treatment 
(1884). He collaborated with Dr. A. D. Rock- 

well on The Case of Guiteau (1882) and The 
Medical and Surgical Use of Electricity (1888). 

BEARD, JAMES HENEY (1814-93). An 
American artist. He was born in Buffalo, N. Y., 
studied in various towns in which he happened 
to reside, and settled in Cincinnati as a portrait 
painter. Among his sitters were Henry Clay, 
John Quincy Adams, General Harrison, President 
Taylor, and other public men. In 1846 he 
exhibited in New York his first composition. 
"The North Carolina Immigrants," which gave 
him a national reputation. Among later works 
are "The Land Speculator," "The Long Bill," 
"Out All Night," "Don Quixote and Sancho 
Panza," etc. In 1870 he removed to New York 
and in his later years devoted himself chiefly to 
animal painting. 

BE A TIT), RICHARD (1799-1880). An Ameri- 
can clergyman, born in Sumner Co., Tenn. 
He began to preach in 1820, graduated at Cum- 
berland College (Princeton, Ky.) in 1832, was 
professor of languages there from 1832 to 1838 
and at Sharon College (Miss.) from 1838 to 
1843. From 1843 to 1854 he was president of 
Cumberland College and from the latter year 
professor of systematic theology at Cumber- 
land University (Lebanon, Tenn.). He was the 
most distinguished theologian of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian denomination and published 
two works of importance: Lectures on TheoJogy 
(3 vols., 1870) and Why I Am a Cumberland 
Presbyterian ( 1 874 ) . 

BEABD, THOMAS FRANCIS (1842-1905). An 
American illustrator and lecturer, known as 
"Frank" Beard, born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He 
was a son of James Henry Beard and a brother 
of Daniel Carter Beard. He was educated 
in his native city and served in the Civil 
War in the Seventh Ohio Regiment. His illus- 
trated accounts of battles in Harper's Weekly 
and the Illustrated News attracted wide atten- 
tion. He was also a popular lecturer, in which 
field he became widely known through his 
"chalk talks." In 1881 he was made professor 
of ajsthetics at the University of Syracuse, and 
in 1897 took charge of the illustrations on 
Judge, relinquishing this for a similar position 
on the Ram's Horn. He died in Chicago. 

An American artist, brother of James H. Beard, 
known chiefly as an animal painter. tie 
was born at Painesville, Ohio, and first became 
known for his portrait work. After several 
years of travel and study in Europe he settled in 
Buffalo. In 1861 he removed to New York, 
where he was made a member of the National 
Academy in 1862. He became very popular 
through his humorous and grotesque portrayal 
of rabbits, bears, monkeys, etc., which he endowed 
with human attributes, and in them burlesqued 
human foibles. Among them are "Bears on a 
Bender," "Dance of Silenus," "Flaw in the 
Title," "Darwin Expounding his Theories," and 
"Bulls and Bears in Wall Street." 


(1836-1903). An American naval officer, born 
at Little Falls, N. Y. He graduated at the 
United States Naval Academy in 1856, was ex- 
ecutive officer of the Wachusett in 1864 when 
that vessel captured the Confederate privateer 
Florida, at Bahia, Brazil, and in 1870 carried the 
first American flag through the fiuez Canal. He 
was made a rear admiral in 1895. From 1894 
to 1897 he was commander of the United States 

forces on the Pacific Station. He discovered, 
surveyed, and named Glacier Bay, Alaska. 

(1872-98). An English illustrator, one of the 
most original and influential of the nineteenth 
century. He was horn Aug. 8, 1872, at Brighton 
and was educated in a private school there. A 
marvel of artistic precocity, he drew at 4, at 
11 was able to sell his copied compositions, and 
at 15 produced a sketchbook of admirable origi- 
nal drawings, illustrating his favorite books, 
particularly the French classics. He had no in- 
struction in drawing, but studied independently 
the prints and drawings in the British Museum 
of the old masters, particularly Mantegna, DUrer, 
Botticelli, and Michelangelo. Another formative 
influence upon his art was the music of Wagner; 
for Beardsley possessed extraordinary musical 
talent, and as a boy was quite a piano virtuoso. 
At the conclusion of his school years he was 
placed in an architect's office, but was forced 
by ill health to relinquish this employment and 
accept a clerical position. From thin he was 
released by the advice and protection of Burne 
Jones, who procured him admission to the West- 
minster Art School ; but Beardsley attended only 
the classes in the nude for a few months. In 
1892 he began the well-known designs for Mart 
d' Arthur, done in what may be called his pre- 
Raphaelite manner. This was followed by 
Japanese, Greek, and lastly by French Roeoeo in- 
fluences, all of which were in turn thoroughly 
assimilated and subordinated to his own origi- 
nality. An admirable appreciation of Beardsley's 
art, written by the etcher Pennell upon the ap- 
pearance of Beards! ey's illustrations in the Stu- 
dio of 1893, hailed him as the coming illustrator 
and made his future assured. He was art editor 
of the Yellow Book (1894-95), to which he con- 
tributed many of his most daring illustrations. 
Other works which he illustrated about this 
time were the Bon Mot Library, the Pall Mall 
Budget, and Oscar Wilde's Salome (1894). The 
year 1896 has been characterized as his annus 
mirabilis, for it saw the acme of his achievement. 
He then designed the illustrations for the Rape 
of the Lock, Lysistrata, and, somewhat later, 
the remarkable frontispiece to Volponr, which is 
considered by many one of the world's greatest 
peji drawings. A victim of consumption, he 
spent the winter of 1896-97 at Bournemouth, 
where he embraced the Roman Catholic faith. In 
the latter year he revived sufficiently to visit 
his beloved France, and died at Mentone, March 
16, 1898, without attaining his twenty-sixth year. 
Beardsley created a new and thoroughly orig- 
inal style of illustration, in which, with decora- 
tive talent of the highest rank, all forms, ani- 
mate and inanimate, are conventionalized and 
adapted to his own manner. As a master of 
the flowing white line masses he is equalled only 
by the Japanese. One of the most effective 
features of his style is the use of dots to render 
delicate fabrics and surfaces. He brooded long 
over his designs, but seldom made preliminary 
studies, the remarkable sureness of his execution 
being due to his wonderful power of concentra- 
tion. His imagination is unexcelled in the annals 
of illustration; but although his art is always 
refined in character, its content is often morbid 
and sensual. Collections of his drawings were 
published under the titles A Book of Fifty 
Drawings by Aubrey Bearrfsley, with text by 
Aymer Vallance ( 1897) ; A Second Book of Fifty 
Drawings (1899); The Early Work of Aubrey 


Beardsley (1899); The Late Work of Aubrey 
Beardsley ( 1901 ) . Under the Hill, with letters 
and poems of the author, was published in 1904. 
Of his biographies, the best are by Arthur 
Symonds (1905) and Robert Ross (1908). 

An American clergyman. lie was born at Step- 
ney, Conn., and graduated with high honors at 
Trinity College, Hartford. He was associated 
for a number of years with St. Peter's Church, 
Cheshire, Conn., and with the Cheshire Episco- 
pal Academy, and in 1848 was appointed rector 
of St. Thomas's Church, New Haven, which dur- 
ing his ministry became one of the first churches 
in the State. He spent much of his time in his- 
torical research and made valuable contributions 
to the ecclesiastical history of Connecticut. Ilia 
writings include: The History of the Episcopal 
Chureh in Conneetieut front the Settlement of 
the Colony to the Death of Bishop Broicncll in 
1SC>~> (1865); Life and Correspond en ee of 
Samuel Johnson, D.D. ( 1 874 ) ; Life and Times 
of William Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (Boston, 
1876) ; Life and Correspondence of the Kt. Rev. 
Samuel Bcaburi/, D.D. (1881). 

An American engineer, born at Coventry, N. Y. 
He graduated from the New York State Normal 
School at Cortland in 1884 and afterward stud- 
ied engineering at Cornell t T niversity, receiv- 
ing the degree of C. K. in 1801. After super- 
vi.sing construction for several years in the. 
Chicago Sanitary District, he joined the Tnited 
States Board of Engineers on Deep \Yaterways 
(1898) and was placed in charge, fiist, of the 
surveys of the St. l^iwrence Kixer and, Infer, of 
harbor work. Removing to the Philippine Is- 
lands in 1902, he there became successively con- 
sulting engineer to the Philippine Commission, 
chief of the Bureau of En^iiieeiiug, nnd director 
of Public Works. He spent the years 11)08-09 as 
a consulting engineer, invest ing the irriga- 
tion of Ja^a, India, and Kgypt, ami in 1910 
be became chief engineer of the Porto Rico Irri- 
gation Sen ice. 

BEARDSLEY, SAMUEL (1790-1860). An 
American jurist, born in lloosie, N. Y. lie filled 
several minor State positions, and was United 
States District Attorney from 1H23 to IS.'iO. Af- 
terward lie was a member of Congress (1831- 
;if>, and 1 843-4.'>) ; Attorney -General of the State 
(18,'J7-38) ; became a judge of the State Supreme 
Court in 1844, and succeeded Judge Bronaon as 
its Chief Justice in 1847. 

BEABDSTOWN. A city in Caa Co., 111., 
about 45 miles northwest of Springfield, on the 
Illinois River, nnd on the Chicago, Burlington, 
and Quincy, and the Baltimore and Ohio South- 
western railroads (Map: Illinois, B 3). The 
Beanlstown division of the Burlington Route 
has its machine, car, and repair shops here, and 
there are extensive cooperages and manufactures 
of flour, lumber, cement posts, button blanks, etc. 
Ice packing and the fishing industry also are of 
considerable importance. Among the features 
of interest are a fine park, a great railroad 
bridge, a steel wagon bridge, a Carnegie library, 
and the city hall in which Lincoln conducted the 
Armstrong trial. Settled in 1832, Beardstown 
was incorporated as a city under a general law 
of 1890. Its charter of that date provides for a 
mayor, elected biennially, and a city council. 
The water works are owned and operated by 
the municipality. Pop., 1890, 4226; 1900, 4827; 
1910, 6107. 



iory; and FREMONT, J. (\ 

BEARING. Jn navigation and surveying, 
the direction of an object with respect to the 
position of some other, or to the direction of an 
assumed point or lino. As observed from a ship 
objects are said to bear ahead, astern, abeam 
when thev are directly ahead, directly astern, 
or at rignt angles to the ship's keel line (i.e., 
DO degrees from ahead or astern). An object 
\\liich bears midway between ahead and abeam 
is said to bear on the port (or ft larboard) bow 
or broad off Ihe port (or starboard) bow; if its 
bearing is midway between abeam and astern it 
bears on the port (or starboard) quarter, or 
broad off the port (or starboard) quarter. In- 
termediate bearings are expressed in points (32 
in the whole circle, each 11V4 degrees) thus: 
11^4 degrees from astern is one point on the 
port (or starboard) quarter; the same amount 
from abeam is one point forward (or abaft) the 
port (or starboard) beam ; similarly, 11*4 de- 
grees from ahead is one point on the port (or 
starboard) bow. In like fashion the bearings 
may be one, two, or three points on bow ; or 
quarter; or forward, or abaft, the beam. Four 
points from bow, stern, or beam is either broad 
off the bow or broad off the quarter. A ship 
is said to be abreast an object when it bears 
abeam; it is abreast another ship when the two 
are side by side and moving in the same direc- 
tion. When an object lies across a certain 
direction it is said to be athivart it; as, a bliip 
is lying athwart the huitsr of another when she 
or her chain lies in a direction at right angles 
to that in which the other is swinging; any 
object extending across the ship lies atJtwattship. 
On board sailing vessels objects on the side 
from Which the wind is blowing are said to be 
to windward; if forward of the beam (one or 
more points) on the locathcr 4 bow or forward of 
the weather beam ; similarly when abaft the 
beam. If on the side of the ship away from the 
wind, the object is said to be to leeward, on the 
lee bow, etc. Bearings taken without regard to 
the vessel, but with respect to absolute terres- 
trial direction, are either compass, magnetic, or 
true. For the ruling of 11)13 as to the use of 
"port" and "starboard" in the United States 
navy, see HELM. 

Bearing-, Compass. The angle between the 
compass needle and the direction of the object 
observed. See COMPASS. 

Bearing 1 , Magnetic. The angle between the 
magnetic meridian and the direction of the ob- 
ject observed. See COMPASS. 

Bearing 1 , True. The angle between the geo- 
graphical meridian and the direction of the 
object observed. All bearings are measured in 
points (11% degrees each) or degrees. The 
designation of true and magnetic bearings, either 
in points or degrees, is the same as for compass 
bearings, but the record of the bearing is fol- 
lowed by p. c. (i.e., per compass) for compass 
bearings and by mag. (i.e., magnetic) for mag- 
netic bearings; and by true for true bearings. 

In Machinery and Mill Work, the bearing 
is the name given to the surfaces of contact of 
stationary elements which support, guide, and 
restrain the moving elements which are trans- 
mitting motion and power. Such are met when 
revolving shafts are supported and kept in 
line; and at the two ends of a connecting rod 
of a steam engine. For reciprocating motion 

the surfaces of the bearings must be mad* up of 
elements which are rectilinear in the line 
of the motion. Such bearings are usually called 
guides, and examples are found in the crosshoad 
b aides of a locomotive and also in most other 
forms of steam engines. For rotary motion the 
bearing sui faces must be surfaces of revolution; 
examples of such bearings are found in the han- 
gers for mill shafting, in the pivots of turn- 
tables, trucks of railway cars, etc. The bearing 
surface of the support is often made of special 
metal to reduce friction. For similar purposes 
the rotating surface is often constructed so as 
to be supported and guided by steel balls trav- 
eling in a proper track or ball race or by cy- 
lindrical or conical rollers held by the support. 
The bearings of a bicycle are familiar examples 
of ball bearings, and both roller and ball bear- 
ings are used for motor-vehicle wheels. Some 
bearings arc used in screw jacks, many machine 
tools, elevators, etc., in which the moving part 
is threaded like a screw and the support is 
threaded like a nut. Such bearings allow rotarjr 
motion and reciprocating motion at the same 
time resulting in a helical motion. 

The thrust bearings of large steamship propel- 
ler shafts consist of a series of collars of rec- 
tangular section, which are receiving into de- 
pression in the bearing surface which they fit. 
The propulsive reaction is borne by the flat areas 
of the collars in the direction of the axis of 
the shaft. Such bearings are usually made with 
hollow spaces through which water for cooling 
can be circulated. These bearings differ from 
screw bearings in that the threads are not spiral, 
but run straight around the nut and shaft, and 
so only rotary motion is possible. In machinery 
ball bearings are often employed for many pur- 
poses and are capable of supporting great pres- 
sure or weight. Roller bearings are made which 
are capable of sustaining a weight of several 
hundred tons. Gun carriages and turrets rest 
upon roller or ball bearings. Hydraulic or fluid 
bearings are used where very heavy endwise 
thrusts are to be resisted, as in the vertical 
shafts of the massive turbines at Niagara Falls. 
An oil is pumped between the stationary bear- 
ing and a collar or disk which presses against 
the flat area of its end. Into the space between 
bearing and plate a thin film of oil is forced 
by a pump at a pressure just sufficient to over- 
come the endwise thrust of the shaft and keep 
the metallic surfaces from touching and rubbing. 
The excess of oil flows into a sump or cistern 
and is taken out to be used over again by the 
suction of the pressure pump. Great care must 
be taken to keep the bearings of a shaft in line; 
otherwise the shaft is flexed in each revolution 
and the power to bend it is wasted and the waste 
must be made up by the source of the power. In 
cylindrical bearings, as for revolving shafts of 
all kinds, the stationary part is the bearing and 
the revolving surface in contact with it is called 
the journal. 


BEAR MOUNTAIN. A hill of the Stony 
Mountain Range in Dauphin Co., Pa., north of 
Harrisburg, containing beds of anthracite. Its 
elevation is about 760 feet. 

BtiARN, ba'arn' (Beneharnum of the Middle 
Ages; from the Gallic Benarni). An ancient 
province of France, now forming the greater 
part of the department of the Basses-Pyrenees. 
Brnrn was a portion of Aquitania under the 


Romans and after the downfall of the Rdman 
Empire passed under the domination of the 
Franks. After the tenth century the country 
attained great importance under a line of in- 
dependent counts of the houses of Foix and Na- 
varre. Its cities enjoyed extensive municipal 
rights from a very early time. Jeanne d'Albret, 
Queen of Navarre and Barn, was the mother 
of Henri II, who ascended the French throne as 
Henri IV. By his enemies he was derisively 
called the Bdarnois. When he became King, 
B6arn virtually became a part of France, but 
was formally incorporated with it only in 1020 
by Louis XIII. Consult Bordenave, Histoiro 
de Btarn et Navarre (Paris, 1873). 

BEAU RIVEB. A river which rises in 
north Utah in the Uintah Mountains, and flows 
nearly north. It enters Wyoming, reSnters Utah, 
again crosses into Wyoming, and, taking a 
northwest course, enters Idaho; but at Soda 
Spring, Bannock County, it turns to the south, 
and reentering Utah, empties into Great Salt 
Lake (Map: Utah, C 1). It is about 400 miles 
long, though the distance from its source to its 
mouth is only 90 miles. It is noted for the 
many soda, magnesia, and other mineral springs 
to be found on its banks. 

BEAB STATE. Popular name for Arkan- 

BEAS, be/as (anciently, Hyphasis). One of 
the five rivers of India, which give name to the 
Punjab, or "land of five waters." It rises on the 
verge of the Kohtung Pass of the Himalayas, in 
lat. 32 34' N. and long. 77 12' E., its source 
being 13,200 feet above the sea level. After a 
course of about 300 miles it joins the Sutlej, 35 
miles to the south-southeast of Amritsar. 

BEAT. The motion of the hand and arm, or 
baton, by which the conductor of a chorus or 
orchestra indicates the time and rhythm of a 
musical composition, and insures perfect una- 
nimity of performance on the part of the singers 
or players. In ancient times the leader used his 
foot to mark the time, and this person, called by 
the Greeks corypha-us, and by the Romans pc- 
dicutoriHa, wore sandals of wood or metal to 
make his beat more emphatic. Leaders who 
marked the time by clapping their hands were 
called manu ductores. The etiquette of modern 
musical perfqrniance demands that the conduc- 
tor shall perform his task as inaudibly and in- 
conspicuously as possible; but this refinement 
is of reeent date, for Rousseau, in 1768, writing 
of the Paris Opera, declares that the listener 
is "shocked by the continual and disagreeable 
noise made by him who beats the measure." 

With the Greeks the up beat, indicated by the 
raising of the foot or the hand (called arsis, 
'lifting*), denoted the unaccented part of the foot 
or measure; the down beat indicated by putting 
down the foot, in marching, dancing, or beating 
time (called thesis, 'putting down') denoted the 
accented part of the measure. The Roman 
grammarians wrongly fancied that the terms 
arsis and thesis referred to the raising and 
lowering of the verse, and so interchanged them, 
making arsis denote the accented, thesis the 
unaccented, part of the measure. Modern 
writers on Greek and Latin meters use the 
terms now in the Greek sense, now the Roman. 
In modern times the first note or count of the 
measure, which has always the strongest accent, 
is marked by a downward motion of the hand 
or baton. In duple time, with two beats to the 
measure, this down beat is followed by an up- 


ward beat on the unaccented count. In triple 
time, with one strong and two weak beats, the 
first beat is down, the second to the right, and 
the third upward. In quadruple time, with 
four beats, the usual order is down, to the left, 
to the right, and up. See CONDUCTOR. 

BEAT'IFICATION (Lat. beatus, blessed + 
faccre, to make). A solemn act in the Catholic 
church, by which the Pope, after scrutinizing 
the life and services of a deceased person, pro- 
nounces him blessed. After this he may be 
venerated in a specified portion of the church, 
and the act holds out the prospect of future 
canonization, which entitles him to general vene- 
ration (not worship) in the Church Universal. 
Beatification was introduced in the twelfth cen- 
tury. It may be regarded as an inferior degree 
of canonization (q.v.). 

BE'ATIFIC VISION (Lat. beatificus, from 
beatus, happy + faccre, to make; Lat. visio, 
from widen, to see). The direct vision of God, 
constituting the bliss of angels and of men in 
heaven. A term of Roman Catholic theology. 
The Council of Florence (1439 A.n.) defined: 
"The souls of those who, after receiving bap- 
tism, have incurred such stain of sin whatever, 
or who, after incurring such stain, have been puri- 
fied in the body or out of the body, . . . are 
at once received into heaven and clearly see 
God himself as lie is, in Three Persons and One 
Substance; some, however, more perfectly than 
others, according to the diversity of their merits." 
Such vision is supposed to have been enjoyed by 
Moses (Ex. xxxiii. 11) and by Paul (2 Tor. 
xii. 4) before their death, but it 'is not ordinarily 
given in the flesh. Hence the loose application 
of the term to such visions as those of St. 
Catharine is improper. It is not taught ^hat the 
saints have a perfect knowledge of (od, for this 
is impossible to finite creatures. But they have 
such knowledge of Him as He wills, and see in 
Him all the facts concerning His creatures which 
He wills to communicate. Thus, it is said, they 
can hear prayers addressed to them, though not 
omniscient, because enabled by the beatific vi- 
sion. Consult The Catholic Encyclopedia, art. 
Heaven (New York, 1010). 

expression in England for the periodical surveys 
or perambulations by which the ancient boun- 
daries of parishes are preserved. Formerly the 
ceremony took place annually, but now it is ob- 
served less often. The procedure, according to 
common custom, is in this wise: On Holy 
Thursday or Ascension Day the clergyman of 
the parish, the parochial officers and other 
parishioners, together with the boys of the parish 
school, headed by their master, go in procession 
to the parish boundary. It is their duty to 
trace very carefully every foot of the boundary, 
even if ladders must be used in climbing over 
buildings and other obstructions. It is desir- 
able to have as many boys as possible. At each 
"boundary mark" a halt is made, and the boys 
beat the mark with peeled willow wands to im- 
press its location on their memories. The beat- 
ing was not confined to the above performance 
of the boys, but where it was desired to pre- 
serve evidence of particular boundaries, the 
singular expedient was used of whipping the 
boys themselves on the spot, or one of them, 
who received a stated fee for the permitted 
castigation out of the parish funds it being 
thought that the impression made on the mem- 
ory was thus more likely to be lasting. 


Thfc custom is a Teutonic institution, taking 
its rise in the "procession" of the ancient mark 
or township. This procession was led by the 
priest, who performed sacrifices on altars placed 
near the borders. When the Germans were con- 
verted, the Christian priest took the place of 
the pagan, and the heathen sacrifice was sup- 
planted by the mass. The procession is still 
maintained in Bavaria, as also in Russia. Sim- 
ilar duties were performed by the appointed 
" perambulators" in the New England Colonies 
and by the process ioners" in early Virginia. In 
English law the correct legal term for boating 
the bounds is perambulation (q.v.). Consult: 
Toulmin Smith, The Parish (London, 1857); 
Brand, Popular Antiquities (London, 1873-77) ; 
Lysons, Environs of London, vol. ii (London, 
1792-96) ; Hone, Krery Day Hook (London, 
1826-31); Steer, Parish Law (London, 1887); 
Grimm, JfecJitsaltcrtumcr (Gottmgen, 1854) ; 
Lavcleye, Primitive Property (Eng. trans., Lon- 
don, 1878) ; Wallace, Russia (New York, 1881) ; 
and, in general, Howard, Local Constitutional 
History, vol. i (Baltimore, 1889). 

BEATITUDES (Lat. leatitudo, blessing). 
The name frequently given to the opening 
clauses, nine in number, of the Sermon on the 
Mount, each of which begins with the word 
"Blessed." See Matt. v. 3-11. 

BEATON, be'ton, Scot, pron. ba'ton, or 
BETIIUNE, DAVID (1494-1540). A Cardinal and 
Primate of Scotland, noted for his opposition 
to the Reformation in that country and for his 
perwecution of Protestant*. He was born in Fife 
and became a student at St. Andrews Univer- 
sity, afterward studying canon and civil law 
in "Paris. After filling several minor positions 
with ability, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal 
in 1528, and in 1533 went as Ambassador to 
France. On the recommendation of the French 
King, Pope Paul III in 1538 made Beaton Csu- 
dinal, and in 1530, at his uncle's death, he 
became Archbishop of St. Andrews. On the 
death of James V, Dec. 14, 1542, after the dis- 
astrous overthrow of the Scots at Solway MOSH, 
Beaton produced an alleged will of the lute 
King, appointing himself, with three others, re- 
gent of the kingdom during the minority of the 
infant Queen, Mary. The nobility, however, re- 
jected the document and elected the Karl of 
Arran regent, who then professed the Reformed 
faith. The following month Beaton was ar- 
rested and imprisoned, accused, among other 
charges, of a design to introduce French troops 
into Scotland, in order to stop the negotiations 
then in progress with Henry of England for a 
marriage between the young Prince of \Vales, 
afterward Edward VT, and the infant Queen of 
Scots. He was soon after liberated and recon- 
ciled to the regent, whom he induced to abandon 
the English interest and publicly to abjure the 
Reformed religion. On the young Queen's coro- 
nation in 1543, Beaton was again admitted to 
the council and appointed Chancellor. Much has 
been written of his cruel persecution of the 
Protestants, but it must be discounted as the 
statement of his political as well as religious 
enemies. Persecution was undoubtedly carried 
on, but except in the cases of prominent people 
where political motives were added to tbose of 
religion, it can hardly be attributed to the Car- 
dinal but rather to the whole spirit of the time. 
In February, 1546, he caused the celebrated 
evangelical preacher, George Wishart, to be ar- 
rested, tried for heresy, and, upon his condemna- 


tion, to be burned at the stake. Even this, how- 
ever, was prompted by the discovery of a plot 
against the Cardinal's life in which he had rea- 
son to believe Wishart was concerned. The 
lairds of Fife, friends of Wiahart, determined 
to avenge him and secure their own safety by 
compassing the Cardinal's death. John Leslie, 
brother to the Earl of Rothes, his nephew Nor- 
man, and Kirkaldy of Grange, entered the archi- 
episcppal palace by stealth and, surprising the 
Cardinal in his bedroom, murdered him on May 
29, 1546. Although a talented man, Beaton was 
arrogant, cruel, and immoral. He had six natu- 
ral children. He married the three daughters 
into titled families, and one of his sons became 
a Protestant. Consult Chambers, Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (London, 1875), 
and Burton, History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 
n.d., Index). 

BEATRICE, be'a-trls. A city, and the 
county-seat of Gage Co., Neb., 40 miles south 
of Lincoln, on the Union Pacific, the Chicago, 
Rock Inland, and Pacific, and the Burling- 
ton railroads, and on the Big Blue (Map: Ne- 
braska, II 4). It contains a public library, 
a State Institute for the feeble-minded, a court- 
house, and Federal buildings. The city has ex- 
cellent uatcr ]>o\>er and is engaged in the manu- 
facture of flour, gasolene engines, agricultural 
implements, etc. The surrounding region is 
rich agricultural country, producing wheat, 
corn, oats, and alfalfa, and there are valu- 
able stone quarries in the vicinity. Settled in 
1859, Beatrice wan incorporated as a town in 
1871 and became a city two years later. The 
commission form of government has been 
adopted, and the city owns the water works 
and electric street-lighting plant. Pop., 1900, 
7875; 11U4, 9356. 

BEATRICE. 1. A brilliant and witty char- 
acter in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Noth- 
ing. She finally marries her male counterpart, 
Benedick, in spite of herself. 2. See BEATRICE 

BEATRICE CENCI, ba'a-tre'chft chen'che. 

(1266-1)0). The daughter of a Florentine noble, 
Folco Portinari, and wife of Simone dei Bardi, 
identified by Boccaccio with the Beatrice of 
Dante's poems. Dante first saw her when she 
was but nine years old, and but seldom after- 
ward; yet his passion for her forms the theme 
of his Vita Nuova, and after her untimely death 
his love assumed a more and more mystic form, 
and he made her the central svmbol of his 
Dirina Com media, the personification of Revela- 
tion. The identity of Beatrice and her allegor- 
ical significance in the Divina Commedia have 
been made the subject of an extensive litera- 
ture, of which the beat summary is given by 
Moore, Studies in Dante, 1st ser., pp. 79-151 
(Oxford, 1899). 

BEATRIX, be'a-trlks. 1. A character in 
Dryden's comedy, An Evening's JJQVC; or, The 
Mock Astrologer. 2. BEATRIX ESMOND, a cousin 
to Henry Esmond in Thackeray's novel of that 
name; a beautiful, vain, ambitious woman, who 
also appears in the sequel, The Virginians, as 
Madame de Bernstein. Henry Esmond was in 
love with her and for her sake engages in the 
plot to bring back the Stuarts on the death of 
Queen Anne. 

BEATRIX (be-ft'trlks) ANTELOPE. An 
Arabian gemsbok (Oryx beatria), resembling 

.Tl'XB iS 

the beisa (q.v.), but without black markings on 
the hind quarters. See OBTX. 

BEATTIE, ba'tS, JAMES (1735-1803). A 
Scottish poet and moral philosopher. He was 
burn Oct. 25, 1735, at Laurencekirk. He studied 
at Marisohal College, Aberdeen, where lie ac- 
quired a high reputation as a classical scholar. 
In 1760 he became professor of moral philosophy 
in Marischal College. Ten years afterward ap- 
peared Beattie's famous Essay on Truth, an 
attempt to refute the skepticism of Hume. The 
book, which now reads like an invective against 
Hume, at once made Beattie conspicuous as a 
defender of orthodoxy. He was introduced to 
George III, received a pension of 200, and had 
the offer of a living in the Anglican church and 
the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh. 
Though his head was slightly turned by this 
success, he declined all these offers. The essay is 
of little importance in the history of philosophy 
and has consequently been long neglected. In 
1771 appeared the first part of The Minstrel, 
written in the Spenserian stanza, and in 1774 the 
second part. It is a delightful poem filled with 
true poetical emotion and rich in picturesque 
descriptions, while the versification has a quiet 
melody of its own. The poem describes "the 
progress of a poetical genius born in a rude 
age, from the first dawning of faney and reason 
till that period at which he may be supposed 
capable of appearing in the world as a min- 
strel.'* Beattie intended to add a third part, 
but circumstances prevented his doing so. In 
1776 he published a series of essays on poetry, 
music, etc.; in 1783, Dissertation Moral and 
Critical; in 178(3, The Evidences of the Chris- 
tian Religion Briefly and Plainly Stated; and in 
1790-93, The Elements of Moral Science all of 
which works are written in a clear and graceful 
style. He died Aug. 18, 18u:j. Consult Forbes, 
Life and Writings of James lieattie (Edinburgh, 



BEAUCAIBE, bo'kflr' (anciently, Lat. Uger- 
num; later Bellum Quo drum, beautiful square). 
A well-built commercial town of France, on the 
right bank of the Rhfme, in the department of 
Gard, opposite Tarascon, with which it is con- 
nected by a suspension bridge. The harbor is 
commodious for vessels, which enter it by a 
canal communicating with the Mediterranean 
and thus avoid the sand banks at the mouths 
of the Rhone. Bcaucaire is well known for a 
great fair, established, it is said, as early as the 
twelfth century. It is held annually about the 
middle of July and lasts six days. In former 
times, when this fair was free from duties, it 
was attended by merchants and manufacturers 
from almost all parts of Europe, the Levant, 
and even Persia and Armenia; but the numer- 
ous imposts demanded since 1632, foreign wars, 
and the competition of Marseilles, Lyons, and 
other lar^e places reduced the traffic of Beau- 
caire, which sank still lower in the days of the 
Revolution. The chief articles of present-day 
commerce are silks, wines, fruits, and stone from 
near-by quarries. Pop., 1901, 7869; 1906. 8764; 
1911, 8488. 

1832). A French historian and publicist. He 
was born at Monaco, received his education in 
Paris, and entered the Sardinian military ser- 
vice. In 1792 he Buffered imprisonment /or re- 


fusing to bear arms against his country, but 
escaped to France, and under the Directory ob- 
tained a situation in the office of the Minister 
of Police, and had the surveillance of the press. 
Here he commenced his Histoire de la Vendfo 
et des Chouans (3 vols., Paris, 1806), which de- 
picted the cruelties of the Fouche* regime. As 
this work displeased the Emperor, Beauchamp 
was banished to Rheims, but he was recalled in 
1811 and again received a subordinate appoint- 
ment. Under the Restoration he received a pen- 
sion and wrote for the Moniteur and the Gazette 
dc France. Among his works are: the Histoire 
du Bresil (Paris, 1815); Histoire du Perou 
(Paris, 1807) ; Vie de Jules Cesar (Paris, 1821 ) ; 
Vie de Louis XVIIJ (Paris, 1821). The Me- 
tnoircs of Fouche* (Paris, 1828-29) have also 
been ascribed to him. 


(1830-192;")). An American ethnologist and 
clergyman, born in Coldenham, Orange Co., 
N. Y. lie graduated at the DeLaney Divinity 
School and from 1865 to 1900 \vas rector of 
Grace Episcopal Church in Baldwinsville, N. Y. 
From 1884 to 1912 he was examining chaplain 
for the dioeese of central New York. He made 
much valuable archaeological research, particu- 
larly concerning the Irouuois Indians. He was 
detailed in 1889 by the United States Bureau of 
K'thnology to survey the Iroquoia territory in 
New York and Canada and prepared a map in- 
dicating the location of all the known Indian 
sites in that region. An enlargement of this 
map was published in his Aboriginal Occupation 
of Nciv York (1900). His other works are: 
The Jro'juois Trail (1892) ; Indian Name* in 
New York (1893); Shells of Onondaga County 
(1896) ; History of the 'New York Iroquois, now 
Commonly Called the Six Nations (1905) ; Ab- 
original Use of Wood in Ncio York (1905); 
Aboriginal Place Names of fteiv York (1907); 
Past and Present of Syracuse and Onondaga 
County (1908). 

BEAUCLEBK, bf/kliirk, Torn AM (1739-80). 
A gentleman who figures in Boswell's Johnson 
as the intimate and friend of the lexicographer. 
He was the only son of Lord Sydney Beauderk. 
During liis friend's last illness Johnson said he 
would "walk to the extent of the diameter of 
the earth to save Beauclerk," and after his 
death u rote to Boswell : "Poor dear Beauclerk. 
. . . His wit and his folly, his aeuteness and 
maliciousness, his merriment and reasoning, 
are now over. Such another will not often be 
found among mankind." In 1768 Beauclerk 
married Diana, daughter of the second Duke of 
Marlborough, two days after her divorce from 
Lord Bolingbroke. Consult G. Birkbcck Hill, Dr. 
Johnson: His Friends and his Critics (1878). 

BEAUFOBT, bo'fSrt. A town, seaport, and 
the county-seat of Carteret Co., N. C., at the 
mouth of Newport River, 145 miles (direct) 
southeast of Raleigh, on the Norfolk Southern 
Railroad (Map: North Carolina, F 3). It is 
a popular summer resort and has a good harbor, 
the entrance to which is protected by Fort 
Macon. Its principal industries are fishing and 
the manufacture of oil and scrap. The electric 
light plant is owned by the town. Pop., 1890, 
2007; 1900, 2195; 1910*, 2483. 

BEAUFOBT, bu'fgrt. A town, and the 
county -seat of Beaufort Co., S. C., on an inlet 
known as the Beaufort River, which connect! 
with Port Royal Sound, one of the finest bar- 


bors in the State (Map: South Carolina, D 4). 
Beaufort is 80 miles by rail southwest of 
Charleston, on the Charleston and Western Caro- 
lina Railroad. It is famous for the production 
of long-staple, or sea-island, cotton, is a centre 
of phosphate and fertilizer trade, and has also 
large exports of lumber. Truck farming is car- 
ried on extensively. The town has a national 
cemetery and the ''Old Fort." It owns the 
water works and electric light plant. Beaufort 
was first incorporated in 1803 and is governed 
under a charter of 1913 by an "intendant," 
elected biennially, and a council. Pop., 1910, 

Beaufort was founded in 1711 and, next to 
Charleston, was the earliest settlement in the 
State. Near the town in 1064 French Hugue- 
nots under Captain Ribault built a fort, which 
was abandoned in 1665. Shortly after, Menen- 
dez established a post on the site. In 1686 
Lord Cardross attempted to found a town here, 
but his settlement was immediately broken up 
by Spaniards from St. Augustine. The place 
was very prominent in the Colonial history of 
the State and for some years before the Civil 
War was a popular health resort for Southern 
planters. Near Beaufort, on Feb. 9, 1779, an 
American force under General Moultrie defeated 
a detachment of English troops under Prevost. 
Consult Parkman, Pioneers of France in the Xcw 
World (Boston, 1865), and references in Mc- 
Cready, History of South Carolina. 

Due DE (1616-69). A French naval oilicer, the 
grandson of Henry IV. He was a conspirator 
with Cinq-Mars against Richelieu and fled for 
safety to England. Under Louis XIV he was 
in a conspiracy against Mazarin and was im- 
prisoned. He escaped in 1648, became a leader 
of the Frondeurs, and was the idol of the Pa- 
risian populace, who called him 'King of the 
Markets' (Roi des Hallcs) on account of the 
coarseness of his language. He killed the Duke 
of Nemours, his brother-in-law, in a duel ; after- 
ward made his peace with the court and was 
appointed to command the navy. In 1664 and 

1665 he defeated the African corsairs and in 

1666 led the fleet which was to aid the Dutch 
against England. He was killed in 1669 while 
assisting the Venetians, who were besieged by 
the Turks in Candia. 

BEAUFOBT, bfi'fert or bo'fert, HENBY 
(c.1377-1447). An English Cardinal. He was 
a natural son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
caster, but he and his brother were later legiti- 
mized. He was educated and spent most of his 
youth at Aix-la-Chapelle. After holding vari- 
ous offices in England, he became Bishop of 
Lincoln in 1398 and chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford in 1399. After his half-brother, 
Henry IV, became King, Beaufort was made 
Chancellor of England in 1403. But he re- 
signed this office when he removed to Winchester, 
of which he was made Bishop in 1404. For the 
next 40 years he was prominent in every polit- 
ical movement in England. He was twice again 
Chancellor, and as such depended for his strength 
upon the support of Parliament. He amassed 
enormous wealth and lent it freely to the King 
when^ the royal treasury was empty. On two 
occasions his loans to the state are said to have 
amounted to over 20,000, an extremely large 
sum for any individual at that time. He was 
present at the Council of Constance and voted 
for the election of Pope Martin V, by whom he 
WM subsequently made a Cardinal and sent as 


legate to Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia to 
organize a crusade against the Hussites. This 
undertaking failed. The Cardinal soon after fell 
under the displeasure of the Pope, because he 
used in France an English army raised for the 
Crusades. In 1431 Beaufort conducted the young 
King, Henrv VI, to France and crowned him in 
Pans as King of France and England. Here he 
also endeavored, but vainly, to reconcile the Duke 
of Bedford, Regent of France, with the offended 
Duke of Burgundy. Cardinal Beaufort died at 
Winchester, April 11, 1447. Consult Stubbs, 
Constitutional History of England, vol. iii (Ox- 
ford, 1895), and Radford, Henry Beaufort (Lon- 
don, 1908). 

BEAUFOBT, bii'fert or b^fert, MARGABET, 
Countess of Richmond and Derbv (1441-1509). 
She was the daughter of the first Duke of Somer- 
set and became the wife of the Earl of Rich- 
mond (half-brother of Henry VI) and by him 
mother of Henry VII of England. Left a widow, 
she was successively wife of Sir Henry Stafford 
and of Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterward the 
Earl of Derby. She endowed Christ's and St. 
John's colleges at Cambridge. Consult Halsted, 
Life of AJ<ii(jaret, Countess of Richmond (1839), 
and Cooper's Memoir, edited by Mayor (1874). 

BEAUFOBT SCALE. An arbitrary scale 
of 12 numbers, for use in recording the appar- 
ent strength of the wind, introduced into the 
British navy by Admiral Beaufort about 1805 
and now very generally used by all navigators. 
Originally the observer was supposed to know 
the general effect of the wind upon his own ves- 
sel or the standard vessel imagined by Admiral 
Beaufort viz., the full-rigged man-of-war but 
these vessels are not now built, although the 
wind terms retain their old significance; there- 
fore the latter are retained, but the numbers 
expressing the equivalent velocities in miles per 
hour, as they result from modern investigations, 
are added in the following table: 

Scale No. 

Designation of Wind 

Approximate Wind 
Velocity in Miles 
Per Hour 


3 or less 


Light air 



Light breeze 






Moderate " 






Strong " 



Moderate gale 






Strong " 











BEAUGENCY, bo'zhaN'se'. A town in the 
department of Loiret, France, on the Loire, 
about 16 miles southwest of Orleans (Map: 
France, N., G 5). It was formerly fortified and 
has been frequently besieged. The principal fea- 
tures are a Romanesque church of Notre Dame 
dating from the eleventh century, the remains of 
an abbey of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies, and a statue of Joan of Arc, which was 
erected here in 1896 to commemorate her vic- 
tory over the English in 1429. Pop., 1901, 3565; 
1911, 3532. 

VICOMTE DE (1760-94). A French statesman 
and soldier. He was born in the island of Mar- 
tinique and served under Rochambeau in the 
American War of Independence. He embraced 


the cause of the Revolution, was a member of 
the Constitutional Assembly, and on the night 
of the 4th of August, 1789, voted for the aboli- 
tion of feudal privileges. He served with dis- 
tinction on the committee for military affairs, 
and presided over the National Assembly when 
the news came of the flight of Louis XVI. 
"Gentlemen," he said, "the King has run away. 
We will proceed with the order of the day." 
He fought bravely in the north, especially at 
Mons, but resigned his command in 1793, in 
accordance with the law which excluded the 
nobility from the army. After he had lived 
for some time in retirement his enemies brought 
forth the charge that, as commander of the 
Army of the Rhine, he had been the cause of the 
loss of Mainz. He was put on trial during the 
Reign of Terror, convicted, and guillotined, July 
23, 1794. His widow, Josephine, married Na- 
poleon Bonaparte, who adopted Eugene and Hor- 
tense, son and daughter of Beauharnais. 

BEAUHARNAIS, EUG&NE DE (1781-1824). 
A French general. He was the son of the 
Vicomte de Beauharnais, and after his mother's 
marriage with Bonaparte he accompanied him in 
the expedition to Egypt and in his campaigns in 
Italy. He rapidly rose to the highest military 
rank, and in 1805, after the erection of the Im- 
perial throne, he was made a Prince of France 
and Viceroy of Italy. In 1806 he married the 
Princess AJmelia Augusta of Bavaria and not 
long afterward was created Prince of Venice 
and declared by Napoleon his adoptive son and 
heir to the Kingdom of Italy. Although his 
political power was much limited, he conducted 
himself in Italy with much prudence, energy, 
and moderation, although he considered himself 
bound to carry out the decrees of the Emperor. 
His military talents were displayed in the wars 
against Austria, and in the retreat from Mos- 
cow the preservation of the French army from 
total destruction was ascribed to the skill and 
resolution of the Viceroy and of Ney. The vic- 
tory of LUtzen (1813) was decided by his con- 
duct. From this scene of war Napoleon sent 
him to Italy, which he ably defended against 
Austria and Murat, who had deserted the cause 
of the French Empire. In the affairs of the 
Hundred Days he took no part; and in the 
Treaty of Fontainebleau and at the Congress of 
Vienna large suras were granted to him in com- 
pensation for his Italian possessions, with which 
he purchased from his father-in-law the Land- 
graviate of Leuchtenberg and the Principality of 
Eichstadt. His eldest son, Charles Augusta 
Eugene Napoleon, Duke of Leuchtenberg, mar- 
ried Queen Maria of Portugal on Jan. 25, 1835, 
but died on the 18th of March of the same year. 
Another son, Max Eugene Joseph Napoleon (died 
1852), who succeeded his brother as Duke of 
Leuchtenberg, married the Grand Duchess Maria 
of Russia. Consult Memoirea du Prince Eugene 
de Beauharnais (Paris, 1858-60). 


BEAUHARNOIS. The chief town of Beau- 
harnois Co., in the province of Quebec, Canada, 
situated on Lake St. Louis (formed by the St. 
Lawrence River), 21 miles southwest* of Mon- 
treal (Map: Quebec, E 5). It has several mills 
and factories. Pop., 1911, 2015. 

BEAT7LIEU, bo'lye* JEAN PIEBBE (1725- 
1819). An Austrian general, born at Namur. 
He entered the army in 1743, served in the Seven 
Years' War, being present at Breslau and Leu- 


then, and in 1789 took an active part in the sup- 
pression of the Belgian insurrection. As major- 
general he increased his military reputation bv 
his services in the campaigns against the French 
in Belgium. In 1796 he was appointed com- 
mander of the forces in Italy, but after the de- 
feat by Bonaparte at Lodi he relinquished the 
command to Wurmser. 

REMI, SIBE DE (c.1250-96). A French jurist 
and poet. From 1279-82 he was bailli at Cler- 
mont, and from 1293 to his death at Senlis. His 
chief work, Lea Coutumea de Bewuvoiaia, is 
highly commended by Montesquieu. It is the 
masterpiece of mediaeval judicial literature; the 
main source of knowledge, not only of old French 
law, but of the society of the thirteenth century. 
The best edition is that of A. A. Beugnot (1842). 
Among his poems, the "Manekine," "Jehan et 
Blonde," and a "Salut d'amour" are the most 
noteworthy. Consult August Morel, Etude Jiix- 
torique aur lea coutumea de Bcauvoiaia (Paris, 

BEAUMARCHAIS, bA'mar'shft'. A name 
assumed by Pierre Augustin Caron (1732-99), 
the most important French dramatist of the 
eighteenth century, though he wrote but two 
really successful plays, Le lartrier de Kevillr, 
(1775) and Le manage de Figaro (1784). He 
was born in Paris, the son of a watchmaker, and 
was educated to his father's trade. He early 
developed a marked taste for music and suffi- 
cient proficiency to become music master to the 
daughters of Louis XV. lie turned this posi- 
tion to good account in speculations. In 1764 
he made a journey to Spain to protect or vindi- 
cate his sister, who had been abandoned by her 
betrothed, Clavigo. His account of this mission 
in his Memoirea suggested the drama riarigo to 
Goethe. He brought from Madrid a knowledge 
of things Spanish that was later of much use 
to him. lie now turned to the drama, wrote 
Eugenie (1767), a fairly successful domestic 
drama, arid Left deux amis, a decided failure in 
the pathetic vein. Meantime he had become en- 
gaged in financial speculations that led to law- 
suits, and these to a series of Mcmoircs, appeals 
to the public that are among the most vigorous, 
audacious, clever, and witty polemics in litera- 
ture. Their attack on judicial injustice gave 
them a universal interest. They were eagerly 
read and deepened the discontent with the exist- 
ing state of society that was to culminate in the 
Revolution. Beaumarchais thus became a po- 
litical personality. lie was confidentially em- 
ployed by Louis XV and later by Louis XVI; 
but before this he had snatched a sensational 
dramatic triumph out of failure by rearranging 
a comic opera into a five-act comedy his Bar- 
Her de Seville (1775), Spanish in scene, but es- 
sentially French at the heart; the most famous 
comedy of the century, save only its sequel from 
the same hand. It is simple, lively, ingenious, 
effective, and it contains one of the strongest- 
drawn characters of dramatic literature Figaro, 
an incarnation of the new democracy. 

Beaumarchais now engaged in furnishing the 
American revolted Colonists with supplies and 
acquired a pecuniary claim against the United 
States that remained long unsettled. His rest- 
less spirit also projected a complete edition of 
Voltaire, and he prepared a sequel to the Bar- 
oier, Le mariage de Figaro, so daringly demo- 
cratic and revolutionary that it received the ad- 
vertisement of a legal prohibition. This $ 


whetted public curiosity that when at last it 
was licensed, three persons were crushed to 
death in seeking entrance to the National 
Theatre (Theatre Francais, 1784). Here the 
wit is keener, the action swifter, the social satire 
more mordant than in the Barbier. Figaro, the 
light-hearted, versatile, shrewd scapegrace, was 
furnishing a social solvent that would disinte- 
grate society and invite the Revolution. Beau- 
marchais had probably no more serious purpose 
than delight in his own wit. "He wished to fire 
a squib and he exploded a magazine." These 
comedies mark, in dialogue, construction, and 
intrigue, the high- water mark of the century. If 
they err, it is in the monotony of their bril- 
liancy. The tradition of their unparalleled suc- 
cess gave models to Hugo and Dumas and in- 
spired the operas of Rossini and Mozart. Beau- 
marchais did nothing more of significance. An 
opera libretto, Tararc (1777), is a trifle. A 
heavy melodrama, /.a m<re coupable (1700), 
vainly seeks to recall Figaro. Soon Bcaumar- 
chais fled from the Terror to Holland. He re- 
turned in 1706 and left at death a comfortable 
fortune that he had managed to save from the 
wreck of the* Revolution. Beaumarchais' works 
are edited by Cud in (7 voK, 1809), by Fume. 
(6 voK, 1827), and by Moland (1874). Con- 
sult also: Lomenie, Braumarvhais et son tewpft 
(4th ed., trana. by Kdwards, London, 1856) ; 
Lintilhac, Bcaumarchais ct sex wuvrcs (Paris, 
1887) ; Cudin de la Brenellerie, ffistoire de 
Bcaumarchais (ed. Tourneaux, Paris, 1886) ; 
Lescure, Elogc de Beaumarchaift (Paris, 1887) ; 
Bonnefoii, tttude sur Beaumarchais (Paris, 
1887); Hallays, Bcaumarchai* (Paris, 1807). 

BEAUMABIS, bo-mflr'is (Fr. beau marais, 
beautiful marsh). A seaport, and the chief 
town of the island of Anglesey, North Wales, 
on the west side of the picturesque bay of Beau- 
mar is, near the north entrance to the Menai 
Strait, 3 miles north of Bangor and 230 miles 
northwest of London (Map: VVales, B 3). It is 
a modest little watering place, with excellent 
sea bathing. It has picturesque covered ruins 
of an ancient castle, one of the three (Oonway 
and Carnarvon being the other two) castles in 
Wales built by Henry de Eire-ton, the famous 
architect of Edward I. Pop., 1801, 2200; 1001, 
2326; 1011, 2231. Beaumaris is in steamship 
communication with Liverpool. 

BEAUMONT, b6-m6nt'. A city, and .the 
county-seat of Jefferson Co., Tex.i 84 miles 
by rail east by north of Houston, on the Neches 
River, the Sabine-Necbes Canal, and on the Gulf, 
Colorado, and Santa Fe, the Gulf and Interstate, 
the Texas and New Orleans, the Kansas City 
Southern, and the Beaumont, Sour Lake, and 
Western railroads (Map: Texas, E 4). The 
accessibility of vast forests has contributed ma- 
terially to the city's development as one of the 
greatest lumber centres of the South, the trans- 
portation facilities afforded by the railroads 
being augmented by the water route through Sa- 
bine Pass, via the Neches River. Lumber, shin- 
gles, live stock, rice, and oil also are shipped; 
and the manufactures include sawed and planed 
creosoted lumber, largely cypress shingles, oil- 
field and saw-mill machinery and supplies; also 
cars, furniture, ice, cottonseed oil, refined oil, 
food stuffs, and various petroleum products. Oil, 
which was discovered in extraordinary quantity, 
has made Beaumont an important refining 
centre, and since 1900 the city's growth has been 
very rapid. A project for deepening the canal 



which extends from Port Arthur to the mouth 
of the Neches River is now under way. It will 
permit ocean-going vessels to ply directly to 
Beaumont and will cost about $1,000,000. Near 
the city are enormous rice irrigating plants. 
Pop., 1900, 0427; 1910, 20,640; 1920, 40,422, 

BEAUMONT, bC/nrtnt, formerly bu'mflnt, 
FRANCIS (1584-1616). An English poet and 
dramatist. FLETCHER,, JOHN (1579-1625). 
An English poet and dramatist. These writers 
were so closely associated in their lives and 
labors that their names have become indissolubly 
united. Francis Beaumont was the third son of 
Francis Beaumont, one of the justices of the 
common pleas. He was born at Grace-Dieu, 
Leicestershire, in 1584. When 12 years of age 
he became a gentleman commoner of Broadgates 
Hall (now Pembroke College), but he left Ox- 
ford without taking a degree. In 1600 he was 
admitted a member of the Inner Temple. An 
expansion of one of Ovid's legends (1602) has 
been attributed to him. When about 19 years 
of age, he became the friend of Ben Jonson and 
wrote commendatory verses to some of his 
dramas. He became acquainted with Fletcher, 
probably in 1606; and they lived in the same 
house till Beaumont's marriage in 1613 to Ur- 
sula, daughter and coheiress of Henry Isley, of 
Sundridge, in Kent, by whom he had two daugh- 
ters. He died March 6, 1616, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. 

John Fletcher was born in 1579. His father, 
Richard Fletcher, a clergyman, was at that time 
incumbent of Rye, in Sussex; thereafter he was 
appointed Dean of Peterborough and attended 
Queen Mary on the scaffold, whose last hours he 
imbittered with irrelevant exhortation. On his 
elevation to the see of London he married a sec- 
ond time and thereby incurred the disfavor of 
the Virgin Queen. A John Fletcher, of London, 
assumed to be the dramatist, entered Bene't Col- 
lege (Corpus Chriati), Cambridge, on Oct. 15, 
1591. It is uncertain bow long this Fletcher 
remained at the university or whether he took 
a degree. The Woman- Hater, produced in 1607, 
is the earliest play of our author. It is not 
known precisely in what circumstances Fletcher 
passed his life. He asserts his independence in 
Rome verses introductory to The Faithful Shep- 
herdess, published about 1610, yet he wrote 
more rapidly than most men then writing for 
bread. Waiting in London, it is said, for a new 
suit of clothes as he was about to go into the 
country, he caught the plapue, and died (1625), 
and was buried in the church of St. Saviour. 

The works of Beaumont and Fletcher comprise 
in all 54 plays (according to Fleay) ; but it is 
difficult to allocate, in any satisfactory manner, 
the parts written by each. A good deal, how- 
ever, has bocn accomplished by the application 
of metrical tests. In some of the plays other 
hands have been traced, especially Masai nger's. 
And certain passages in The Two Noble Kinsmen 
are by Shakespeare. The best work of this fa- 
mous collaboration is represented by Philaster 
(mostly Beaumont's), the tremendous Maid's 
Tragedy (in which Beaumont's genius is domi- 
nant), and The Faithful Shepherdess (mostly 
Fletcher's), a beautiful pastoral drama, which 
furnished some hints to Milton for his Comus 
and to Keats for his Endymion. Beaumont and 
Fletcher are the cleverest, gayest gentlemen. 
They rarely sound the deep sea of passion, but 
rather play over its surface. They have little 
power of serious characterization, and their nu- 


merous creations are seldom consistent; but they 
say the most clever and pleasant things. Morally, 
little can be said in their praise. No audience 
of the present day could sit out the representa- 
tion of their purest plays. Some of the im- 
purest are almost beyond conception, yet there 
is always an air of good breeding about them. 
The songs distributed through their plays al- 
most equal Shakespeare's in sweetness and 
beauty. Consult: Works, with notes and me- 
moir (ed. A. Dyce, 11 vols., London, 1843-46), 
and a second, two-volume edition by Dyce, 1852; 
"Selected Plays," in Mermaid Series (London, 
1887). The best recent edition is that edited 
by Arnold Glover and A. R. Waller, 15 vols., in 
Cambridge English Classics (New York, 1905). 
G. C. Macaulay, Francis Beaumont: A Critical 
Study (London, 1883); A. W. Ward, History 
of English Dramatic Literature (1899), vol. ii. 
For exhaustive discussion of authorship of the 
various plays, Boyle, in Englische 8tudien t vol. 
Ixxiv (Heilbronn, 1877-1901); id. in Neio 
Shakespeare Society (London, 1880-8*)) ; also 
Fleay in the latter publication for 1874, and 
Upham, The French Influence in English Litera- 
ture (1910). 

1827). An English painter and patron of art. 
He was born at Dunmore (Essex) and was edu- 
cated at New College, Oxford, and from 1790 to 
1796 sat in Parliament for Beralston. He made 
an extensive and fine collection of drawings and 
paintings and was among the first properly to 
estimate the work of Wilkio, Landseer, and Gib- 
son. He was one of the founders of the Na- 
tional Gallery, to whose collection lie made val- 
uable additions. As a pupil of Richard Wilson, 
he did some amateur painting in landscapes, 
two examples of which now hang in the National 
Gallery. Re was a friend of Sir Joshua "Rey- 
nolds, Coleridge, and Wordsworth, who dedi- 
cated to him several poems, notably Elegiac 
Musings (1830). 


BEAUMONT, bc/mflnt, formerly bfi'mont, 
WILLIAM (1785-1853). An American surgeon, 
born at Lebanon, Conn. He is noted for dis- 
coveries in the processes of laws of digestion, 
made in watching the operations of the stomach 
in the case of Alexis Saint-Martin. On June 6, 
1822, Saint-Martin, then supposed to be 18 years 
old, while at Mackinac, Mich., was accidentally 
shot, receiving the entire charge of a musket 
in his left side, the muzzle of the gun being 
about three feet from his body. This discharge 
fractured two of his ribs, lacerated his lungs, 
and lodged in his stomach. Dr. Beaumont, who 
was then stationed at Mackinac as a surgeon 
in the United States army, restored Saint-Martin 
to health within a year, though the aperture 
made by the shot was never closed. Two or 
three years afterward Beaumont commenced 
a series of experiments upon the stomach of the 
young man, studying its operations and secre- 
tions, the action of the gastric juice, etc. These 
experiments he continued from time to time, his 
patient presenting the spectacle of a man en- 
joying good health, appetite, and spirits, with 
an opening in his stomach through which the 
action of that organ could be satisfactorily 
noted from the exterior. Beaumont was the first 
to obtain the gastric juice through a fistula 
from a living human being, and he demonstrated 
beyond a doubt its chemical properties and 


digestive powers. He published the result of 
his experiments in 1833. Afterward he resigned 
from the army, and practiced medicine in St. 
Louis, Mo., until his death. 

mON' de la bo'nfc'nyar', GUSTAVE AUGUSTE (1802- 
66). A French publicist. In 1831 he and 
Tocqueville were commissioned by his govern- 
ment to study the prison system of America. In 
1839 he was elected deputy from Sarthe and 
sided with the so-called dynastic opposition. 
After the February Revolution of 1848 he was 
returned as a member of the Constituent As- 
sembly and here maintained the character of a 
sincere but moderate Republican. He was ap- 
pointed by Cavaignac Ambassador to England. 
One of the opponents of the coup d'etat of 1851, 
he was imprisoned for some time in the fortress 
of Mont Vale>ien, and after regaining his liberty 
he lived in retirement. The writings on which 
his reputation rests are: D:i systcmc prnitentiare 
aux Etats-Unis, ct de son application en Franco 
(2 vols., 1833 partly by Tocqueville) ; Marie, 
011 1'esclavage aux Etats-Unis (2 vols., 1835) ; 
L'Irlandc, snrialc, politiqne, et rcligieuse (2 
vote., 1830-42). 


BEAUNE, bon. A town of the department 
of C6te d'Or, France, in the ancient duchy of 
Burgundy, situated in a pleasant district on the 
river Bouzoise, about 23 miles south -south west 
of Dijon (Map: France, N., K 5). The town is 
well built; it has a remarkable thirteenth -cen- 
tury parish church (Notre Dame), and a fine 
hospital, founded in 1443 by Nicholas Robin, 
Chancellor of Philip the Good, Duke of Bur- 
gundy. A communal college*, a library, and a 
museum are its chief public institutions. Its 
industries comprise distilleries, cloth factories, 
and the manufacture of vinegar. Beaune has 
an active commerce in vegetables and farm 
products and is the chief seat of the wine trade 
of Burgundy, giving its name to one of the best 
of the Burgundy wines. As early as the seventh 
century it was a fortress under the name of 
Belna, and had its castle and its enceinte. Pop., 
1901, 12.806; 1006, 13,540; 1911, 13,409. 

French mathematician, born at Blois. He con- 
tributed not a little to the development of 
Descartes' method in geometry, and his notes 
on Descartes' celebrated Geon\6tri<> have been 
incorporated in Schooten's edition of that book. 
The so-called "Beaune's Problem" (which has 
been completely solved only by Jean Bernouilli ) , 
still given in the integral calculus, was for MB 
time new and remarkable; it turns on the de- 
termination of the nature of a curved line from 
a property of its tangent. By contributions of 
this nature Beaune helped to pave the way for 
the integral calculus. He was also the first to 
treat systematically the question of superior and 
inferior roots of numerical equations (posthu- 
mous publication, 1659). 

BEAUNE VEU, bft'n'-vS', ANDBE (active 
1360-1403). A Flemish sculptor, painter, and 
illuminator of manuscripts. He was born at 
Valenciennes, Hainault, and was the leader, 
with Sluter (q.v.), in the school of realistic 
sculpture in Flanders and northern France that 
anticipated the Italian Renaissance. After 
working in sculpture and painting at Valen- 
ciennes (1361-62) he went to Paris in 1364 
and was made royal sculptor to Charles V, 


whose mausoleum he executed, besides those 
of Philip VI, John II, and Jeanne de Bourbon 
all surviving in the abbey church of Saint-Denis. 
After his return to Flanders in 1374 he worked 
at Malines (Communal Hall), made tombs at 
Courtrai, and a statue of the Virgin for the 
belfry of Ypres (1377). He then entered the 
services of Duke Jean de Berry, brother of the 
King of France, and the greatest art patron of 
his day, and in 1390 directed the latter's am- 
bitious projects of sculpture and painting at 
the Chateau of Mehun. His finest remaining il- 
luminations are in a psalter of the Due de 
Berry in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 
His surviving statues are remarkable for mas- 
terly force and intense realism. Froissart calls 
him the greatest artist of his day. Consult 
Durrieu, in Histoire de I'art, ed. Andre Michel, 
vol. iii (Paris, 1902) ; id., Les miniatures dc 
Andre Bvauneveu (Paris, 1894). 

BEAUBEGARD, bf/re-gUrd', Fr. pron. b6V- 
gkV or bor'gftr', PIERBE GUSTAVE TOUTANT (1818- 
93). A Confederate general, born in New Or- 
leans. He graduated at West Point in 1838 and 
the same year became second lieutenant in the 
engineer corps. He was engaged in engineering 
work at Newport, Barataria Bay, and Fort Mc- 
Henry until 1846, when he went to Mexico, dis- 
tinguishing himself in the war there. He became 
captain of engineers in March, 1853; was en- 
gaged in the construction of fortifications at 
Mobile, Lake Pontchartrain, and New Orleans 
until 1860 and in November of that year was 
appointed superintendent of West Point, a posi- 
tion he resigned Feb. 20, 1861, to serve in the 
Confederate army. He was immediately made 
brigadier general and took command of Charles- 
ton, where, April 12-13, by the bombardment of 
Fort Rumter (q.v.), he began the Civil War. He 
was second in command at the first battle of 
Bull Run, July 21, and the next day was raised 
to the rank of general. At the battle of Shiloli, 
April 6-7, 1862, he was second in command the 
first day, and on the death of A. S. .Johnston 
assumed chief command, subsequently withdraw- 
ing to Corinth, where he remained until May 
29. In 1863 he defended Charleston against the 
attacks of Dupont and Dahlgren, and early in 
1864 assumed command of the Department of 
North Carolina, which was enlarged to include 
Virginia south of the James. On May 16, at 
Drury's Bluff, he won an important strategic 
success over Butler. (See BEBMUDA HUNDRED.) 
He then commanded at Petersburg, Va., where 
he retarded Grant's advance upon Richmond. 
He afterward served with the Division of the 
West, and surrendered with Johnston to Slier- 
man, April 26, 1865. He was president of the 
New Orleans, Jackson, and Mississippi Railroad 
from 1865 to 1870, became Adjutant General of 
Louisiana in 1878, and for some years was 
manager of the State Lottery. He declined an 
appointment to the chief command of the Ru- 
manian troops in 1866 and, three years later, a 
similar appointment from the Khedive of Egypt. 
Consult Roman, Military Operations of General 
Beauregard (New York, 1883). 

BEAUREPAIRE-ROHAN, bd'r'-par' ro'aN', 
HENBIQUES DE (c.1818-94). A Brazilian trav- 
eler and geographer, born in the province of 
Piauhy of Frencn extraction. In 1845 he began 
the exploration of territory south of Rio de Ja- 
neiro. He penetrated into Paraguay, subse- 
quently publishing the results of his explora- 
tion in the work entitled Deacripgao de una 


viagem de Cuyabd ao Rio de Janeiro (1846). 
Afterward he was appointed by the Brazilian 
government to collect statistical information 
on the interior provinces of the country. He 
later became lieutenant general in the Brazilian 
army, and in 1877 published the important geo- 
graphical work entitled Etudios acerca da or- 
ganteasao da carta geographioa e da historia 
physica e politico, do Brazil (1877). 

BEAUTEMPS-BEAUPR, bo't&N' bd'pra', 

CTIABLES FBAN<,JOLS (1766-1854). A distin- 
guished French hydrographer, born at Neuville- 
au-Pont. He accompanied the expedition sent 
in search of La PSrouse in 1791 and made 
valuable charts of many of the places visited 
then and subsequently, "when he was employed 
in all the important hydrographic labors under- 
taken during the Empire and the Restoration. 
The perfection of his work earned him the name 
of "the father of hydrography." He was elected 
a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1810 
and was appointed chief hydrographer and 
keeper of the depot of marine* and the colonies 
in 1814. 


first told in Straparola's I'iacevoli notti (1550), 
of a self-sacrificing daughter who accepts the 
addresses of a beast and later falls in love with 
him because of his kindness. This breaks the 
Bpell, and he regains his human form. There is 
a French version in Mine. Villeneuve's Contes 
marines (1740); another by Mme. Beaumont 
(1757). Among numerous English adaptations 
may be mentioned that of Miss Thackeray. It 
is also the basis of Grtry's opera, Zemire et 

BEAUVAIS, bo'vfi' (from Bellovacum). 
The capital of the department of Oise, in the old 
province of lie de Frarfce, France, situated in 
the valley of the Therain (a tributary of the 
Oise), 41 miles north -north west of Paris and 
surrounded by rising woodlands (Map: France, 
N., JI 3). It is the seat of a bishop and con- 
tains a public library of 30,000 volumes, a 
museum, etc. Among its several fine buildings, 
the moat noteworthy is its uncompleted cathe- 
dral of St. Pierre, which consists of nothing 
but a choir and transept of amazing propor- 
tions, built in the decorated Gothic style. It 
was begun in 1225 and was intended to rival 
that of Amiens. The Basse (Euvre is probably 
the nave of the former cathedral, a Romanesque 
building of great antiquity. The manufactures 
of Beauvais include woolen and military cloth, 
gold and silver lace, carpets, Gobelin tapestry, 
boots and shoes, etc. Beauvais carries on a 
brisk trade in grain and wine. Pop., 1906, 
20,248; 1911, 19,841. It was included in the 
country of the powerful Bellpvaci, in Gall i a 
Belgica, and was known by the Romans as 
C&saromagus, afterward as Bellovacum. The 
Jacquerie, or Peasants' War, broke out in the 
neighborhood of Beauvais, March 21, 1358. In 
]472 the town was besieged by Charles the Bold 
of Burgundy, with an army of 80,000 men, when 
the women of Beauvais, under the leadership of 
the heroine, Jeanne Lain6, surnamed La Hachette 
for her daring, joined in the defense. Consult 
Labande, Histoire de Beauvais (Paris, 1892). 

BEAUX, bo, CECILIA (1863- ). An 
American figure and portrait painter. She was 
born of French descent in Philadelphia, where 
she studied painting, at first independently, 
then with William Sartain. Finally, in 1880- 


90 she worked abroad under several masters, 
being chiefly influenced by Robert Fleury and 
Charles Lasar. Thereafter she resided in New 
York, where she came to rank as one of the 
most able and popular portraitists, of women 
and children especially. Among her many hon- 
ors are the medals of the Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh (1899), the Exposition Universclle 
in Paris (1900), the Pan-American Exposition, 
Buffalo (1901), and the Do4ge prize of the 
National Academy of Design (1902). She was 
made a member of the National Academy and 
of the Society Nationale des Beaux- Arts. Her 
best-known paintings include: "Last Days of 
Infancy" (1885), portraits of her niece Ernesta 
and of the Rev. James Grier, "Sita and Sari t a," 
"Cynthia" (Miss Sherwood), "The Dreamer," 
"Mother and Daughter," "A New England Wo- 
man" (Pennsylvania Academy), "Dorothea and 
Francesca," daughters of Richard Watson Gil- 
der, and a portrait of Mr. Gilder himself, ex- 
hibited at the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904. 
One of the most striking pictures of the 1913 
(spring) National Academy exhibition was her 
"Portrait Study." Miss Beaux unites with a 
fine feeling for color a freedom of brush work 
which contributes much to the pleasure-giving 
qualities of her art. There is no sense of effort 
conveyed in the manipulation of pigment, no 
impression of dull and heavy tones. Unconven- 
tional and characteristic poses and a remark- 
able rendition of the sitter's hands are a strik- 
ing feature of work that is essentially modern 
and highly individual. Consult Mrs. Bell, in 
The Studio, vol. xvii (1899), and Isham, His- 
tory of American Painting (New York, 1905). 

of the five academies of the Institut de France 
(q.v.). It is divided into five sections, Painting, 
Sculpture, Architecture', Engraving, and Musical 
Composition. Its membership numbers 41, in- 
cluding a secretary chosen for life who is not a 
member of any section, 10 honorary and 10 for- 
eign associates, and 50 corresponding members. 
Its publications embrace transactions, memoirs, 
and the Dictionnaire General des Beaux- Arts. 


An association of American graduates of the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, established in 1902. 
The society carries on a system of art educa- 
tion which includes the establishment in differ- 
ent cities of the United States of ateliers or 
schools in which instruction in architecture 
may be obtained. The instruction is based on 
that given in the Ecole des Beau \-Arts. In each 
city the ateliers are formed by a group of stu- 
dents who desire to carry on a study of archi- 
tecture. The master or patron whose work is 
given free is chosen or appointed, and the atelier 
is supported by contributions from the students. 
The committee on education of the society issues 
each year a certain number of programmes which 
include problems to be worked out by the dif- 
ferent ateliers. These competitions are desig- 
nated "Class A" and "Class B" competitions. 
Ateliers are established in about 50 cities in 
the United States and Canada. Many colleges 
and universities also avail themselves of the 
programme of the society in their course of in- 
struction. The society awards four prizes the 
Warren prize, offered for general excellence in 
planning a group of buildings; the Pupin prize, 
the gift of Prof. M. I. Pupin of Columbia Uni- 


versity for the decorative treatment of some 
scientific appliance; the Goelet prize, the gift 
of Mr. Robert W. Goelet for excellence in plan- 
ning a city block; and the Bacon prize, the 
gift of Mr. Robert Bacon for the greatest 
number of honors obtained in "Class A." Mr. 
Bacon also offers annually a Paris prize, the 
winner of which is chosen to pursue his studies 
in the first class in the Ecole des Beaux- Arts in 
Paris. The winner of this prize receives $250 
quarterly for two years and a half, dating from 
his departure for Europe. 


BEA^VEB (AS. beofer, Ger. Biber, OCh. Slav. 
bebru t Skt. babhrus, large ichneumon, also 
"brown"; to this latter root the word may pos- 
sibly ultimately belong). A large aquatic ro- 
dent of the family Castoridir, remarkable for its 
constructive habits and yielding a valuable fur 
and the substance castoVeum. The family in- 
cludes only one species, in the opinion of the 
majority of naturalists, which is, or has been, 
distributed throughout most of the forested 
parts of the North Temperate Zone. To this 
species Linnams gave the name Castor fiber, 
and the American form has been regarded as 
merely a variety of it. Recent American spe- 
cialists, like Rhoads (Proc. Am. Philos. 8oc., 
1898), believe, nevertheless, that the American 
beaver is specifically different from that of the 
Old World, is entitled to the name Castor cana- 
densis, and is divisible into three distinct local 
races. In general character i sties all beavers 
agree so closely, however, that these niceties of 
classification niay be left to the taxonomists. 

The Old World Bearer, once widely common 
throughout Europe and northern Asia, is now 
rare and isolated. Extinct in the British Isles 
since the twelfth century, a few colonies are 
preserved in the parks of the Marquis of Bute 
and other noblemen. It is said to exist in south- 
eastern Norway, and isolated pairs are occa- 
sionally seen on some of the large German rivers, 
and in Austria, under protection of great land- 
owners. "They also occur sparingly in Russia 
and Poland, in the streams of the Ural Moun- 
tains, and in those which flow into the Caspian. 
They live in burrows on the banks of rivers, like 
the water rat, and show little of the architectural 
instinct so conspicuous in the American form; 
but this may be owing to unfavorable external 
conditions rather than to want of the faculty, for 
there is a well-authenticated instance of a col- 
ony of beavers, on a small stream near Magde- 
burg, whose habitations and dam were exactly 
similar to those found in America." In Siberia 
they still exist in considerable numbers, though 
their pelts do not now figure largely in the ex- 
port of furs, and there the animal is inclined 
to erect lodges and dams. 

The American Beaver was scattered primi- 
tively over all wooded North America, from 
Mexico to Labrador and the northwestern limit 
of tree growth. It has been banished from all 
the more thickly settled parts, but survives in 
greater or less numbers throughout Canada 
north of civilized Ontario and Quebec, in the 
Rocky Mountain and Calif orni an ranges, in the 
Appalachians south of West Virginia, and along 
the borders of northwestern Mexico. It is 
steadily decreasing, however, even in the Hud- 
son's Say region. The beaver is usually at least 
2 feet in length from the nose to the root of 
the tail, and weighs about 35 pounds, and the 


1. COYPU (Myopotamus coypu), carrying young. 2. BEAVER (Castor oanadenala) and houa*. 

3. MUSKRAT (Fiber zlbothlcus), and winter lodge. 


tail is about 10 inches in length. These dimen- 
sions are sometimes exceeded. The general form 
of the animal is thick and clumsy, broadest at 
the hips and squirrel-like. The body terminates 
in a thick oval tail, flattened transversely, 
about twice as long as broad, and naked of hairs, 
the surface being covered with plates of black, 
indurated skin, resembling horn scales. The 
fore limbs are small and squirrel-like, the 
hinder ones large and powerful. Each foot has 
five toes; those of the forefeet are short, and 
not connected by a web; those of the hind feet 
are long, spreading out like the toes of a goose, 
and webbed to the nails. In accordance with this 
remarkable peculiarity, the beaver in swimming 
.makes use of the hind feet alone, the fore- 
feet remaining motionless and close to the body. 
The tail is of service as a sculling oar and a 
rudder, and its loud slapping of the water when 
an alarmed animal dives is an effective signal 
of danger to others. The head is thick and 
broad, the nose obtuse, the eyes small, the ears 
short and rounded. The incisor or cutting teeth 


Showing the chiscl-hke incisors. 

(two in eaeh jaw) exhibit in the highest perfec- 
tion this cardinal characteristic of the Roden- 
tia. They are formed in front of hard, orange- 
colored enamel, while the back of the tooth is 
formed of a softer substance, more easily worn 
down, so that a sharp, chisel-like edge is always 
preserved; the bulbs being also persistent, so 
that the teeth are continually growing as they 
are worn away. There are four flat molar teeth 
(or grinders)* on each side in each jaw. 

The fur consists of two kinds, the longer 
hair comparatively coarse, smooth, and glossy; 
the under coat dense, soft, and silky. The color 
in generally chestnut, rarely black, spotted, or 
nearly white. The largest and reddest beavers 
arc those dwelling on the streams of the north- 
ern Pacific coast, the smallest and darkest those 
of the Hudson's Bay region, while those inhabit- 
ing the southern Alleghanies are reddish brown, 
and those of the southern Rockies are pale. In 
consequence of its aquatic and bark-eating 
habits, the beaver is limited to the neighborhood 
of streams and ponds in wooded districts, and the 
northern range of the species is everywhere ter- 
minated by the limits of the forest growth. Its 
t-xtraordinary powers of gnawing are exerted to 
cut down trees several inches in diameter, both 
for food and for the construction of those houses 
and dams which have rendered it so much an 
object of admiration to mankind. Dr. Elliott 
Coues mentions a poplar cut by beavers on the 
upper Missouri, whicn he found to be 9 feet in 


circumference at the point of attack; but this 
was exceptional. This cutting is accomplished 
by the animals standing upon their hind feet 
and gnawing in parallel lines across the grain, 
then wrenching or biting out the chip between, 
and so steadily deepening the cut The assertion 
that they can or do cause trees to fall in any 
desired direction is not justified by facts. Large 
trees are usually felled by the united efforts of a 
family of beavers. 

Community Life and Architecture. The archi- 
tectural operations and cooperative life of these 
animals are very wonderful, although the state- 
ment at one time commonly made, that beavers 
drive stakes into the ground, has no foundation 
in fact; and some of the other particulars which 
passed current along with it were equally fabu- 
lous. They dwell normally in colonies along 
streams, which may have been inhabited for 
scores of generations, and whose improvements 
represent the combined labor of thousands of in- 
dividuals past and present. Such a colony 
begins by the settlement in the spring upon some 
sluggish, moderately deep woodland stream or 
pond of a pair of young beavers, who have emi- 
grated thither from some old colony. Their first 
labor is to dig a burrow in the bank, the en- 
trance to which is at a safe depth beneath the 
water, and the interior chamber at a safe height 
above its normal rise. In this burrow they make 
their home the first year, or perhaps two years; 
and such burrows, more or less in use and serv- 
ing as refuges in danger, are common always in 
beaver settlements. It is essential that a suffi- 
cient depth of water bo maintained before the 
door of this burrow to give clear ingress and 
egress under the winter's ice and to afford room 
for storage of winter provisions; and in most 
places chosen by the animals this can be ar- 
ranged only by damming the stream. As the 
droughts and low water of summer begin, there- 
fore, the boavers seek a place in the stream a 
little below their residence, where it is narrow, 
not more than 2% f et? t deep, and has a firm 
bottom, and begin a dam. Gnawing down sap- 
lings 10 or 12 feet long, they drag and float 
them to the spot, and sink them lengthwise, side 
by side, across the current, beginning at the 
centre of the channel and loading them with 
stones, sods, and mud, to keep them in place. 
They will handle remarkably large stones for 
this purpose. The work is gradually extended 
until it reaches the bank on each side, and in 
doing so a convex outline upstream is usually 
given; but this probably is an accident of the 
increasing pressure of the obstructed current on 
the progressing wings of the new dam rather 
than an engineering design, for reverse (or weak) 
curves are frequently seen. Such a dam grows 
constantly by the addition of all sorts of mate- 
rial no t only the logs and sticks from which 
the bark has been gnawed for food, but others 
cut for the purpose, and a constant intermixture - 
of roots and branches with stones, moss, grasses, 
and mud. 

Additions, as well as constant repairs, are 
made on the upper side, which comes to present 
a low slope and comparative solidity, while the 
lower front of the dam is a more abrupt tangle 
of sticks and branches. The beavers work at 
the dam only at night, except in an emergency, 
and each one does what it thinks proper in a 
quite independent way, though the result is for 
common benefit. After many years such dams 
mav be 4 or 5 feet high at the channel and 


stretch to the right and left across low ground 
for 50 yards or more, converting the space above 
it into a broad, grassy pond, having a network 
of clear channels. Morgan describes dams 600 
feet long in northern Wisconsin, with many acres 
of flooded ground. The water does not flow over 
the tops of these dams, but percolates through 
them, though some of them become seemingly 
solid barriers of earth. "In places," says Hearne, 
"which have been long frequented by beavers 
undisturbed, their dams, by frequent repairing, 
become a solid bank, capable of resisting a great 
force, both of water and ice; and as the willow, 
poplar, and birch generally take root and shoot 
up, they by degrees form a kind of regular 
planted hedge, which I have seen in some places 
so tall that birds have built their nests among 
the branches." A large proportion of the marshy 
ponds and peat bogs of the country have had 
this origin. 

Meanwhile, from the first summer onward, 
the gradually increasing number of braver fam- 
ilies have built each for itself permanent homes, 
known from their resemblance to the Algonkian 
wigwam as "lodges." The sites chosen are along 
the banks of the stream or canal, and several 
houses may be so close together as to touch, or 
they may be widely scattered. The larger lodges 
are, in the interior, about 7 feet in diameter, and 
between 2 and 3 feet high, with the floor and in- 
ner walls made smooth by gnawing and wear. 
The entrances are always two, both leading 
down into the water, and in northerly regions 
there is no opening into the air a needful pre- 
caution against the cold of midwinter as well 
as against such insidious foes as weasels and 
black snakes. This structure, like the dam, is 
formed of branches of trees, matted with mud, 
grass, moss, and other material. The walls are 
very thick, and the entire structure not only 
secures much warmth, but is an efficient protec- 
tion from wolves, wolverines, and other beasts of 
prey, espeeially when solidly frozen in winter. 
Each family builds, maintains, and occupies its 
own lodge, the current belief that several fami- 
lies live together arising from the fact that the 
young beavers usually continue to live with 
their parents until the third year. Single "bach- 
elors" dwelling remote and alone are occasion- 
ally seen. 

Food and Winter Provision. The food of 
beavers is almost wholly the bark of deciduous 
trees, especially poplar, birch, willow, linden, 
and maple; they never eat "evergreen" bark, and 
are absent from forests exclusively coniferous. 
In the summer they gnaw at fresh bark day by 
day, and also eat more or less of lily roots and 
other green vegetables, berries, and leaves. The 
impossibility of obtaining this food in winter, 
when the waters and woods are clogged with ice 
and snow, compels them to prepare a supply. 
For this purpose the beavers become very active 
in the autumn, each family cutting down large 
trees and gnawing their limbs and trunks into 
sections small enough to be dragged to the water 
and floated to the neighborhood of their lodge. 
There this material is sunk to the bottom and 
firmly anchored until a sufficient supply has 
been acquired. The method of anchoring this 
winter's supply has long been a matter of specu- 
lation. The green wood is about as heavy as 
the water, and once in the pond it soon sinks of 
itself, becoming water-logged. The first few 
pieces of the winter's food are usually large and 
irregular, and these are usually placed in a 


rough circle with the butts inward. This forms 
an entangling foundation which serves to hold 
in place the smaller pieces piled on top. In swift 
water anchorage for the first few pieces is se- 
cured by placing them on the lower slope of the 
house or against the dam. A carefully watched 
colony of beavers gathered 732 sapling aspens 
and several hundred willows for the coming win- 
ter, forming a pile almost wholly below the 
water, over 3 feet deep and 124 feet in circum- 
ference. Hoots of water lilies and other aquatic 
plants are also stored to a less extent. The dams 
are also especially repaired in autumn. The 
freezing of the stream puts an end to their la- 
bors, whereupon the beavers retire to their 
lodges and remain there, subsisting upon their 
store, pieces of which are daily taken into the 
house, or into some bank burrow, and the bark 
is eaten. 

It will readily be seen that the supply of edi- 
ble wood within a manageable distance from the 
water would soon be exhausted by a beaver col- 
ony, and perhaps the most important service 
of the dam and its pond is to provide against 
tli is contingency. In a flat country the mere 
raising of the water by flooding spaces of woods 
answers the purpose to some extent; but this 
is most intelligently supplemented by the ani- 
mals, who dig deep canals, 2 or 3 feet wide, 
which penetrate the woods in various directions, 
Hometimes for 100 yards or more, and thus ren- 
der accessible a large number of trees otherwise 
out of reach. These canals are kept open with 
groat pains, while the rest of the pond becomes 
gradually grown up with grass, and they form 
avenues along which lodges and burrows are 
placed, and where the colony may swim freely 
and float their food and building materials from 
the woods to their lodges and dams, of which 
latter, on a long-tenanted and favorable stream, 
several may exist. This perfection of beaver 
economy is by no means seen everywhere, but 
might commonly be observed previous to 1850 
in such highly favorable regions as the swampy 
forests about the headwaters of the Mississippi, 
and it is being renewed in northern Maine, 
where, under the protection of law, beavers are 
increasing and reoccupying their ancient haunts. 

Economic Considerations. Beavers are closely 
related to the squirrels, and, like them, "sit up 
a great deal, holding their food up to their 
mouths in their fore paws, which otherwise are 
used very dexterously. The animals live well in 
confinement, and colonies are flourishing in zo- 
ological gardens and parks in New York, Wash- 
ington, and other American cities, as well as 
abroad, where small, watered valleys, fenced 
with wire, are devoted to them. In closer cap- 
tivity they betray their constructive instincts 
by weaving the sticks supplied them into the 
bars of their cages. They have usually four 
young at a birth and keep them at home for 
two years. In 1913, beavers bred for the first 
time in their pond in the New York Zoological 

The fur of the beaver, by reason of its soft- 
ness and density, is one of the most valuable 
yielded by any animal, and in former times was 
the staple of the fur trade, especially in Amer- 
ica, when the early prosperity of Canada and 
New York was based upon it. (For statistics 
see FUB AND THE FUB TBADK.) It is probable 
that only the invention of silk-plush applied to 
the making of hats saved the animal from ex- 
tinction long ago. Beavers were obtained mainly 


by wasteful methods of trapping, and they are 
so obtained yet and chiefly in winter. Their 
nocturnal habits and extreme shyness make the 
shooting of them impracticable. Their flesh is 
esteemed by the Indians and frontiersmen. 

Large glandular pouches, two in number, 
closely connected with the organs of reproduc- 
tion, contain the substance called castoreum 
(q.v.). Its uses in the animal economy are by 
no means well known; they are probably anal- 
ogous to those of musk and civet, but its pe- 
culiar pungent odor is so attractive to beavers 
that use is made of it as a bait for beaver traps. 

The beaver family dates from the middle of 
the Tertiary Period, a fossil species of very large 
size occurring in the Upper Pliocene of Europe. 
Fossils of a small size and some peculiarities are 
found in the Miocene of the United States. 

Bibliography. Consult: Harting, British Ani- 
mals Extinct within Historic Times (London, 
1880) ; Morgan, The American Beaver and his 
Works (Philadelphia, 18f>8) ; H. T. Martin, Cas- 
torologia (Montreal, 1802) ; and especially E. A. 
Mills, In Beaver World (Boston, 1913); stand- 
ard works (see MAMMAL). Compare COYPU. 

BEAVER. A borough, and the county -scut of 
Beaver Co., Pa., 28 miles northwest of Pitts- 
burgh, at the confluence of the Ohio and Beaver 
rivers, on the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie and the 
Pennsylvania railroads (Map: Pennsylvania, 
A 5). It is the seat of Beaver College (*M. E.), 
opened in 1853, and was the home of Senator 
Matthew S. Quay, of Pennsylvania. Beaver was 
settled about 1790. The water works are owned 
and operated by the borough. Pop., 1900, 2384; 
lino, 34JH5. 

BEAVER, JAMES ADDAMS (1837-1914). An 
American soldier and politician, born at Millers- 
town, Pa. He graduated at Jefferson College 
(Canonsburg, Pa.) in 1856 and practiced law 
from 1859 to 1861. From 1861 to 1864 he served 
in the Federal army and in th latter year was 
mustered out with the rank of brevet brigadier 
general. From 1887 to 1891 he was Governor of 
Pennsylvania. In 1896 he was appointed judge 
of the" Superior Court of Pennsylvania and was 
reappomted in 1906. 

BEAVER DAM. A city in Dodge Co., Wis., 
64 miles by rail northwest of Milwaukee; at the 
outlet of Beaver Lake, and on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, and St. Paul and the Chicago and 
Northwestern railroads (Map: Wisconsin, E 5). 
The city has parks, a public library, a hospital, 
an armory, an opera house, and Waylund Aead- 
emy. It is situated in a fertile agricultural 
region, has good water power, flour and woolen 
mills, canning factories, and breweries and man- 
ufactures of machinery, lumber, ranges, and seed- 
ing machines. Settled in 1841, Beaver Darn was 
incorporated in 1856. It is governed by a 
mayor, elected biennially, and a city council. 
Pop., 1900, 5128; 1910, 6758. 


BEAVER FALLS. A city in Beaver Co., 
Pa., 31 miles by rail northwest of Pittsburgh, 
on the Pennsylvania and New York Central rail- 
roads, and on the Beaver River, five miles from 
its confluence with the Ohio River (Map: Penn- 
sylvania, A 5). It is in a region abounding in 
natural gas and coal and lias manufactures of 
steel, automobile accessories, enamel signs, glass, 
clay, pottery and tile products, axes, shovels, 
tubing, and gas engines. The city contains Ge- 
neva College (Ref. Presb.), organized 1848, the 
VOL. ITI. 3 


Providence Hospital, and a Carnegie library. 
Beaver Falls, originally called Brighton, was 
chartered as a borough in 1868. It adopted the 
r 'mniiHsion form of government in 1913. Pop., 
1800, 9735; 1900, 10,054; 1910, 12,191; 1920. 

BEAVEB INDIANS. An important Atha- 
pascan-speaking tribe on the Peace River, Can- 
ada. Linguistic evidence indicates some rela- 
tion to the Plains-dwelling Sarsi (q.v.).' 

BEAVEB ISLANDS. A group of island* 
in Lake Michigan, about 40 miles west of tha 
Straits of Mackmac and forming part of Charle- 
voix Co., Mich. (Map: Michigan, D 3). They 
derive their name from the largest of t ! ie group, 
Beaver Island. The township of St. James, om 
Beaver Island, had a population in 1010 of tfi)5, 
Peane township having 370 inhabitants. A lieh* - 
house is maintained at the northeastern end of 
Beaver Island. The Mormons made an 
ful attempt to found a settlement there in 

BEAVEB STATE. Popular name of Ore- 


An English geographer and historian, born at 
Blackheath. He was educated at King's College, 
London, and at Oxford. Subsequently he be- 
came professor of history at the University of 
Birmingham. The dill Memorial of the Royal 
Geographical Society was awarded to him in 
1907 for his Dawn of Modern Geography (3 vols., 
1897-1906). In 1908 he was Lowell Lecturer in 
Boston, Aiass., and he also visited and lectured 
at several American universities in this same 
year. Besides articles published in the Atlantic 
Monthly, American Historical Review, and Lon- 
don Geographical Journal, he is the author of: 
James of Arngon (1890) ; Henry the Navigator 
(1895); John and Sebastian Cabot (1898); 
Voyages of Elizabethan Seamen (1907). 

BEBEE'BIHE (from bebcery, the native 
name of the tree). A bitter alkaloid occasion- 
ally used in medicine, in the form of its sul- 
phate, as a substitute for quinine, and, on ac- 
count of its stimulating action on the stomach, 
as a stomachic. It is obtained from the bark of 
the greonheart tree CNcctandra rodicpi of the 
order Laitrificce) , indigenous to British Guiana. 


1913). A leader of the Social-Democratic party 
in Germany. He was born at Cologne, set up as 
a master turner at Leipzig in 1864, identified 
himself with the Socialistic movement among the 
working classes, and in 18R7 became chairman 
of tho permanent committee of the German 
workingmen's unions. In 1869 he assisted at 
Eisenach in founding the Social-Democratic 
party, which was closely affiliated with the In- 
ternational Workingmen's Association, estab- 
lished at London by Karl Marx. He was accused 
in 1872 of projected high treason against the 
Kingdom of Saxony and the German Empire, and 
of lese-majest^ against the German Emperor. 
On the combined charges he was sentenced to 
imprisonment for two years and nine months. 
His incarceration on these and subsequent 
charges, however, served only to increase his 
prestige among his party associates. In 1867 
he was elected deputy to the North German 
Diet, and after 1871 he was almost con- 
tinuously in the Reichstag, representing suc- 
cessively the districts of Glauchau-Meerane, 
Dresden, Strassburg, and Hamburg. In 1868 he 


became connected with the staff of the Volkt- 
staat at Leipzig and in 1891 with that of the 
Vorw&rts at Berlin. Bebel became known as 
an effective orator and as the most influential 
member of his party. He represented the Marx 
tradition of the Social -Democrats and for this 
reason was attacked on the one hand by the 
"opportunists" of the Volmar school and on the 
other by the "extremists" or "impossiblists." 
He successfully opposed the efforts of Bernstein 
in the Congresses of Lubeck (1902) and Dres- 
den (1903) to induce cooperation on given 
points with the old liberal parties. He re- 
ceived 175 votes for President of the Reichstag 
in 1912. His publications include Der deutsche 
Bauernkrieg (1870) ; Die parlamentarische That- 
igkeit des deutschen Reichstags und der Land- 
tage (187ft); Die Frau in der Ycrgangenheit, 
Gegenwart, und Zukunft (1883); later as 
Die Frau und der Socialismus (33d ed., 1902; 
Kng. trans, by Daniel De Leon, New York, 1904) ; 
Charles Fourier (1888) ; Die Mohamme-arabische 
Kultur Period (1889); Die Sonntagsarbeit 
( 1888 ) ; Die Lage der A rbeiter in den Backerein 
(1890); Die Socialdemokratie und das allgc- 
meine Wahlrecht (1896) ; Fur Volkswefyr gegrn 
Militarismus (181)8) ; and his memoirs A us 
meinem Leben (3 vol., 1910-12; Eng. trans, by 
Ernest Untermann, under the title My Life, New 
York, 1911-12). 

BEBEL, HEINRICH (1472-1518). A German 
humanist. He was born at Ingstetten ( Wflrttem- 
berg). He studied at C'raeow and Basel, and in 
1497 was appointed professor of eloquence and 
poetry at the University of Tiibingen. In 1501 
he was crowned poet laureate by the Emperor 
Maximilian. His best-known works are his 
Proverbia Ocrmanica (1508; new ed., Leyden, 
1879); Facetiae (1506), a collection of jests 
and anecdotes directed against the Roman Cath- 
olic clergy; and the satirical poem Triumphus 
Veneris (6 books, 1509). He was a friend of 
Erasmus. For his biography, consult Hoinrich 
B. Zapf (Augsburg, 1802). 

BECCAFICO, bSk'ka-fe'ko (Tt. from beccarc, 
to peck + fico, fig). An Italian name given in 
the south of Europe to various small and ele- 
gant warblers (Sylviidap), used as table deli- 
cacies, and specifically to the olive-brown gar- 
den warbler or pettyehaps (Nylvia horlensis or 
borin), migratory in England. It haunts the 
fig orchards and vineyards and pecks holes in 
the rind of the ripening fruit, seeming to prefer 
to all others the variety of fig known in Italy 
as "fetifero." The damage done is slight, how- 
ever, and some persons believe that in each in- 
stance the bird has found and removed an insect 
attacking the fruit. After fattening in the 
autumn upon this fruit their flesh becomes a 
dainty for the table, and they are shot for 
market in great numbers, though each affords 
hardly raoie than a mouthful of food. See FIG. 

BECCAFUMI, bfik'ka-foTJ'me., DOMENICO, also 
called IL MECHERINO (1486-1551). An Italian 
painter and sculptor. He was the son of Gia- 
eomo de Pace, a peasant laborer on the estate 
of Lorenzo Beccafumi, a wealthy citizen of Siena, 
who took the boy into his service, and fostered 
his natural taste for art by placing him in the 
studio of Oapanna in Siena, and afterward send- 
ing him to study in Rome. In his best work, 
painted in rivalry with Sodoma, he approaches 
that master in excellence, but his later produc- 
tions are mannered and soulless. His most fa- 
mous achievement was his series of designs for 

scenes from the Old Testament for the wonder- 
ful pavement in the cathedral of Siena. For 
years the best artists worked upon this pave- 
ment, which was of white marble, the subject 
being engraved in black outline, and the border 
inlaid with magnificent patterns of varied colors. 
Beccafumi was occupied on this work 1517-25, 
in 1544 and in 1546. His best-known paintings 
are the frescoes on the ceiling of the city hall in 
Siena and an altarpirce in the museum there 
his masterpiece. His last years were devoted 
principally to sculpture, particularly to 18 
bronze figures of angels and 12 marble apostles 
for the cathedral of Siena. He was also an en- 
graver of note, both on copper and wood. For 
the celebrated wood engravings of Beccafumi 'a 
pavement, see ANDREAXI, ANDKEA. 

BECCABI, htk-kii'rt, ODOARDO (1848-1920) 
An Italian naturalist. He was born at Florence 
and studied at Lucca and Pisa. The three years 
from 1805 to 1808 he spent in Borneo, and from 
1871 to 1876 he traveled in Celebes, New Guinea, 
and other of the East Indies. The results of his 
researches wen* published in the A'l/oro Giornaile 
Botanico Italiano, which ho had founded in 1869, 
and in the Bollctino della tfocicta geografica ital- 
iana. He is also the author of a work, in two 
volumes, entitled J/a/rsm : roccoltn d'oftftcrrazioni 
botanicJie (] 884-8.")) and also Nclle forcstc di 
Borneo, eiagai c rircrclic di un naturalist a 
( 1 !K)2 ) . 

IVlARqrjs OF (1735-93). An Italian economist 
and jurist, born in Milan. The opinions of the 
French encyclopedists, as well as those of Mon- 
tesquieu, had tlie greatest influence on tlio devel- 
opment of his thought. He wrote on the cur- 
lency and other economic subjects, but his great- 
est work was his Trttttato dci drlitti e dclle prne 
(Treatise on Crimes and Punishments'), first 
published in 1764, in which he argues against 
capital punishment and which established his 
fame as the originator of more humane methods 
in dealing with criminals. The work was ex- 
tremely popular, passing through six editions 
within 18 months, and was translated into many 
European languages. Kent unfairly accuses the 
author of an a fleeted humanity, but did expose 
the invalidity of some of the arguments brought 
forward. BtVeuria was among the first to ad- 
vocate the beneficial influence of education in 
lessening crime. In 1768 Beccaria was appointed 
professor of public law and economy at Milan 
and achieved great success as a lecturer. His 
lectures are published in the Italian collection, 
Kerittori elassiei italiani, vols. xi and xii, where 
also a biographical sketch will be found. A 
translation of his essay on "Crimes and Punish- 
ments" is included in J. A. Farrar's Crimes and 
Punishments (New York, 1872; Ixmdon, 1880). 

An Italian physicist. He was professor of experi- 
mental physics at Rome, Palermo, and Turin. 
In 1750 he was commissioned to measure an arc 
of a meridian in Piedmont. His principal works 
are DelV elettrirismo naturale ed artifiziale (Tu- 
rin, 17*53) and Dell 9 elettrirismo artifiziale (Bo- 
logna, 1772). He made a great many experi- 
ments with atmospheric electricity, having been 
the first to demonstrate the existence of "free 

BfiCHE-DE-MEB, bash'de-mftr' (Fr. sen 
spade). A holothurian. See TBEPANG. 

82). A German chemist, born at Speyer. He 

acquired an extensive knowledge of medicine, 
physics, chemistry, and economics; then taught 
and practiced medicine at Mainz. Later he 
founded a chemical laboratory at Munich, and 
in 1660 he was called to Vienna to inaugurate 
extensive commercial and industrial establish- 
ments. Becher had many enemies and was ac- 
cused not altogether unjustly of charlatanry. 
In his Physica Subterranea (1669) we find the 
first clear mention of the imaginary fiery princi- 

8le ("terra pinguis"), which afterward, under 
lie name of phlogiston, played HO important a 
r61e in chemical theory. Consult Erdberg- 
Krczenciewski, Johann Jochim Becher (Jena, 

BECHER, SIEGFRIED (1806-73). An Aus- 
trian political economist, horn at Plau (Bohe- 
mia). He studied at Prague and Vienna, was 
appointed professor at the Polytechnic Institute, 
Vienna, in 1835, and from 1848 to 1852 was em- 
ployed in the ministry of commerce. His works 
include Das osterreichiftche MnnsiceRcn ron 1^2^ 
1838 (2 vols., 1838) ; Statistic he UelersicJit 
des Handcls der bsterreichisehen Monarchic mit 
dem Auslande wahrcnd dcr Jahre /<S.?P-,?N ( 1841 ) ; 
Ergebnixfte dcs Handelx- und Zollrinlommcnn dcr 
dfiterreicliischcn Monarchic von den Jnhrrn 1819- 
J,3 (1846); Die Vollswirtschaft (1853). 

(1757-1822). A Gorman naturalist, born at 
Waltershaiisen (Gotlm) and educated at Jena. 
In 1705 he founded tho school of forestry at 
WaltershauHon and in 1800 was appointed direc- 
tor of the Academy of Forestry at Dreissigacker. 
He published Die Fvrtit- und Jagdwitiftcnfichaft 
narh alien ihren Tcilcn (14 vols., 1818-27); 
Ahluldvnyen naturhintorischer (irgcnfttnnde (8 
vols., 1796-1810) ; yaturgcscliiriite dcr Hof- 
und Rtiilcnrogel (1792; 5tii ed., 1870). 

BECHSTEIN, Luiwia (1801-4iO). A Ger- 
man novelist, poet, and scholar born at Weimar. 
Tie first studied pharmacy, but subsequently de- 
voted himself to the study of philosophy, litera- 
ture, and history at the universities of Leipzig 
and Munich and in 1831 was appointed librarian 
of the Ducal Library at Meiningen. He was 
a learned student of Germanic folklore, wrote 
novels, epic and lyric poetry, but is now chiefly 
known for his collection of fairy stories. His 
publications include the poems Der Tvtentanz 
(1831) and Luther (1834) ; the ncml Das toUe 
Jalir (3 vols., 1833) ; the tale, Falirtrn fines 
AJusikantcn (1836-37); and the Dcutftchcs 
Murchcnlmch (1845; 45th ed., 1806) ; and \eues 
d(utsclicfi M (irchcnbuch (1856; 64th ed., 180.)). 

BECHTJANALAND,be-chwn'na-land. A name 
formerly applied to the region in southwest 
Africa inhabited by the Bechuanaa (q.v.) (Map: 
(''ape Colony, H 4). It included the crown 
territory of Bechuanahind (area 51,254 square 
miles; pop., 99,538), annexed to the Cape Col- 
ony since 1805, and the Beehuanaland Protec- 
torate. The latter comprises all the territory 
bounded by the Molopo and the Zainbe/i rivers, 
the Transvaal province, Southern Rhodesia, and 
German Southwest Africa. Its area is esti- 
mated at 275,000 square miles. Becbuanaland 
is for the most part a high plateau, with an 
elevation of from 4000 to 5000 feet. In 
spite of its almost tropical situation the climate 
is only a little inferior to that of the Cape 
province and is very healthful for Europeans. 
The country is poorly watered, and there are 
several dry river beds, which fill up during the 
rainy season. The chief industry is cattle rais- 

20 BECK 

ing. The protectorate is administered by na- 
tive chiefs under the guidance of a British resi- 
dent commissioner. The revenue is derived from 
customs and a hut tax, the latter collected by 
native chiefs. The Rhodesia Railways section of 
the "Cape-to-Cairo" line crosses the protectorate. 
The population (125,350 in 1911, of whom 1692 
white) is made up of the Bamangwato, Bak- 
hatla, Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Bamulete, and 
other tribes. They have their fixed boundary 
lines and have retained some of their political 
institutions. Consult: Annual British Colonial 
Itcports (London) ; Macnab, On Veldt and Farm 
(London, 1900). 

BECHUANAS, be-chwil'naz. Tribes of Bantu 
stock in the Transvaal Colony and centre of 
South Africa, among the most important of 
which are the Bakwena and Bamangwato. In 
this area they rank second only to the Kaffir 
so far as their historical importance is con- 
cerned. In response to civilizing influences and 
from natural adaptability the Bechuanas are 
among the most advanced nations of Africa. 
Their strong military and political organiza- 
tions are sliown in the formation of powerful 
native "kingdoms" and the extensive migratory 
movements of the tribes, though they are peace- 
able in disposition and skillful agriculturists. 
Kaffir corn (sorghum) forms the main crop. 
The women cultivate the soil, while the men tend 
the herds, which are kept for milk rather than 
for meat. Before the extinction of the larger 
mammals the chase was of some economic im- 
portance. In the manufacture of the skin cape 
("kaross") and in fact in skin work generally 
the Becluiana excel all other South African 
tribes. They are also noted as blacksmiths. 
Their habitations are far more complex than 
those of the Zulu. A thatched roof is supported 
by a circle of tree trunks and a central pole; 
the walls, which do not touch the roof, are 
of wattle and daub; and there is also a court- 
yard, while a veranda is obtained by flattening 
one side of the wall, causing the eaves to pro- 
ject and raising a low platform underneath. At 
pul>erty both boys and girls are obliged to un- 
dergo a severe 'course of training. Totemism 
prevails, and "rain doctors" exercise much in- 
fluence. In color they are brown rather than 
black; their height averages 1.684 meters. 

BECK, ADAM (1 857-1 !)25). A Canadian 
legislator, lie was born at Baden, Ont., and 
\\urt educated at Rockwood Academy and Gait 
Grammar School. After succeeding as a manu- 
facturer he became interested in municipal af- 
fairs and in 1902-04 was mayor of London, Ont. 
In 1902 he was elected to the Ontario legisla- 
ture, and in 1905 was appointed a member, 
without portfolio, of the Conservative cabinet 
of Sir James Pliny Whitney, the Ontario pre- 
mier. He became prominently identified with 
the work of developing and distributing electric 
power, generated at Niagara Falls, to the people 
of Ontario, and in 1906 introduced legislation 
creating the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 
of which he was appointed chairman. 

BECK, CARL (1856-1911). A German-Ameri- 
can physician, born at Neckargemlind, Baden. 
He studied at the universities of Heidelberg, 
Berlin, and Jena, came to the United States m 
1882, and was appointed surgeon to St. Mark's 
Hospital, New York City, in 1886. Subsequently 
he became professor of surgical pathology in the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago. 
He published a Manual of Surgical Asepsis 

BECK 30 

(1895), a Text-look on Fractures (1900), 
Amerikcmische Streiftichter (1905), and Sur- 
gical Diseases of the Chest (1007). 

German scholar of distinction. He was born at 
Leipzig and studied at the university there. 
In 1785 he was appointed professor of Greek and 
Latin literature at the university and in 1810 
professor of history. In 1825 he resumed the 
former chair. His method of literary instruc- 
tion was historical rather than critical. From 
1819 until his death he was editor of the Allgc- 
mcines Repertorium der neue.stcn in- und aus- 
Idndischen Litteratur. His works include the 
following: Anleitung stir Kenntni* der allge- 
mcincn Welt- und Vo'lkergesvhiehte (4 vols., 
1787-1807) ; Commentarii ffistorici Decretorum 
Religionis Christiana' et Formula 1 Lutherance 
(1801); Commentarii Soeietatis Philologicce 
Lipsiensis (1801-04); and editions of Aris- 
tophanes (with Inverniz/i and Dindorf), Pindar, 
Euripides, Thucydides, Pedo Albinovanus, and 
Calpurnius Sicuius, Apollonius Rhodius, Plato, 
and Cicero. 

BECK, JAMES BUBNIE (1822-90). An Ameri- 
can politician, born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. 
He graduated at the law school of Transylvania 
University, Lexington, Ky., and from 1866 to 
1875 was a member of Congress. From 1876 
until his death he was United States Senator 
from Kentucky. He was a member of the corn- 
mission appointed to define the Maryland-Vir- 
ginia boundary and was prominent in the dis- 
cussion of tariff and currency questions. 

American composer and conductor. He was 
born at Cleveland, Ohio. In 1870-82 he was a 
pupil of the Leipzig Conservatory, where he 
studied violin and composition, 'in 1895 he 
conducted the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, and 
in 1900 he became conductor of the Cleveland 
Symphony Orchestra. His works include: a 
cantata Deukahon; a symphonic tone poem A us 
meinem Leben; an overture to Byron's Lara; 
an overture Romeo and Juliet; a Moorish Sere- 
nade; a string sextet. 

BECK, JOHANN TOBIAS (1804-78). A Ger- 
man theologian, born at Balingen, in Wllrttcm- 
berg. He studied theology at Tiibingen (1822- 
26), spent several years in the ministry, and 
was a professor, first at Basel, and then, after 
1843, at TObingen. He believed in orthodox 
Bible Christianity and was opposed to the "Tu- 
bingen School," which then flourished under the 
leadership of his fellow professor, F. C. Baur. 
Among his numerous publications, Outlines of 
Biblical Psychology (1877) and Pastoral Theol- 
9y f the New Testament (1885) have been 
published in English. For his life, consult 
Riggenbach (Basel, 1887). Consult Adolf 
Schlatter, "J. T. Bechs theologische Arbeittheolo- 
gie w in Beitriige zur Forderung christliuhcr 
Theologie (4 vols., 1004). 

BECK, KARL (1817-79). An Austrian poet, 
born of Jewish parents in Baja, Hungary. He 
studied in Vienna and Leipzig, lived in Berlin 
from 1844 until the outbreak of the Revolution 
of 1848, and subsequently in Vienna, where he 
was an editor of the Lloyd. Introduced to the 
literary world by Ktihne, the editor of Die ele- 
gante Welt, he made his first great success with 
his Nachte, gepanzeste Liedcr (1838). His 
poetic writings skillfully interpret the national 
life and spirit of Hungary. Jankti, der unga- 
riache Rosshirt (1842; 3d ed., 1870) is consid- 


ered by many his best work. Other volumes are 
Cesammelte Gedichte (1844; 9th ed., 1869) and 
A us der Heimat (1852; 4th ed., 1862). Con- 
sult Hcinrich Nellen, Aus Karl Beck's dich- 
terischen Fruhzeit (MUnstcr, 1008). 

BECK, LEWIS CALEB (1798-1853). An Ameri- 
can physician, chemist, and mineralogist, born 
in Schenectady, N. Y. He graduated at Union 
College in 1811, was professor of chemistry in 
Rutgers College, and later in Albany Medical 
College. He was the author of a number of 
books and papers on botany and chemistry; also 
of an elaborate report on the mineralogy of New 
York, based upon his researches as mineralogist 
of the New York Geological Survey of 1835-41, 
which was published as one of the volumes of the 
Natural History of the State of New York 

BECK, RICHARD (1858- ). A German 
geologist, who has contributed much to the 
science of ore deposits. He was born at Aue 
and pursued the study of the natural sciences 
at the universities of Leipzig and Freiburg. In 
1883 he joined the staff of the geological survey 
of Saxony, on which lie served until his appoint- 
ment, in 1895, to the professorship of geology 
at the Mining Academy of Freiburg. During 
Ins work in Saxony he published many reports 
relating to the areal geology of that* country, 
as well as special investigations in the fields of 
petrology and economic geology. In 1000 ap- 
peared his Lclirc von den Erzlagerstatten, a 
work that has been translated into French and 
English (Xew York, 1005) and a standard for 
the study of the physical features and origin 
of the metalliferous deposits. 

BECKE, bck'tf, FRmmini (1855- ). An 
Austrian mineralogist and geologist, who became 
in 1S!)8 professor of mineralogy at the Univer- 
sity of Vienna. Born at Prague, he pursued the 
study of natural science at Vienna, where, on 
the completion of his training, lie served for a 
time as lecturer in the geological sciences. He 
received an appointment to the University of 
Czernowitz in 1882, to Prague in 1800, and 
from there was called to Vienna, where he suc- 
ceeded Tschermak in the chair of mineralogy 
and took up the editing of the periodical, Alin- 
rralogische und Prtrographische Mittheilungen 
founded by his predecessor. Tie is the author 
of many papers on geology and mineralogy, but 
Ins best-known contribution perhaps is a method 
for the determination of rock -for in ing minerals 
by means of their light-refractive properties, 
published by the Vienna Academy in 1893. 

BECKE, GEORUE LEWIS, pen name Lorra 
BECKE (1857-1013). An Australian novelist 
born at Port Macquarie, New South Wales. 
Becke wrote single-handed and with Walter 
Jeffery many tales of adventure in the Pacific 
inlands, where the lawless white man corrupts 
the native. His best work deserves to rank with 
the short stories of Kipling and of Dawson. 
Among these writings are: By Reef and Palm 
(1894; reissue, 1913); Kodman the Boat- 
Rteerer; Adventures of a Supercargo: The 
L'bbing of the Tide (1890; reissue, 1913); Pa- 
cific Tales (1897) ; Wild Life in Southern Seas 
(1897); The Mutineer (1899), with Walter 
Jeffery; Ridan the Devil (1899) ; The South Sea 
Pearler (1900); Tom Wallis (1900; 1913); 
7 he Tapir and Other Stories (1901); By Rock 
and Pool (1901); Breachley: Black Sheep 
(1902) ; The Jelasoo Brig (1902) ; Helen Adair; 
Chinkey's Flats (1903); Tom Gerrard (1904); 


Notes from my South Sea Log (1905) ; Sketches 
from Normandy ( 1906 ) ; The A dventures of 
Louis Blake (1909). See AUSTRALIAN LIT- 


BECKENHAM, bek'en-am. A town in Kent, 
England, 8% miles southeast of London, with 
two stations on the London, Chatham, and Dover 
Railway. The municipality owns an electric 
lighting plant and public baths and maintains 
a technical institute. It is a residential suburb 
of London, and its most noteworthy building is 
the church of St. George, the tower of which 
\*as completed in 1903, and contains bells in 
memory of Cecil Rhodes. Pop., 1801, 20,700; 
1901, 26,300; 1911, 31,692. 

BECKER, AUGUST (1828-01). A Germiin 
journalist and novelist, born at Klingcnindnstcr. 
He studied at Munich, from 1855 to J859 was 
a member of the staff of the Allqcmcine Kcitung 
of Augsburg, and from 18.19 to 1804 editor of 
the liberal Isar-Xeitung. He published Jung- 
fricdcl, dcr Rpiclmnnn (1854), a poem which 
established his reputation, und considerable 
fiction, including DCS Rabbi Vermachtnis 
(1866); Vcrvchmt (4 vols., 1868), which \\as 
attacked for containing alleged portraitures of 
contemporaries of the Bavarian court; and Der 
Kuster von llorst (1889). 

An American geologist, born in New York City. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1868 and subse- 
quently pursued his scientific studies at Heidel- 
berg and at Berlin. He was instructor in min- 
ing and metallurgy at the University of Cali- 
fornia from 1875 to 1879, and was associated 
with the United States Geological Survey from 
1879 to 1892, and from 1894 to 1897. From 
1879 to 1883 he was special agent of the tenth 
census and in 1896 made an examination of the 
gold and silver mines of South Africa. In 1898 
he accompanied the United States army to the 
Philippine Islands as geologist and upon his 
return was appointed director of the Dhision of 
Chemical and Physical llesearch. The follow- 
ing is a partial list of his principal works: 
Atomic Weight Determinations: A Digest of the 
Investigations Published since 181 '/ (1880); 
Geology of the Comstock Lode and the IVashoe 
District (1882); Statistics and Technology of 
the Precious Metals (with S. F. Emmons, 1885) ; 
Geology of the Quicksilver Deposits of the Pa- 
cific Slope (1888) ; Oold-Ficlds of the Southern 
Appalachians (1895): Geology of the Philip- 
pine Islands (1901) ; Experiments on tfchistosity 
and Slaty Cleavage (1904); Relations between 
Local Magnetic Disturbances and the Genesis of 
Petroleum (1909); Age of the Earth (1910); 
Biographical Notice of Samuel FranKhn 
Emmons (1911); Reports on the gold fie -Ids of 
South Africa and Alaska. Becker's most im- 
portant work was in connection with the origin 
and mode of occurrence of ore deposits, es- 
pecially those of the Western States, to the 
knowledge of which he made extensive con- 

BECKER, JEAN (1833-84). A German violin 
virtuoso. He was born at Mannheim and stud- 
ied with Kettenus and Vincenz Lachner. After 
a short period as a conductor at Mannheim he 
entered upon a series of brilliant concert tours 
(1858) and finally settled in Florence, Italy, 
where in 1866 he 'established the famous Flor- 
entine Quartet. 

BECKER, KARL (1823-96). A German stat- 
istician, born at Strohausen (Oldenburg). ITe 

fought in the campaigns of 1848-50 against 
Denmark and rose to be a captain in the army 
of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1855 he organized 
the statistical bureau of Oldenburg, of which 
he became director, and from 1872 until his re- 
tirement in 1891 was director of the statistical 
of lice of the German Empire. He edited 8tatis- 
tische Nachrichtcn uber das Grossherzogthum 
Oldenburg (1857-72) and from 1877 the Monats- 
heftc ssur Statistik des Deutschen Reichs. His 
writings include Zur Berechnung von Sterbe- 
tafeln (1874). 

German philologist, born at Lieser, Prussia. He 
studied at the University of Giittingen, became a 
physician at Offenbach in 1815, and there opened 
u hinall private school. Here his work as an 
instructor led him to make researches in philol- 
ogy, winch for a time met with considerable rec- 
ognition. His view was that all languages are 
subject to certain logical and philosophical prin- 
ciples, and that thus a science of comparative 
philology might be arrived at by a process of de- 
duction. This method was later largely dis- 
credited by the investigations of Jakob Grimm 
and others, whereby comparative philology is 
based on principles of history and ethnology and 
is attained inductively. Becker's works include: 
Deutsche Worlbilclung (1824), Ausfuhrliche 
dcU'tschc Grammatik (3 parts, 1836-39), and 
Dcr deutschc Stil (1848; 3d ed., revised by 
Lyon, 1884), Consult Helmsdorfer, Becker der 
Cram mal* ker ( Frankfort, 1 8f>4 ) . 

German writer on music, and organist. He was 
born in Lcip/ig. lie was made professor of 
organ playing at the Conservatory in 1843, but 
resigned in 1856. Among his works on the his- 
tory of music, which place him in the same rank 
with Kieacwetter and Winterfeld, the most im- 
portant ar^: Die Ilansmusik in Deutschland im 
Hi, 11, und J8 Jahrhundcrt (1840); Die Ton- 
kilnstlcr dcs 10 Jahrhundcrts (1847). ITe was 
also among the most active contributors to the 
Ncue Zcitschrift fur Alusik, and one of the origi- 
nal founders of the German Bach (Icsellschaft. 

German historian, born in Berlin. He studied at 
II^llc and for a time was ti teacher at Kottbus 
and Berlin. He wrote Erzahlungen QMS dcr 
alien Welt fur die Jugcnd (3 vols., 18th ed., 
1890), and a \Ve1tgcschichtc fur Kinder und 
Kinderlehrer (9 vols., 1801-05), since frequently 
reprinted and so enlarged and revised by Wolt- 
mann, Menzel, Loebell. and others as to leave, 
in spite of the gain in fullness and scientific ac- 
curacy, scant traces of its original charm of 
style and arrangement. 

1900). A German genre and historical painter, 
born in Berlin. He was a pupil of Von Kliibcr 
and Hess, afterward studied in Paris, Rome, and 
Venice, and first attained success with historical 
and mythological paintings. Later he showed a 
preference for subjects taken from the brilliant 
life of the Venetian Renaissance. The chief 
characteristics of his manner are historical 
fidelity, skillfulness of technique, and especially 
a richness of coloring, which in his later works 
so predominates as to make their interest merely 
external and decorative. Of his early works 
the best examples are "Belisarius Begging" 
(1850) and the frescoes of the Niobidensaal of 
the Berlin Museum. Among the large number 
of pictures in his later style may be mentioned 


"The Doge in Council" (1864), "Charles V Visit- 
ing Titian" and "Dttrer in Venice" (1873), "In 
the Picture Gallery" (1874), "Emperor Maxi- 
milian Receiving a Venetian Embassy" (1877). 
BECKER, NTKOLAUS (1809-45). A German 
poet, born at Bonn. He is the author of the 
well-known song beginning, u Sie sollen ihn nicht 
Laben, den freien, deutschen Rhein," which, as 
an outburst of the popular German sentiment 
of the day, became widely celebrated. There are 
more than 100 different musical settings of it, 
none of which, however, has bwome popular. 
The song was answered by a number of French 
poets, notably Alfred do Musset ("Nous 1'avons 
cu, votre Rhin allemand") and Lamartine 
("Marseillaise de paix"). Becker's celebrated 
poems (Cologne, 1841) are quite mediocre. 

BECKER,, OSKAB (1839-68). A German 
political fanatic, known for his attempted assas- 
sination of King William I of Prussia. He was 
born at Odessa. In 1859 he entered Leipzig Uni- 
versity and in 1861, at Baden-Baden, endeavored 
to kill the King by firing two shots from a pistol 
at a distance of three paces. The monarch suf- 
fered only a slight injury of the neck. The 
assassin, in a letter found upon him, stated as 
his motive the conviction that King William was 
unequal to the task of uniting Germany. He 
was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment, but 
was pardoned by the King, and released in I860, 
with the stipulation that he should leave Ger- 
many forever. He lived for a time in Chicago 
and subsequently in Alexandria, Kgypt, where 
he died. 

German radical. He was born at Fninkciithal, 
in the Palatinate, grew up extremely democratic 
in his beliefs, and became a common laborer by 
preference. For his participation in the revolu- 
tionary movements or 1830 he HiilTerrd imprison- 
ment. He finally turned to Switzerland, which 
was then the home of political outcasts from 
every land. There he fought under Ochscnbein, 
against the Catholic cantons of the Sonderbund. 
Upon the failure of Hecker's attempt to revolu- 
tionize Baden (1848), Becker, who had organized 
troops for his support, returned to Switzerland 
and put himself at the head of an expedition of 
German and Swiss auxiliaries to support the 
cause of freedom in Rome and Sicily. Their 
movements being frustrated, In- led his troops 
(1849) into the Palatinate and the Grand Duchy 
of Baden, where a rising had taken place, and 
took a prominent part in many engagements, 
displaying great courage and 'strategic skill. 
Becker afterward became known as a leader of 
the young Socialist party, an active agitator 
on behalf of the International Association of 
Workmen, and the editor of many Socialist 
organs. Later he became a revolutionary col- 
lectivist and an adherent of Karl Marx. 

BECKEB, RUDOLPH Z AC n ARIAS (1759-1822). 
A German educator and author. He was born at 
Erfurt and studied theology at the University of 
Jena. As instructor at the Basedow "Phi'lan- 
thropin" at Dessau, he founded a journal en- 
titled Dessauiaohe Zeitung ftir die Jugend und 
ihre Freunde, which he afterward continued at 
Gotha (1784), under the title of Dentache Zei- 
tung ftir die Jugend, and which in 1796 was 
published as the ~Natinnalzmtitng der Dcvtfichen. 
In consequence of an article in the latter publi- 
cation he was arrested by the French and im- 
prisoned at Magdeburg for 17 months. His ex- 
periences during that period were admirably 


described in the interesting narrative entitled 
Beckers Leiden und Freudcn in J7monatlicher 
franzosiacher Gefangenschaft (181 4) -a work of 
genuine historical merit. One of hi* publica- 
tions, bearing the title of 2V of- und Hilfsluchlein 
fur Bauerleute, oder lehrreiche Freuden- und 
Trauergeschichte des Dorfes Afildhcim (2 vols., 
1787-98), became exceedingly popular. 

German composer. He was born at Wttrzburg, 
where he became celebrated as a composer of 
popular male choruses (Das Kirchlcin, etc.) . Ho 
also wrote several masses and two operas, en- 
titled Die Bergknappcn and Der Deserteur. 

German classical scholar, born at Dresden. Ho 
studied at Leipzig and became professor of 
archaeology at that university in 1842. Two of 
his works were extremely popular: Callus oder 
Jtomischc Sccnen aus der Zclt Augusts (1838; 
3d ed. by Goll, 1880-82), and Chartclcs oder 
BiUer altgriechische Ritte (1840; revised by 
Goll, 1877-78). The letterpress in each book 
portrays the life of which it treats in the form 
of a romance. Ample footnotes and excursuses 
fortify the statements in the text. Both books 
were translated into English by Frederick Met- 
calfe: the translations have passed through 
many editions. Becker also began the elaborate 
Handbuch der Romischcn Altcrthumer, which 
was completed by Marquardt and MomniHen. He 
wrote also De Comicitt Jtomanorttm Falwlis 
(1837), De Rome? Veteris Alurift atque Portis 
(1842), Die Rbmische Topographic (1844), and 
Zur Romittchm Topographic (184r>). 

A German arelnpologist and author, born at 
OberkallcnlKTg, Saxony, and educated at Leip- 
zig. He became professor at the Ritterakade- 
m ie, in Dresden, in 1782. In 17!)/> lie was ap- 
pointed director of the, Dresden Gallery of 
Antiques and of the Coin Cabinet, and in 1805 
he was also intrusted with the superintendence 
of the celebrated Green Vault. He published 
Auffufitcum, Drcndens aniikc De.nkmolcr enthal- 
tcnd (2 volfi., 180f>-09; 2d ed., 1832-37), with 
162 engravings; Zireihundcrt srltrnc Munzen dcs 
Mittelaltcrs (1813); and a large number of 
popular handbooks of art. 

(1801-70). A Prussian statesman. He was 
born at Krefeld, in Rhenish Prussia, and after 
acquiring a considerable fortune in banking he. 
turned his attention to politics. He served in 
the Diet of his province and in the Prussian Diet 
of 1847 and went as a deputy to the Frankfort 
Parliament of 1848, where he was an unswerving 
advocate of German unity and political liberty. 
His eloquence exercised considerable influence, 
on this assembly. He was appointed Minister 
of Finance in the ministry constituted for Ger- 
many under the auspices of the Parliament, 
and presently was called to Berlin to construct 
a cabinet. He declined the task, because the 
King of Prussia would not give him a free hand 
in his scheme for the unification of Germany. 
When the reactionary movement set in, he re- 
signed the posts he held under the government, 
but continued, as a member of the Prussian 
Second Chamber, a vigorous opposition to the 
Manteuffel Ministry, which had deserted the 
cause of German unity. He withdrew from 
politics in 1832. After the return of Manteuffel 
to power in 1858, Beckerath was again elected 
a member of the Prussian Second Chamber, but 


was obliged to decline the honor on account of 
failing health, lie devoted his later years to 
the affair* of Krefeld, his native town. Consult 
Kopstadt, Hermann von Beckerath (Brunswick, 

BECKERS, beVers, HUBERT (1806-89). A 
German philosopher. He was born at Munich 
and studied at the university there. In 1832 he 
was appointed professor of philosophy at the 
Lyceum at Dillmgen and in 1847 professor of 
philosophy at the University of Munich. He is 
chiefly known as an expositor of the philosophy 
of Schelling. His works include: Cantica 8pir- 
itualia (1845-47); Ueber die Bedeutung der 
ticheHinyschen Metaphysik (1861); Ueber die 
u-ahre und bJeibende Bedeutung der "Natur- 
philosophic Schillings (1866) ; Aphorismen 
tibcr Tod und Unstcrblichkeit (1880). 

BECX'ET, THOMAS A (c.1118-70). Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, born in London. He was 
the son of a merchant and was educated at Mor- 
ton Priory (Surrey), London, and Paris, and 
later studied canon law at Bologna and Auxerre. 
After earning his living for a time as a notary 
and clerk, he became connected with Archbishop 
Theobald of Canterbury, receiving two church 
livings and various ollicos. in 1155 Henry IF 
made Becket Chancellor of Kngland. His duties 
were numerous and burdensome and were vigor- 
ously discharged. His style of living was osten- 
tatious, and when necessary he equipped troops 
at his own expense and commanded them in 
person. On May 23, 1162, he was elected Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, through the King's in- 
fluence. His private life in the past had been 
above reproach, and as archbishop he was noted 
for his zeal, devotion, and piety. He soon came 
into conflict with the King. In 1103 he opposed 
him in a matter of taxation, acting as the 
champion of the people. He also maintained 
vigorously all the prerogatives of the Church, in 
spite of the King's anger and hostility. Henry 
(1164) caused the Constitutions of Clarendon 
(q.v.) to be drawn up, embodying, as the King 
asserted, the ancient customs and laws of the, 
country; but Becket refused to abide by them, 
declaring them contrary to canon law. A contest 
followed, in which the archbishop firmly resisted 
the King's authority whenever it conflicted with 
what he held to be the rights of the Church. 
Henry was determined to humble the archbishop, 
and under various pretexts mulcted him in 
large sums of money. Finally, when Becket, 
driven to desperation, appealed to the Pope, lie 
was declared a traitor and compelled to flee 
secretly from England, Nov. 2, 1164. For the 
next six years he remained in France. Henry 
confiscated Becket's property and was threat- 
ened by him with excommunication and inter- 
dict. Various attempts at reconciliation were 
made in vain. Finally, in 1170, after the King's 
son had been crowned by the Archbishop of York, 
in direct opposition not only to custom and law, 
but also to the express commands of Becket and 
the Pope, Henry felt obliged to make terms. 
Becket, anxious to return to England, was prom- 
ised the restoration of all his confiscated prop- 
erty. He landed in England on Dec. 1, 1170, 
and immediately the struggle between King and 
prelate broke out anew. Becket refused to ab- 
solve the bishops who had taken part in the 
coronation, because, after having disobeyed the 
Pope, they were unwilling to swear to obey in 
the future. On Dec. 29, 1170, four knights went 
to Canterbury to demand, in the name of the 



King, the absolution of the bishops. Becket re- 
fused, alleging the necessity of obedience to the 
Pope. The knights withdrew from the cathedral 
transept where they were, only to return with 
an armed following. Becket forbade his attend- 
ants to lock the doors, saying, "God's house must 
be closed against no man." There, by the altar, 
he was murdered, declaring, "For the name of 
Jesus and for the defense of the Church I am 
ready to embrace death." Henry was compelled 
to make heavy concessions and to do public 
penance at the martyr's tomb to avoid the ban 
of excommunication. The murderers, having re- 
paired to Rome as penitents, were sent on a 
pilgrimage to Palestine. Feb. 21, 1172, Becket 
was canonized by Pope Alexander 111, and the 
anniversary of his death was set apart as the 
day of his festival. In 1220 his bones were raised 
from the grave in the crypt, where they had 
been hastily buried the day after his murder, 
and by order of King Henry ITI were deposited 
in a splendid shrine, which for three centuries 
continued to be the object of one of the great 
pilgrimages of Christendom and still lives in 
English literature in connection with Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales. At the Reformation Henry 
VIII despoiled the shrine, erased Becket's name 
from the calendar, and, according to a doubtful 
account, caused his bones to be burned and 
scattered to the winds. The best collection of 
sources for the life of Becket is contained in 
Robertson and Shepard's (ed.) Materials for 
the History of Archbishop Becket, Rolls Series 
(London, 1875- -83). These include a number of 
biographies by contemporaries and many letters* 
The best modern work is Canon Morris, Life 
and Martyrdom of flf. Thomas Becket (2d ed., 
London, 188,*>). Consult Hook, Archbishops of 
Canterbury, vol. ii (London, 1862): Thompson, 
Thomas jierket (London, 1889); Freeman, His- 
torical Essays ( Nt series, London, 1871 ) ; Stubbs, 
Constitutional History (Oxford, 1895) : Hutton, 
8t. Thomas of Canterbury (London, 1889) ; Ab- 
bott, fit. Thomas of Canterbury: His Death and 
his Miracles (1898): Ward, Canterbury Pil- 
grimages (London, 1904). 

BECKTORD, WILLIAM (1760-1844). An 
English author, born Oct. 1, 1760, he was 
the son of William Beckford, alderman and 
twice Lord Mayor of London. When he was 
tbout 11 years old, his father died, and he in- 
herited the greater part of a very large fortune, 
consisting of estates in Jamaica and of Fonthill 
Abbey in Wiltshire. His annual revenue is said 
to have exceeded 100,000. Young Beckford 
evinced unusual intellectual precocity; for be- 
fore ho was 17 years old he composed 'a satirical 
essay, entitled Biographical Memoirs of Extraor- 
dinary ra inters, a sort of parody on the usual 
biographies of eminent artists. In 1777 he went 
with a tutor to Geneva, where he remained about 
18 months; and in the years succeeding he made 
tours through Flanders*, Germany, Italy, Portu- 
gal, and Spain. In 1783 he married Lady Mar- 
garet Gordon, daughter of the fourth Earl of 
Aboyno, and left at once for Switzerland, where 
they remained until the death of Lady Margaret 
in '1786. He had already written Vathek: An 
Arabian Tale. Of its composition, which may 
be assigned to 1781 or 1782, he says: "It took 
me three days and two nights of hard labor. I 
never took off my clothes the whole time." This 
famous romance, written in French and pub- 
lished at Lausanne and Paris in 1787, was trans- 
lated from the French MS. by Samuel Henley 


and published, without Beckford's consent, in 
London in 1786. In 1790 Seckford sat in Par- 
liament for Hendonj in 1794 he accepted the 
Chi Item Hundreds and again left England. He 
went to Portugal, purchased an estate near 
Cintra, and occupied for a time that "paradise" 
which Byron commemorated in Childe Harold. 
Tormented by unrest, he returned to England 
and Battled in 1796 at Font hi 11, where he sought 
to realize the magnificence of his Oriental 
dreams. He erected a new building at Fonthill, 
the most prominent feature of which was a tower 
about 300 feet high. Beckford resided there till 
1822, when he was compelled to dispose of the 
estate and house, with all its curiosities. It 
was bought by Colonel Farquhar for 330,000. 
Soon after, the great tower, winch had been 
raised upon an insecure foundation, fell to the 
ground. On the sale of Fonthill, Beckford re- 
moved to Bath and immediately proceeded to 
erect another lofty building, the plan of which 
also included a tower, 100 feet high. While re- 
siding the,re, he did not mingle in Bath society, 
and the most improbable stories concerning the 
rich and morose genius in their neighborhood 
were circulated among the citizens and were be- 
lieved by them. During all hig life Beckford 
was a hard-working student with a passion for 
books. Some of his purchases were Imperial in 
their way. He bought Gibbon's library at 
Lausanne, to amuse himself when he happened to 
be in that neighborhood. lie went there ; read in 
the fierce way that he wrote, three days and two 
nights at a sitting; grew weary of his purchase, 
and handed it over to his physician, Dr. Schdll. 
Besides Vathck and his youthful essay, Beck- 
ford published two sentimental novels and 
sketches of his travels. Consult Carnett, Vathek, 
with a critical essay (London, 1803) ; arid Mei- 
Tille, The Life and Letters of William Beckford 
of Fonthill (London, 1910). 

BECIICAlfJr, JOHANN (1739-1811). A 
German teacher and writer on technology and 
agriculture. He received instruction from 
Linncua and in 1766 was appointed professor of 
philosophy at Gottingen. In 1770 he became 
professor of agricultural economics, holding this 
position over 35 years. Among his works arc 
Qrundaatze der deutschen Landtcirtxchaft 
(17W; 6th ed., 1806); Anlcitung zur Technolo- 
gic (177; 5th ed., 1809); Anleitung zur Han- 
delswissenschaft (1789) ; Beitrage zur Oatchichte 
der Erfindungcn (5 vols., 1780-1805; Eng. 


An American portrait and genre painter. Tie 
was born at Hannibal, Mo., and studied in Chi- 
cago, New York, and (1873-78) with Curolus 
Duran and Yvonne in Paris. Soon after his re- 
turn to New York, in 1878, he was elected to the 
Society of American Artists and in 1894 to the 
National Academy of Design. He was for 18 
rears professor in the Art Students* League, 
New York, and is a member of the National In- 
atitute of Art and Letters. He decorated one 
of the domes of the Manufactures Building at 
the Chicago Exposition of 1893, but portraiture 
occupies his chief attention. Among his best- 
known portraits are those of General Schofield, 
Judge Palmer, Colonel Appleton, Mark Twain, 
and the Ogden and Parish families. At the St. 
Louis Fair (1904) he exhibited "The Nautilus" 
and portraits of Mrs. Beckwith and F. H. Hitch; 
in 1905, several portraits, including that of 
Richard H. Ewart; Col. Charles Henry Jones 



(1906), Harold de Raasloff (1909), and "The 
Veil" (1912). He is represented by portraits 
in Yale University, Johns Hopkins, and West 
Point. The New York Public Library has a 
fine collection of his crayon and pencil drawings. 
BECKX, bks, PIERRE JEAN (1795-1887). 
The twenty-second General of the Jesuits. He 
was born at Sichem, in Belgium, and became a 
member of the Society of Jesus in 1819 and the 
head of the order in 1853. Quite early his su- 
periors recognized his rare abilities and sent him 
on several delicate missions. When Duke Ferdi- 
nand of Anhalt-KOthen became a convert to the 
Roman Catholic religion, young Beckx was ap- 
pointed his confessor and officiated for some 
years as priest of the new church which was 
built at Kothen. After the death of the Duko 
Beckx continued at the court with the widow, 
the Dueliess Julia, whom at a later period he 
accompanied to Vienna. In 1847 he became proc- 
urator for the Society in Austria. In the fol- 
lowing year the Jesuits were driven from Aus- 
tria, and Father Beckx went to Belgium, where 
he was nominated rector of the Jesuit College at 
Louvain. When the Jesuits were reestablished 
in Austria, he zealously supported the projects 
of the government, which were highly favorable 
to the interests of the Chureh. He lent his aid 
to the Primate of Hungary, Cardinal Szeitowsky, 
who succeeded in obtaining the reinstatement of 
the Jesuits in that portion of the Empire arid 
in founding the novitiate at Tyrnau. He was 
sent as a delegate to the assembly at Rome in 
1853 which >\ns to choose a successor to Father 
Roothan and \VHB elected General of the order. 
The prodigious success of the Jesuits since that 
time, especially in non-Catholic countries, is due 
in no slight degree to the ability and foresight 
of Father Beckx. Besides some minor \\ntm^s 
and occasional discourses, he published a Month 
of Mary, which has passed through numerous 
editions and has been translated into many 
languages. He resigned his office in 1884, three 
years before his death. 

BECKY SHARP. The significant name of 
the chief character in Thackeray's Vanity Fair. 
Endowed with uncommon wit, she is audacious, 
intriguing, and determined to rise in the world. 
She is incapable of love, but marries Rawdon 
Crawley for his position, which she is obliged 
to forfeit because of her scandalous relations 
with Lord Steyne. 


BECQTJE, bfk, HENRI FRANCOIS (1837-99). 
A Frencli dramatic author, lie was born in 
Paris, and first became known by his libretto 
for the opera Sardanapale (1867, music by De 
Joncieres). lie was a member of the staffs of 
several journals, was for a time a banker, and 
as playwright met with varying fortunes, his 
Michel Pauper (1870) and L'enltvemcnt (1871) 
being failures, while his I'arisicnne (1885) 
achieved decided success. Consult James G. 
Huneker, Iconoclast*, a Book of Dramatists 
(New York, 1905). 

OUEZ (1836-70). A Spanish poet, born at Se- 
ville, the son of the genre painter, Jose" Domfn- 
guez Becquer. An orphan at 10, he was brought 
up by his godmother, whose favor he lost by 
refusing to adopt a regular profession. At 18 
he came, penniless, to Madrid, where he earned 
a precarious living by journalistic hack work 
and by translating foreign novels and where, 


after a fruitless struggle of 15 years, he died. 
He loft three volumes, made up of poems and 
prose legends. The latter, of which the best 
Known is Leyendas espanolas, arc weird, morbid 
tales, strongly reminiscent of Hoffman, just as 
his poems are reminiscent of Heine, though 
lacking Heine's inimitable irony, and imbued 
with mysticism. His collected works (Madrid, 
1885) have a biographical introduction by Cor- 
rea, who also published the fifth, enlarged, edi- 
tion, also in three volumes, in 1904. Mrs. 
Humphry Ward published in Macmillan's Mag- 
azine, 1883, an excellent article concerning 
Becquer. Consult also Olmsted's Introduction 
to his edition of some of Becquer's Legends, 
Talcs, and Poems (Oinn, 1907) for the fullest 
account of the poet's life. An excellent complete 
translation of his Leiit"ndas cspailolas was made 
by Cornelia Frances Bates and published (New 
York, 1000) with a charming introductory study 
by her daughter, Katharine Lee Bates. 

(1820-01). A French physicist, son of Antoine 
Cesar Becouerel. He was born in Paris and 
inherited tlie scientific tastes and talents of his 
father, whom he assisted in many of his inves- 
tigations. He was elected a member of the 
Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1863 and in 
1878 succeeded his father as professor of physics 
in the Conservatoire dea Arts et Metiers. In 
addition to cooperating with his father, he car- 
ried on a number of experiments in electricity 
ami light, particularly in phosphorescence, an 
instrument known as the phosphoroscope having 
be<n mvTited by him. Tie is also well known 
for his work on the solar spectrum and the spec- 
trum of the electric light. In addition to a 
large number of scientific papers published in 
French journals, Kdmond Becquerel was the 
author of La Lumitre, ses causes et ses cffcts 
(1807), and, in cooperation with his father, of 
Kli'mcnts de physique Urrestre ct de meteorolo- 
ytc and other works. 

The iirwt of Keveral generation of distinguished 
French physicists. He was born at Chatillon- 
Hur-Loing, in the department of Loiret. In 
1808 he entered the French army as an officer 
of engineers and served with distinction in Spain 
under Marshal Suchet. On his return to France 
lie was appointed inspector of the Ecole Poly- 
technique, and after serving in that capacity 
and with the general staff of the army, at the 
Peace of 1815 retired from active service to 
pursue scientific studies. He became professor 
of physics at the Museum of Natural History 
in Paris in 1837. Ills attention was principally 
devoted to electricity and magnetism, and among 
his researches are many important discoveries. 
While studying the physical properties of yel- 
low amber Becqucrel had occasion to make ex- 
periments on the liberation of electricity by 
pressure. This led him to investigate the laws 
governing the production of electricity by chem- 
ical action. The result of his study was the 
overthrow of Volta's theory of contact and the 
construction by him of a constant cell. The pro- 
duction of a current by contact between differ- 
ent pieces of the same metal and the determina- 
tion of the resistance of various liquids and 
atmospheric electricity were also investigated, 
and he was ffreatly interested in meteorology 
and thermo-electric apparatus. He also dis- 
covered a method of determining the internal 
temperature of human and animal bodies, and 


in physiological investigations demonstrated 
that when a muscle contracts there is a develop- 
ment of heat. Becquerel may be considered one 
of the creators of electro-chemistry. His labors 
in this branch of science secured for him elec- 
tion to the Paris Academy of Sciences. After 
1828 he applied electro-chemistry in the repro- 
duction of mineral substances and in rarious 
electrolytic processes. In 1837 he was elected 
a member of the Royal Society of London and 
received the Copley medal. Among his works, 
in several of which he had the cooperation of his 
son, Alexandre Edmond, were the Trait* d* 
rtlectricite et du magnetiame (1855); Element 
d'elcctrochimie (1843); Traite de pkysiqve 
(1842); Elements de physique terreatre et <U 
me'ttorologie (1847); Resume de I'Matoire d* 
I'SJertriuite* et du magnetisme (1858). 

A French physicist. He was the son of Alex- 
andre Edmond Becquerel and was born in Paris. 
He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and 
the Kcole des Ponts et Chauss^es. He became 
professor of physics in the Museum of Natural 
History in 1878 and in 1895 at the Ectfe Pohr- 
teclmique.. He was admitted to the Institute in 
1889. His researches, published chiefly in 
Comptes Itendus, have dealt mainly with suob 
optical subjects as the rotation of polarized light 
by a magnetic field, phonphoreecence, spectro- 
Bcopic studies, and the invisible radiation from 
uranium, to which the name of Becquerel rays 
has been given. For this discovery he received 
the Rumford medal of tho Royal Society of 
England. The Nobel pri/e for physics in 1903 
was divided between M. Becquerel and M. and 
Mine. Curie, for their researches in radio-activity. 


BECSE, bgch'e (or O-Becse, Old B*cse; called 
also Szerb-Becse, Serb Beese). A town of Hun- 
gary, in the county of BAcs-Bodrog, on the right 
bank of the Theiss, near its junction with the 
Franzeiiskanal (which connects it with the Dan- 
ube), 4/> miles south of Szeged in (Map: Hun- 
gary, G 4). It has fisheries and flour mills and 
carries on an extensive trade in grain. Pop., 
1000, 18,865, mostly Magyars. New, or Turk- 
ish, Becse (Uj-Becae or Torok Becse) is situated 
on tho left bank of the Theiss, in the county of 
Torontfil, 5 miles below Becse proper. It has 
trade in fruit and grain. Pop., 1900, 7725. 

BECSKEREK, bech'ke'-re'k. Two towns in 
Hungary. 1. GREAT BECSKEREK (Hung. ~N&gy- 
Itccskcrel-). The capital of the county of Tor- 
ont/il, situated on the Bega, about 45 miles 
west-south west of Temesvar, with which it is 
connected by canal (Map: Hungary, G 4). It 
is a busy market town, with a considerable grain 
and cattle trade. The cultivation of silkworms 
is an important industry. There are several 
annual fairs, and the town contains several 
print works, a theatre, and an old castle. Pop., 
1000, 26,407, one-third of whom are Germans, 
about an equal number Serbs, and only about 
one-fourth Magyars. 2. LITTLE BECSKEBKK 
(Hung. Kis-Becskerek ) , a town in the county 
of Teines, about 9 miles northwest of Temesvar. 
Pop., 1900, 3738, mostly German Roman Catholics. 

BED (A3. led, ledd, I eel. bear, Goth, fcewfi, 
OT1G. betti, Ger. lett, all from the root bhodh, 
preserved in Lat. fodire, to dig. Originally, an 
excavated spot, a dug-out place, a lair). This 
term originally indicated, m all Germanic lan- 
guages, the litter (cf. French W*=bed) on 

which a person slept. Then it was used to in- 
clude the frame or shelf on which the bedding 
was placed, the bedstead. 

The Ancient East. In the ancient Orient 
there was little difference between the bed and 
the couch on which persons reclined during the 
day. In Egypt the frames were sometimes high 
and were reached by a stool or short steps; they 
were supported on curved logs ending in claw 
feet and were of graceful lines, with a slightly 
raised headboard, a mattress, and a wooden pil- 
low, or head rest. Sometimes the mattress or 
bedclothes were supported by a wickerwork of 
palm branches. The beds of the Babylonians 
and Assyrians were more luxurious. Beds of 
ivory, gold, and fine woods were enumerated in 
the Aniarna tablets among the objects sent from 
Syria to the kings of Egypt. A British Museum 
relief shows King A&urbanipal reclining at 
dinner on a magnificent couch, while his queen 
sits in an armchair. Sometimes the bedding was 
placed in a recess on a rained slab, as in the 
palace of Sargon, at Khorsabad, without any 
bedstead. The prevalence of insects in the East 
soon led to the use of canopies, baldachins, and 
mosquito nettings. There was one over the bed 
of Holophernes in his tent. These Asiatic beds 
were sometimes portable, sometimes stationary. 
The Persians are supposed to have been the first 
to make up a bed not only comfort a bit 1 but 
beautiful to see, though it is "probable that they 
inherited their taste from the Ba-byloninns. 
Their great men carried beds even on cam- 
paigns, for Herodotus mentions some abandoned 
by Mardonius in his sudden flight. Such beds 
were incrusted with gold and silver and covered 
with magnificent stuffs. The Jews could hardly 
have equaled this magnificence ; still several in- 
teresting passages in the Old Testament illus- 
trate their various uses. In receiving visitors 
the King bowed himself upon the bed (1 Kings 
i. 47) ; in Prov. (vii. 16) the bedding is de- 
scribed: "I have decked my bed with coverings 
of tagestry, with carved works, with fine linen 
of Egypt." The Homeric poems mention the 
three main classes of early beds: the shake- 
down, the portable bed, the heavy bedstead, 
sometimes a fixture. 

Greek Beds. The Odyssey (xxiii. 190) de- 
scribes the bed made for himself by Ulysses. 
The trunk of the olive tree around which ho 
built and roofed his chamber was trimmed and 
used as one of the bedposts, the frame being 
made by the addition of three more feet and 
the connecting frame; the whole was inlaid with 
gold, silver, and ivory. The bedding was sup- 
ported on leather straps, and on top of it were 
blankets to make it softer. At that time there 
seem to have been no stuffed mattresses. The 
Greek bedsteads of historic times were at first 
less gorgeous, being usually made of maple or 
boxwood, solid or veneered. But the custom of 
not sitting, but* reclining at table on couches, 
led to a gradual increase in decorative beauty 
in the sixth century B.C. Even then the Asiatics 
did not think that the Creeks knew how to 
make a comfortable bed; and when the Persian 
King Artaxerxes gave a bed, with all its mag- 
nificent appurtenances, to the Athenian Ambas- 
sador Timogoras, he gave also a number of 
attendants skilled in preparing it. While the 
poor continued to use the primitive litter or the 
skins of animals for bed covers, the wealthy be- 
came more and more fastidious in the use of 
bed covering and ornament. Miletus, Corinth, 

|6 BED 

and Carthage became famous centres in the dye- 
ing, weaving, and embroidering of 'bed covers, 
and the bedsteads and couches were inlaid or 
veneered with ivory, tortoise shell, and precious 
metals, and even provided with feet of solid sil- 
ver or gold. There was a clnss of l>edmakers 
at Athens. 

The form of Greek bedsteads and bedding at 
different times is illustrated not only by numer- 
ous vase paintings, hut by some marble beds 
found at Palatit/a and Pyd'na, and a terra-cotta 
lied from Tana^ra. The common elements were: 
(1) a wood frame: (2) a vegetable trellis for 
spring; (3) a mattress covered with striped 
or figured linen, or woolen cloth, or leather, 
stuffed with dried reeds, or wool, or the fluffy 
product of the gnaphalion; (4) pillows, one 
round, and two or more square, covered with 
linen and filled with down or feathers; (5) bed 
covers of various kinds, brilliantly colored, em- 
broidered with floral and animal patterns, some 
of heavy woolly cloth, some of lighter texture. 
The bedstead had posts sometimes square, some- 
times round (turned), crowned usually by an 
Ionic capital and of graceful design. Sometimes 
they were in the form of columns, sometimes 
they were turned in a succession of slender necks 
and swelling bulbs. The frame itself was nar- 
row, the footboard was seldom raised, but the 
headboard commonly projected above the bed. 
There appears to have been, during the fifth 
century, a reaction toward a more Spartan sim- 
plicity in bed and bedding due, perhaps, to the 
fall of Athenian supremacy; but it did not last 
long, and the Alexandrian ago flaw an even 
greater Oriental luxury among the Greeks. 

Boman Beds. In Italy the Etruscans led in 
love of luxury, and their beds, as shown in the 
pamtinjrs and reliefs of their tombs, were of the 
same type as the Greek, with the added comfort 
of air cushions. T\u> funeral bedsteads, veneered 
in ivory, have been found in Etruscan tombs of 
the fourth and third centuries H.C. One is in 
the Papa Giulio Museum, Rome; the other in 
the Field Museum, Chicago. They are covered 
with fine carvings in relief. But it was not 
until the close of the Republic; that the Romans 
laid aside their simplicity and combined all the 
good points of Etruscan, Greek, and Oriental 
beds. There were five classes of Roman beds 
and couches: (1) the ordinary sleeping bed, or 
Irrtuft cubiwilari*: (2) the reclming-table couch, 
or lectiis tricliniaris : (3) the smaller lounge 
for rest and meditation in the daytime, the 
Irrtulu*; (4) the high marriage lied, lectus 
ycwiaHK; and, finally, (i>) the funeral bed, or 
Jcctus funcliris, on which the deceased was ex- 
posed and carried in the funeral procession. 
There were bedsteads of massive bronze, beauti- 
fully decorated; as, for example, that found at 
Pompeii, with silver incrustations. Others were 
of massive silver, even of gold, while the ma- 
jority were veneered with expensive woods, tor- 
toise shell, or ivory, plates of gold or silver, or 
gold leaf, or else inlaid in patterns with dif- 
ferent materials. The typical Pompeiian ordi- 
nary bed is very similar' to the modern wooden 
bedstead in its proportions and structure. Some, 
frames were high and were reached by foot- 
stools. Not only were there usually both head- 
board and footboard, but also in the sleeping 
beds the back was often protected by a board. 
In all these particulars it varied from the 
Greek bed. The mattress rested either in girth or 
on a delicate diagonal trellis, and was for the 


poor stuffed with straw or dried reeds, and for 
the rich with wool, or even feathers. The pil- 
lows were of feathers or down. The bed covers 
wore rich in color especially purple embroid- 
ered with gold and made of Oriental stuffs. 

Oriental Beds. The Roman inheritance, lost 
in the West after the sixth century A.D., was 
continued in the Byzantine Empire, and the 
gorgeous couches and lounges in the Imperial 
palaces at Constantinople are famous. The Mo- 
hammedans inherited both the Byzantine and the 
Persian forms of luxury, and while not paying 
so much attention to the bed covers, which, on 
account of the warm climate, were necessarily 
light, developed the magnificence of the bald- 
achins and other hangings over the beds and 
couches to such an extent that these woven and 
embroidered stuffs, damasks, velvets, etc., be- 
came the masterpieces of their class and were 
among the most regal presents. The Crusaders 
became acquainted with them and introduced 
them into the West. In Farther Asia beds and 
bedding have been and still are of great sim- 
plicity, usually in the form of simple couches 
or mattresses, which can be easily rolled up or 
carried away. In India they are called charpoys. 
The Japanese lie upon matting with wooden 
neck rests a custom derived ultimately from 
Egypt. The Chinese use low beds, often elabo- 
rately carved. 

The Middle Ages. Meanwhile, in the West, 
bedsteads, though reduced to extreme simplicity, 
with the fall of Roman civilization had not en- 
tirely fallen into disuse. In the time of Charle- 
magne they were sometimes made of bronze 
tubing like our own brass bedsteads, with 
bulbs at the joints and ends of the posts 
with a rope netting to support the mattress and 
with numerous large pillows. In the crusading 
times of the twelfth century the beds acquired 
considerable richness; the frames were low and 
narrow, and of almost Spartan simplicity, there 
being no headboard or footboard, and only posts 
projecting slightly above the frame. These 
frames were, however, richly inlaid, carved, or 
painted, were covered with embroidered hangings 
and overhung with canopies. As in the Carlo- 
vingian age, the bedding was arranged on a very 
inclined plane, so now the mattresses appear 
much longer than the frame, raised over the 
low headboard and suspended on a curve. With 
the advent of the Gotliic age in the thirteenth 
century, which was the golden age of the manor 
life of the castles, beds increased still further in 
size and luxury. The marriage beds stood often 
not in a special bedroom, but in the main hall, 
where all persons could enter, and were entirely 
curtained about. Metal bedsteads had been en- 
tirely abandoned in favor of wood. The balus- 
trade became wider and had an opening in 
the middle of the front side for entrance; the 
height of the headboard was increased; the 
mattress was laid flat, inside the frame instead 
of on top of it, and the number of pillows was 

In the fourteenth century the bedsteads de- 
creased in sjze but increased in comfort, in 
fineness of linen sheets and richness of cover- 
ings. They were placed in bedrooms, which were 
now sumptuously decorated with hangings. 
There were often two mattresses instead of one, 
and they were covered with silk. Previously the 
sheets had been used to wrap the occupant in 
as nightgowns were almost unknown but now 
the sheets were larger and fell over the sides of 



the bed, even to the ground, under the turaptu- 
ous covers. 

Later European Beds. In the fifteenth cen- 
tury their size became enormous, seven feet 
long by six feet or more wide. The rooms were 
so large, however, that, as heretofore, the bed- 
steads were headed to the wall, and sometimes 
there were two side by side, and four or five fcot 
apart, covered with a single immense canopy, 
as in the bods of Isabellc de Bourbon. The beds 
of Henry II and Francis I were famous, and 
the kings began to hold receptions in bed. The 
canopies wen; of all sizes and shapes, and sus- 
pended from the ceiling or wall. But in the 
sixteenth century columns came into use to sup- 
port ^them, and the four-poster was created. 
Heavier stuffs became the rage for covers and 
hangings velvets, brocades, and damasks. The 
bedsteads were heavily carved, and the head- 
boards were often solid to the top of the canopy. 
The heaviest made were the English Elizabethan 
beds of oak immense structures. Considerably 
lighter were the oak frames of Flanders. In 
France and Italy the ordinary fine bed was of 
carved walnut, 'in the seventeenth century the 
mode in France became lighter, with great use 
of laces and gauzes and of figured tapestries. 
That century was preeminently that of beautiful 
beds, never equaled lie fore or since. The in- 
ventories of Louis XIV show that this monarch 
had an unrivaled collection of 413 superb bed- 
steads of all forms four-posters, pavilioned, 
duchesse, Imperial en housse, d pcntett, etc. This 
museum of beds in the Garde-Moublo was the 
wonder of all visitors. The reign of Louis XV 
added only a more delicately fantastic ornamen- 
tation to this age of graceful design and varied 
coloring. The kings, queens, ministers, great 
ladies, and the high nobility commonly held 
early receptions in bed; there was the petit 
lever and the grand lever. (See LEVEE.) The 
ruelle was the narrow space between the wall 
and the head of the bed, where a person could 
stand concealed. This importance given to the 
bed insured the magnificence of every detail. 
The Empire beds, in mahogany, with bronze 
trimmings, are comparatively monotonous and 
heavy. The Colonial beds are a simplification 
of the heavier English four-poster. At present 
many types are used, but even the finest bed- 
steads made are commonplace compared with 
the best of the past four centuries. 

Modern Beds. Throughout the continent of 
Europe beds are of the open couch form, suit- 
able in width for one person. They consist of a 
frame or bedstead, bearing one or two hair or 
wool mattresses; they are often provided with 
curtains, hanging from the ceiling. In Germany 
there is a common practice of placing large, flat 
bags of down above the other coverings of beds 
for the sake of warmth, and sometimes a bed of 
down altogether supplies the place of blankets. 
In Italy corn-husk mattresses are very com- 
mon. Throughout America the beds are usually 
of the French, or open couch form. The simplest 
kind of bed yet invented except, indeed, the 
Oriental rug spread on the floor is one fre- 
quently to be seen in America. The bedstead 
consists of a folding trestle called a cot, con- 
structed with canvas on the principle of a 
campstool, with a movable headboard at one 
end to retain the pillow. Its great advantage 
consists in its being easily folded up and put 
away in small space. Another device for sav- 
ing 'space is the "folding bed" proper, which is 

BED 38 

often constructed BO as to resemble when closed 
a bookcase or some other piece of furniture. 
Such beds are useful where a bedroom must 
serve also for a sitting room; but there are 
many objections, both aesthetic and sanitary. In 
America the English practice of providing a 
double bed instead of the Continental custom 
of furnishing a separate bed for each person 
prevails, although, largely for hygienic reasons, 
the single bed has become common. The English 
four-posted bed, or family bod, is a gigantic 
piece of furniture, having a roof or canopy sup- 
ported by the four posts, which art 1 generally 
of mahogany and finely turned and carved. On 
rods along the cornice hang curtains which can 
be drawn around the sides and foot. Lower 
wooden beds and beds of brass or iron have 
largely supplanted the old-fashioned four-poster 
and are popular on account of their cleanliness 
and cheapness. Consult the bibliography of 

BED, or STBATTTM. In geology, a layer 
or a number of layers of stratified sedimentary 
rock, with an approximately uniform lithologi- 
cal character. If shale, sandstone, and lime- 
stone succeed one another in layers, each forma 
an independent bed, or stratum -/again, if a thick 
sandstone be composed of a number of layers, 
each of these layers, or certain groups of them, 
may be called "beds," or "strata." While most 
geologists confine the terms to layers of uni- 
form vertical composition, there is a lack of 
uniformity in usage as regards the number and 
thickness of the layers to be included under 
them. For instance, "stratum" is sometimes 
used as above defined, while "bed" is applied 
to each of the constituent layers. Again, "bed" 
and "stratum" are used in the same sense either 
for a group of layers or for a single layer. The 
occurrence of sedimentary rocks in layers is de- 
scribed as "bedding" or "stratification." The 
cause of stratification is the intermittent supply 
of materials for deposition, due to such causes 
as varying intensity of wave action, tides, or ir- 
regular deposition from rivers. When the strat- 
ification is obscure, it would seem to indicate 
that the materials had been supplied with little 
or no intermission. The individual particles 
of strata or beds are laid down in such a way 
that they tend to oppose their broader sides to 
the greatest stress acting upon them, which is 
compounded of gravity and the stress of moving 
water. The result is a general arrangement of 
the greater diameters of the mineral particles 
in planes parallel to the planes of bedding or 
stratification. See LITHOGENESIS ; STRATIFI- 

B&DABIETJX, ba'da'r*-5'. A town in the 
department of Herault, France, on the Orb 
River, 20 miles north of Be"ziers (Map: France, 
8., H 5). It is well built and is an industrial 
centre, having cloth factories and tanneries, and 
manufacturing paper, glass, oil, hats, etc. Pop., 
1901, 5965; 1911, 6186. 

BE1XBUG. A reddish-brown, flattened, wing- 
less, nocturnal insect (Cimcx Icctularius or Acan- 
thia lectularia ) , peculiar to the fixed habitations 
of man and subsisting by sucking his blood. It 
represents a family Cimicidae, or Acanthiidae, of 
heteropterous bugs (Hemiptera) , which, with nu- 
merous allied forms, live upon the juices of plants 
and animals; and this parasitic life has caused 
degeneracy, until now this species has acquired 
a very flat body, capable of hiding in narrow 
cracks, and has completely lost its wings ; it has 


also gained the power of resisting great cold and 
of fasting indefinitely, so that it easily survives 
long intervals between tenants in a house a 
fact which often accounts for an otherwise mys- 
terious appearance of the pest. Its mouth con- 
sists of a three-parted proboscis, which can be 
thrust through the skin like a hollow needle and 
then becomes a blood pump. The parasite hides 
by day in cracks and crevices of floors, walls, 
and furniture, frequenting beds especially, simply 
because there it gets its living at night. The 
eggs of the bedbug are minute, whitish oval 
objects, laid in clusters in the crevices used by 
the bugs for concealment, and hatch in about 
eight days, the young being almost transparent 
"nits," which grow darker in color as they in- 
crease in size, until, when full-grown, they may 
be u quarter of an inch long. This growth is 
attained by means of five molts, and if food and 
warmth be plenty, maturity may be attained in 
throe months; but under adverse conditions 
growth may be greatly prolonged. A female 
may lay several packets of eggs arid several 
broods be raised each year, indeed about 250 
tg<rs are laid cadi spring in lots of 50, so that 
under faA r oral)le conditions (slovenly housekeep- 
ing) the multiplication is extremely rapid. 
These insects have been known as house pests 
from the earliest tunes, and it is believed came 
originally from India. Aristotle alleged that 
they arose spontaneously from sweat. Their 
spread is mainly due to their being carried from 
place to place in furniture, vehicles, and cloth- 
ing. They do not seem to have reached Eng- 
land previous to the seventeenth century not, at 
any rate, to a notable extent, since the word 
"bug," which now designates this pest primarily 
in British speech, is not so used in Shakespeare's 
writings. America received this pest from 
Europe, and ships have now spread it all over 
the world. There is a popular belief that it 
dwells in the woods under bark of decaying tim- 
ber, and also that it infests certain other do- 
mestic animals, especially poultry. That it may 
sometimes prey upon other animals is possible; 
but entomologists believe it to be restricted to 
humanity, and that all similar bugs (see CONE 
NOSE) found upon bats, swallows, pigeons, and 
poultry are species peculiar to -each of those 
nnimnls and do not attack men. Certain bird 
lice have a deceptive resemblance, also, to the 
Cimicidjp. Bedbugs are eaten by various preda- 
tory insects, especially cockroaches and ants. 

The remedy lies in persistent and minute clean- 
liness. The application of the common remedies, 
benzine, gasolene, corrosive sublimate, kerosene, 
or hot water, usually suffice to rid an ordinary 
dwelling of these pests; but in larger buildings 
nothing is more effectual than thorough fumiga- 
tion with sulphur or bisulphid of carbon. For 
immediate relief in a sleeping room, pyrethrum 
is most available, since it can be used while a 
room is occupied. Dusted between the sheets of 
a bed, it will protect the sleeper most effectually. 
Many patent remedies are advertised, but they 
are probably not more efficacious than those 
given above. Consult Bulletin No. 4 and Circu- 
lars 4^ and 47, Division of Entomology, United 
States Department of Agriculture. See INSECT; 

the British royal household, 12 in number, 
who wait in turn upon the sovereign's person. 
The salary is 1000. These offices in the reign 
of a queen are performed by ladies. Queen 


Victoria usually had from 10 to 12 ladies, and 
extra ladies of the bedchamber, and 8 bedcham- 
ber women. These offices are objects of high 
ambition, from the access they give to the person 
of the sovereign, and are for the most part 
filled by "the prime nobility of England." They 
are usually vacated at each change of ministry. 
On "Victoria's departure from Hie usual etiquette 
in 1839, Sir Robert Peel declined to form a 
ministry, and Lord Melbourne returned to office. 
The incident caused some excitement and is 
amusingly known as "The Bed chamber Plot." 
Consult Armytage, Old Court Customs and Mod- 
ern Court Rule (London, 1883). 

BEIKDABD, FBANK EVERS (1858-1925). An 
English zoologist, born at Dudley. He studied 
at New College, Oxford, was naturalist to the 
Challenger Expedition Commission in 1882-84, 
and assistant editor in the preparation of the 
reports of the expedition. For a time he was 
examiner in zoology and comparative anatomy 
at the University of London and lecturer on 
biology at Guy's Hospital. In 1884 he was ap- 
pointed prosector of the Zoological Society of 
London. His publications include: Animal Col- 
oration (1892) ; a Monograph of the Oligorhwta 
(1895) ; a Text-Book of Zoogeography (1895) ; 
Structure and Classification of Birds (1898); 
Book of Whales (1900); Mammalia (1902); 
Earthworms and their Allies (1912). 

BEDDOES, bfcd'oz, THOMAS ( 17CO-1808) . An 
English physician and author, lie was born 
in Shropshire, was educated at Oxford, and 
studied medicine in Edinburgh and London. He 
was appointed lecturer on chemistry at Oxford 
in 1788, but his unconcealed sympathies with 
the French Revolution rendered his post uncom- 
fortable, and lie resigned in 1792. Retiring into 
the country, he then wrote his History of Isaac 
Jenkins, a moral tale, in which lie in id down, 
in a popular style, rules of sobriety and hen 1th 
for the benefit of the working classes, and which 
soon became exceedingly popular. Ho estab- 
lished in 1798 a "pneumatic institute" at Clif- 
ton, for the treatment of disease by inhalation. 
It did not succeed, hut is memorable as having 
introduced to the world Humphry Davy, who 
was for some time its superintendent. Beddoes 
settled in London in 1801, where he published 
his Ilygeia or Essai/s, Moral and Medical (3 
vols., 1802). Consult the Life by Dr. John E. 
Stock (London, 1811). 

English dramatist. He was born at Clifton 
July 20, 1803, the son of Thomas Beddoes. 
11 is mother was a sister of Maria Kdgeworth, 
the novelist. Jn 1808 Dr. Beddoes died, leaving 
hia son to the guardianship of Da vies Giddy, 
afterward Sir Danes Gilbert, president of the 
Royal Society. Young Beddoes was placed at the 
Bath Grammar School; from thence, in 1817, he 
removed to the Charterhouse, and in May, 1820, 
he entered as commoner at Pembroke College, 
Oxford. In 1821 he published The Improvisator**. 
On this volume he looked with no favor at a 
later period and was accustomed to destroy 
stray copies wherever he could find them. In 
1822 he published The Bride's Tragedy, a work 
of great promise. In 1825 he went to Gfittingrn 
to study medicine and from this time forth 
continued to live in Germany, with occasional 
visits to England. While engaged at Frankfort 
(1848) in dissecting, he received a slight wound, 
which led to blood poisoning. Under most dis- 
tressing circumstances he committed suicide at 

39 BEDE 

Basel, Jan. 26, 1849. During his wanderings in 
Germany Beddoes was engaged at intervals in 
the composition of a drama entitled Death's 
Jest-Book. This work, together with his other 
manuscripts, consisting chiefly of poetry, he left 
to his friend, T. F. Kelsall, who published 
it in 1850, and in 1851 the collected poems 
of Beddoes, with an excellent memoir. Beddoes 
is chiefly known by this posthumous play, 
which is a tragedy conceived in the man- 
ner of Webster and Tourneur, the late Eliza- 
bethans, who dealt in the terror and pageantry 
of death. The blank verse is good, ana scattered 
through the play are many songs recalling the 
ease and freshness of Shakespeare. Consult his 
Poetical Works (London, 1890) and Letters 
(London, 1894), both edited by Edmund Gosse. 

BEDE, bed, or B2EDA, be'da, frequently 
called THE VENEKAIILE (e.673-735). The great- 
est name in the literature of Saxon England 
and probably the most distinguished scholar of 
lii s age. The exact spot of his birth is a point 
in dispute among antiquarians, but is commonly 
believed to have been in what is now the parish 
of Monkton, near Wearmouth, in Durham. In 
his seventh year he entered the neighboring mon- 
astery of St. Peter, at Wearmouth, where he 
was educated under the care of the Abbot Bene- 
dict Biscop and his successor, Ceolfrid. His in- 
structor in the Scriptures was Trumberht. After 
studying for a time at Weannouth Bede re- 
moved to the twin monastery of Jarrow, founded 
in 682; here he took deacon's orders in his nine- 
teenth year, and was ordained priest in his 
thirtieth by John of Beverly, then Bishop of 
Hexham. In the shelter of his quiet retreat 
Bede devoted himself to the pursuit of literature- 
He studied Latin and Greek, and had at least 
some acquaintance with Hebrew, astronomy, and 
prosody. Ife wrote homilies, lives of saints, 
hymns, epigrams, works on chronology and 
grammar, and comments on the books of the 
Old and New Testaments. His own list of what 
lie had written up to 731 is given in his Eccle- 
siastical History and contains 37 titles. His 
calm and gentle spirit, the humanizing character 
of his pursuits, and the holiness of his life pre- 
sent a striking contrast to the violence and 
slaughter which prevailed in the whole island. 
While laboring under disease, near the close 
of his life, he translated the Gospel of St. 
John into Anglo-Saxon and dictated his ver- 
sion to his pupils. He died May 26, 735, 
and was buried in the monastery of Jarrow; 
long afterward (in the middle of the eleventh 
century) his bones were removed to Durham. 
His most valuable work is the Historia Eeclesias- 
tica Gent is Anglorum, in five books, to which we 
arc indebted for much of our information on 
the history of England down to 731 A.D. Bede 
drew the materials for his work partly from 
Roman writers, but chiefly from native chroni- 
cles and biographies, records, and public docu- 
ments, and oral and written communications 
from his contemporaries. There is a transla- 
tion of the work into Anglo-Saxon, due to King 

In chronology the labors of Bede were im- 
portant, as he introduced the Dionysian reckon- 
ing of dates in his work, De Sex JEtatibus 
Mnndi, which served as a basis for most of the 
mediaeval chroniclers of leading events in the 
world's history. Among the many editions of 
Bcde's history may be noticed: the sixth, pub- 
lished at Strassburg about 1500; much better 


edition by Smith (Cambridge, 1722); more re- 
cent editions are those of Moberly (Oxford, 
1869), Dr. Giles in his edition of the whole 
works of Bede (12 vols., 1843-1844), with an 
English translation, and of Plummer (2 vols., Ox- 
ford, 1896). There are at least 35 editions in 
all. Entire editions of Bede's writings have 
been published at Paris (1544-54); Basel 
(1563); and Cologne (1612 and 1688); London 
(1843-44); and in Migne's Patrologia Latina 
(Paris, 1844). English versions of his Eccle- 
siastical History have been published by Staple- 
ton (1565); by Stevens (1723); by Hurst 
(1814) ; by Giles (1840) ; by Stevenson (1852) ; 
by Gidley (1870); by Jane (1903); by Sellar 
(1907); in the Everyman's Library, etc. Con- 
sult: Gehle, DC Bcdas VencrabiUs Vita ct 
Scriptis (Leyden, 1838); Browne, The Vener- 
able Bede (London, 1880) ; Werner, Beda der 
Ehrwiirdige und seine Zeit (Vienna, 1875) ; 
Bright, Chapters of Early English Church 
History (3d ed., Oxford, 1897) ; and the intro- 
duction to Plummer's edition of the Historia Ec- 
clesiastica; Life, by Gurguet (1901) and Ranns- 
ley (1904). 

BEDE, bed, ADAM. The hero of a novel of 
the same name by George Eliot. He is a young 
carpenter, whose character is said to be partially 
drawn from that of the father of George Eliot. 


63). A distinguished French general, born at 
Vertou, near Nantes. In the Belgian campaign 
of 1831-32 he was aid-de-camp to General 
Gc*rard. In 1830 he was sent to Algeria, as 
commandant of a battalion of the Foreign Le- 
gion. Here he acquired his military reputation. 
He took part in most of the operations by which 
the dominion of France was established over 
the natives and rose to the rank of general of 
brigade. In 1847 he was for a short time Gov- 
ernor of Algeria, but was superseded by the 
Due d'Aumale. When the Revolution of Febru- 
ary broke out, Bedeau, who was in Paris on leave 
of absence, was commissioned by Marshal Bu- 
geaud to suppress the insurrection. This he 
found it impossible to do. By the Provisional 
Government he was appointed Minister of War 
an office, however, which he immediately changed 
for the command of the city of Paris. lie was 
elected to the Constituent Assembly and was 
made vice president of it, always voting with 
the Republican party. Along with Cavaignac, 
Lamoriciere, and others, he was arrested on 
Dec. 2, 1851, and went into exile. He died in 

BEDEGTTAR, beW-gar (Fr. from Ar. Pers. 
badawar, a kind of white thorn or thistle), A 
large, roundish excrescence, or gall, sometimes 
called sweetbrier sponge, produced by the 
Rhodites rosce, a gallfly, on various species of 
rose. The excrescence is caused by a peculiar 
poisonous fluid injected by the fly into the plant 
tissue; externally mossy, it contains the larva* 
of the insect and the juices of the plant on 
which they feed. It was once popularly believed 
to produce sleep. 

BEDELL', FREDERICK (1868- ). An 
American physicist, born in Brooklyn, N. Y. He 
graduated at Yale in 1890 and afterward took a 
scientific course at Cornell (1890-92). In 1892 
he became assistant professor of physics at Cor- 
nell, and in 1904 professor of applied electricity. 
He made valuable investigations in alternating 
currents of electricity. In 1894 he became the 


editor of the Physical Review. He wrote Alter- 
nating Currents, with A. C. Crehore (5th ed., 
1909) ; Direct and Alternating Current Manual^ 
with C. A. Pierce (2d ed., 1912). 

American clergyman, the third Protestant Epis- 
copal Bishop of Ohio, and a member of the evan- 
gelical school of his church. He was born at 
Hudson, N. Y., the son of Rev. Dr. Gregory 
Townsend Bedell, and was educated at Bristol 
College, Pa., and at the Virginia Theological 
Seminary. He was rector of the Church of the 
Ascension, New York City, from 1843 to 1859, 
when he was chosen Assistant Bishop of Ohio. 
In 1873, on the death of Bishop Mcllvaine, he 
became Bishop and the following year consented 
to the division of his diocese by the formation 
of the new jurisdiction of southern Ohio. He 
resigned in 1889. His numerous works include 
The Pastor (1880) and Centenary of the Ameri- 
can Episcopate (1884). 

BEDELL, WILLIAM (1571-1642). A prelate 
of the English church, born at Black Not ley, 
Essex, lie was educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, and after his ordination, in 1602, 
officiated a a clergyman at Bury St. Edmunds. 
In 1607 he accompanied Sir Henry Wotton as 
his chaplain to Venice. There he resided about 
four years, deeply engaged in study, and hon- 
ored by the friendship of many distinguished 
men, in particular Fra Paolo Sarpi, then en- 
gaged in the composition of bis celebrated His- 
tory of the Council of Trent. While residing 
here, he translated the English Common Prayer 
Book into Italian. On his return home he re- 
Riinied his pastoral dudes at Bury, where he 
lived for some time in such retirement that \\hcn 
his friend Diodati came to England, he inquired 
in vain for the admirable Bedell, whose merits 
were so well known in Venice, and only found 
him by chance. In 1616 Bedell was presented 
to the living of llorningshealh, a neighboring 
parish to Bury. His retired life and his Cal- 
viniwtic theology long hindered the recognition 
of MM merits. At length, in 1627, he was unani- 
mously elected provost of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, to which the fame of his learning and piety 
had extended. He refused to undertake the 
charge till positively commanded by the King. 
At the end of two years he was promoted to the 
united bishoprics of Kilmore and Ardagh, the 
latter of which he resigned in 1033. While in 
this diocese he removed his lay chancellor and 
took upon himself the ancient episcopal jurisdic- 
tion of hearing and deciding causes. His wis- 
dom, firmness, and charity forced even his ene- 
mies to revere him, and "when the rebellion of 
1641 broke out his was the only. English house 
in the county of Cavan that was spared. Re- 
fusing to dismiss his flock, he was imprisoned 
for a time and on being released ministered at 
a private house till his death, at Drumlor, Feb. 
7, 1642. The Old Testament was translated into 
Irish under his direction, and, besides some 
other works, he translated the last two books 
of Fra Paolo's history. His biography was writ- 
ten by his son William, and this was afterward 
edited by T. W. Jones (London, 1872). Consult 
also BuVnet, Life of Bishop Bedell (London, 

BEDELS, be'd'lz, or BEDELLS (Ger. Pedell; 
see BEADLE). One of the most ancient of aca- 
demic officials, an attendant on the rector and 
the university crier. Besides the university 
bedel there were bedels for the different facul- 


ties, "nations," and often for the doctors of the 
university. In Oxford University there are at 
present four bedels. The senior bedel registers 
matriculations, gives due notice to those who are 
to preach before the university, attends such 
preachers to and from the university church, 
acts as private secretary to the vice chancellor, 
and gives his whole time to the service of the 
university. One of the sub-bedels constantly at- 
tends the vice chancellor. The other bedel and 
sub-bedel attend at university sermons, at con- 
gregations, the admission of proctors, and all 
state occasions. All wear a round cap and par- 
ticular form of gown, and must be constantly 
resident in the university. At Cambridge Uni- 
versity there are two similar oflicers called es- 
quire bedels, who attend the chancellor (or in 
his absence the vice chancellor), preceding him 
with their silver wands on all occasions, and, 
among other duties, see that the university cere- 
monies are maintained and that public business 
is conducted in proper form. 

BEDESMAN, bedz'man. See BEAD. 

BEDTORD (corrupted from AS. Jiedican 
ford, protected ford). The county town of Bed- 
fordshire, England, situated on both sides of the 
Ouse, here crossed by two bridges and navigable 
to the sea, about 45 miles north-northwest of 
London (Map: England, F 4). The town, 
which is located in a broad expanse of rich pas- 
ture and agricultural land, is clean, well paved, 
and shows in its outward appearance and in the 
number of its municipal undertakings the pro- 
gressive spirit of its citizens. It was incor- 
porated in the reign of Henry II and now sends 
one member to Parliament. It has an excellent 
A\ater supply, which nets it a substantial profit, 
and has an electric light plant. It maintains 
hc\eral parks and recreation grounds, public 
markets, and a cemetery. It is chiefly famed 
for its charitable and educational institutions, 
vhich are largely due to the beneficence of 
Sir William Harper, Lord Mayor of London in 
L*)f>l, who founded a free school and endowed it 
with 13 acres of London land. The enormous in- 
crease in the value of the properly (from 40 
lo L">,000 or upward a j T car) enables the trus- 
tees to maintain grammar, modern, and prepara- 
tory schools for boys, the same class of schools 
for* girls, and also almshouses. The most impor- 
tant manufacture of Bedford is that of iron- 
ware, especially agricultural implements. A 
considerable traffic in agricultural products, tim- 
ber, coal, and iron is maintained. Pop., 1891. 
28,023; 1901, 35,144: 1911. 39,183. Bedford is 
of great antiquity and is mentioned in the Saxon 
Chronicle under the name of Bedicanford, as 
the scene of a battle between the Britons and 
Saxons in 571. It Buffered much from the Danes 
in the eleventh century. John Bunyan was 
born in the neighboring' village of Elstow, and 
while a prisoner in the town jail, as a disturber 
of the peace, he wrote his Pilgrim's Progress. 
A bronze statue of him presented to the town 
by the Duke of Bedford adorns St. Peter's 
Green. Consult Porter, An Historical Sketch of 
Bedford, England (Boston, 1891). 

BEDFORD. A picturesque village of Halifax 
Co., Nova Scotia, Canada, at the head of the 
beautiful Bedford Basin, nine miles north of 
Halifax, on the Intercolonial Railway (Map: 
Nova Scotia, F 4). It is a favorite summer re- 
sort of the Haligonians. 

BEDFORD. A town, and the county-seat of 
Miaaisquoi Co., Quebec, Canada, on the Canadian 


Pacific Railway, 7 miles north of Lake Cham- 
plain (Map: Quebec, D 5). It has manufactures 
of agricultural implements, edge tools, sewing 
machines, leather, lumber, etc. Pop., 1891, 1571; 
1901, 1364; 1911, 1432. UPPER BEDFORD, an 
eastern suburb, has a population of 600. 

BEDFORD. A city, and the county-seat of 
Lawrence Co., Ind., 85 miles southwest of In- 
dianapolin; on the Chicago, Indianapolis, and 
Louisville, the Baltimore and Ohio Southwest- 
ern, the Bedford and Wallner, and the Terre 
Haute and Southeastern railroads (Map: In- 
diana, C 4). It is noted for its extensive quar- 
lying interests, the building stone being shipped 
in considerable quantity over a wide field. There 
are also railroad shops and roundhouses. The 
city owns its water works, and many of its 
buildings, both public and private, are fine stone 
Btructures. Pop., 1900, 6115; 1910, 8716. 

BEDFORD. A borough, and the county-seat 
of Bedford Co., Pa., 85 miles (direct) west by 
south of TIarrisburg, on the Pennsylvania and 
the Huntington and Broad Top Mountain rail- 
roads (Map: Pennsylvania, D 17). Bedford 
contains features of scenic and historic in- 
terest, notably Washington's headquarters, the 
old courthouse, the soldiers' monument, and 
the picturesquely located Bedford Springs, a 
popular summer resort. There are also two 
planing mills, a large peanut factory, a flour 
mill, arid a handle factory. Bedford, origi- 
nally called Itaystown, was* settled about 1751 
11 nd was laid out in 176fi. For many years 
it was an important frontier military post and 
for a time in 1758 was occupied by a 'large force 
under General Bouquet; while in 1794, during 
the Whisky Rebellion, it was the headquarters 
of the troops under Gen. Henry Lee, sent against 
the insurgents. Bedford was incorporated in 
1795; its charter of that date, still in operation, 
provides for a mayor, elected every four years, 
and a borough council. The water works are 
owned and operated by the municipality. Pop., 
]890, 22*2; 1900, 2107; 1910, 2385; 19*14, 2500. 
Consult Historif of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton 
Counties (Chicago, 1884); History of Bedford 
and flo/>?rr.srf Counties (New York, 1900). 

BEDFORD, GUNNING S. (1800-70). An 
American physician. He was born in Baltimore 
and graduated at Mount St. Mary's College in 
1825. He then studied at Rutgers Medical Col- 
lege and in Europe. lie returned in 1833 and in 
1836 settled in New York, where his practice 
in obstetrics rapidly became extensive. With 
Dr. Valentine Mott he founded, in 1840, the 
New York University Medical College, where he 
occupied the chair o'f obstetrics until 1862. His 
Diseases of Women and Children and his Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Obstetrics were republished 
in England and translated into French and 

(1389-1435). Regent of France, and third son 
of Henry IV of Kngland. During his father's 
lifetime, he was Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed 1 
and warden of the Scottish marches. In 1414, 
the second year of the reign of his brother, Henry 
V. he was' created Duke of Bedford. He was 
commander in chief of the forces in England 
while Henry was carrying on the war in France. 
After the death of Henry V (1422), Bedford, 
in accordance with the dying wish of the King, 
left the affairs of England in the hands of his 
brother, Gloucester, and went to France to look 
after the interests of the infant prince, Henry 


VT, his nephew. In compliance with the request 
of his deceased brother, be offered the regency of 
France to the Duke of Burgundy, who refused 
it; he then assumed it himself, but not without 
consulting the Duke of Burgundy as to the best 
method of carrying out the Treaty of Troyes, by 
which Charles VI had declared Henry V next 
heir to the French crown. On the death of 
Charles VT, a few months after Henry V, Bed- 
ford had his nephew proclaimed King of France 
and England as Henry VI. In the wars with 
Charles VII which followed, Bedford displayed 
great generalship and defeated the French in 
several battlesmost disastrously at Verneuil, 
in 1424. But, in consequence of the parsimoni- 
ous way in which men and money were doled 
out to him from England, and the withdrawal 
of the forces of the Duke of Burgundy, he was 
unable to take full advantage of his victories. 
The appearance of Joan of Arc was followed by 
disaster to the English arms, notwithstanding 
the utmost energy of Bedford; and in 1435 he 
was mortified by the treaty of peace negotiated 
at Rouen between Charles VII and the Duke of 
Burgundy, which effectually ruined English in- 
terests in Franee. The death of the Regent, 
which took place Sept. 14, 1435, may have been 
occasioned by his anxiety and vexation on ac- 
count of the union thus formed. Bedford, who 
was a patron of letters, purchased and removed 
to London the Royal Library of Paris, consist- 
ing of 900 volumes. Consult Stubbs, Constitu- 
tional History, vol. ii (Oxford, 1895). In 1470 
Oeorge Neville was made Duke of Bedford ; later 
the Count of Pembroke, Jasper Tudor, who died 
in 1495, had this title. For the present family 
of Bedford, see RUSSELL, HOUSE OF. 

BEDPOBD CITT. A town, and the county- 
seat of Bedford Co., Va. ; 25 m'les southwest 
of Lynchburg, on the Norfolk and Western Rail- 
road (Map: Virginia, E 4). It lias n pictur- 
esque location, at an elevation of nearly 1000 
feet, and is the seat of Randolph-Macon -Acad- 
emy (Methodist Episcopal, South) and other 
educational institutions, and of the Elks Na- 
tional Home. The town lies in a productive 
region and has an important tobacco trade, with 
a number of tobacco factories, woolen and flour 
mills, and a pigment factory. It contains a 
municipally owned hydro-electric power and 
light plant and municipal water works. Pop., 
1890, 2897; 1900, 2416; 1910, 2508. 

BEDFORDSHIRE, Wd'f&d-sher. A midland 
county of England, hounded northeast by Hunt- 
ingdon, east by Cambridge, southeast and south 
by Hertford, southwest and west by Buckingham, 
and northwest by Northampton (Map: England, 
F 4). Its extreme length is 31 miles; breadth, 
25. Area, 466 square miles, five-sixths of which 
is arable, meadow, and pasture lands. The prin- 
cipal towns are Bedford, the capital, Biggies- 
wade, Leighton-Buzzard, Dunstable, and Luton. 
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in stock 
raising, dairying, and agricultural pursuits. 
Manufactured products include agricultural im- 
plements, lace, and straw goods. Pop., 1891, 
160,700; 1901, 171,250; 1911, 194,625. 

BEDIVERrE, b6d1-v6r, SIB. A knight of the 
Round Table, who cast King Arthur's sword, 
Excalibur, into the lake, and who bore the dying 
King to the boat in which he was carried to the 
Vale of Avalon. 

BEIXLAM (ME. Bedlem, corrupted, in popu- 
lar speech, from Bethlem, Bethlehem, shorter for 
"Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem"). The 


name of a hospital for lunatics, in St. George's 
Fields, Southwark, London. It was originally 
founded in Bishopsgate Street Without, in 1246, 
by Simon Fitz-Mary, one of the sheriffs of Lon- 
don, as "a priory of canons with brethren and 
sisters." When the religious houses were sup- 
pressed by Henry VIII, this one fell into the 
possession of the corporation of London, which 
converted it into an asylum for 50 or 60 insane 
persons. In the year 1675 the hospital was 
taken down, and a new one, affording accommo- 
dation for about 150 patients, was erected in 
Moorfields at a cost of about 17,000. In 1814 
the hospital was again pulled down, and the pa- 
tients were transferred to a new hospital in St. 
George's Fields, erected for 198 patients, but in 
1838 extended so as to accommodate 166 more. 
The building, with its grounds, now covers an 
area of 14 acres, and is lacking in nothing 
likely to insure the comfort or promote the re- 
covery of patients. In former times the pa- 
tients were exhibited to the public, like wild 
beasts in cages, at so much per head, and visitors 
made sport of them, as told by Pepyn and Bos- 
well and shown in Hogarth's pictures. The 
funds of the hospital not being sufficient to meet 
the expenditure, partially convalescent patients, 
with badges affixed to their arms, and known as 
Tom-o'-Bedlams, or "Bedlam beggars," were 
turned out to wander and beg in the streets. 
Kdgar, in Shakespeare's Lear, assumes the char- 
acter of one of these. This practice, however, 
appears to have been stopped before 1675, for 
an advertisement in the London f/acrffr of that 
date, from the governors of Bedlam, cautions 
the public against giving alms to vagrants repre- 
senting themselves as from the hospital, no per- 
mission to beg being at that time given to pa- 
tients. At present the moral and physical man- 
agement of the patients is so excellent thnt 
annually more than one-half of their number are 
returned aw cured. 

BED'LINGTON. A town of Northumberland, 
England, on the lilyth, 1 1 in li's north of New- 
castle (Mai>: Kn<land, K 1;. It is an im- 
portant coal centre, nnd much of this commodity 
is shipped. Most of the inhabitants are em- 
ployed in collieries, glass works, and manufac- 
tories of chains nnd small iron goods. Pop., 
1891, 17,000; 1901, 18,750; 1911, 2, r s440. 

BEDLINGTON. A gray, rough -coated breed 
of terriers. See TERRIER. 

BEDOjOE'S ISLAND. Named from a for- 
mer owner. An island comprising 13% acre* 
in upper New York Bay, l 1 /^ miles south- 
west of the Battery, the southern extremity 
of Manhattan Island (Map: Greater New York, 
CO). It was ceded to the United States gov- 
ernment for the purpose of harbor defense and 
vas once occupied by Fort Wood, on the site 
of which now stands 'the Statue of Liberty pre- 
sented by France to the United States. See 

DE (1572-1655). A Spanish politician. He was 
accredited Ambassador to Venice by Philip III 
nnd was accused of being the originator of an 
infamous plot against the Venetian Republic. 
With the Viceroy of Naples and Don Pedro do 
Toledo, Governor of Milan, he planned to seize 
the Venetian fleet, occupy the strong posts, ftre 
the arsenals, and with the help of an Italian 
army and a Spanish fleet, plunder and destroy 
the city. The conspiracy was discovered, and 
Bcdmar, happy to get off with his life, was 


Bent home (1619). He was made President of 
the Council of Flanders in 1622, and soon after 
Cardinal. He finally came back to Spain as 
Bishop of Oviedo, and died in that city. The 
authenticity of the accounts of Bedmar's plot 
has been disputed by later historians, and, to say 
the least, serious doubts have been cast on it. 
The story of the conspiracy was treated by Ot- 
way in his Venice Preserved. Consult Saint- 
Rene^ Conspiration centre Yenifte (Paris, 1853), 
and Ranke, Ueber die Verschworung gegcn 
Venedig (Berlin, 1837). 


BEDNUR, bSd-noor', or BEDNORE, bed- 
nor' (Hind. Bamboo City), or NAGAB. A de- 
cayed city of Mysore, India, situated in the 
midst of a basin in a rugged tableland of the 
western Ghats, at an elevation of more than 4000 
feet above the sea, in lat. 13 15' N. and long. 
75 6' K., 150 miles northwest of Seringapatam 
(Map: India, C 6). It was formerly the seat 
of a rajah, was eight miles in circumference, 
and was strongly fortified. In 1763 it was taken 
by Hyder Ali, who pillaged it of property esti- 
mated at 12,000,000, and subsequently made it 
the seat of his government, railing it Hyder- 
nager (Ilydcr's town), of which the name '"Na- 
gar" is an abridgment. It was taken by the 
British under General Matthews in 1783, but 
soon retaken by Tippoo, at the head of a superior 
force, when General Matthews and all the prin- 
cipal British officers were put to death. The, 
population, which once exceeded 100,000, had 
dwindled by 1001 to less than 1000. 

BED OF JUSTICE (Fr. lit dc justice}. Lit- 
erally, the seat or throne occupied by the French 
monarch when lie mas present at the delibera- 
tions of the Par lenient. Historically, a bed of 
justice signified a solemn session, in which the 
king was present, to overrule the decisions of 
the Parlement, and to enforce the acceptance of 
edicts or ordinances which it had previously re- 
jected. The theory of the old French Constitu- 
tion was that the authority of the Parlement 
was derived solely from the crown; conse- 
quently, when the King, the source of authority, 
was present, that which was delegated ceased. 
Acknowledging such a principle, the Parlement 
was logically incapable of resisting any demand 
that the King in a bed of justice might make, 
and decrees promulgated during a sitting of this 
kind were held to be of more authority than 
ordinary decisions of the Parlement. Monarchs 
were not slow to take advantage of this power 
to overawe any Parlement that exhibited signs 
of independence. The last bed of justice was 
held by Louis X\ 7 I at Versailles, Aug. 6, 1787. 

BEDOS DE CELLES, br-dos' de s6l, DOM 
FRANCOIS (170G-70). A French organ builder 
and author, born at Caux, near Beziers. He 
was a Benedictine of the congregation of Sainte- 
Maur, and a correspondent of the Paris Acad- 
emy of Sciences. One of the most skillful organ 
builders of his time, he wrote an excellent trea- 
tise on Vart du facteur d'orgues (4 vols., folio, 
1766-78, with numerous engravings). He pub- 
lished also Onomonique pratique (1774), in ex- 
position of the principles involved in the draw- 
ing of solar dials. The former work has by 
some wrongly been attributed to one Jean Fran- 
cois Monniot (died 1797), a Benedictine of 
Saint-Germain -des-Pres. 

BEDOTT', WIDOW. The pen name of the 
author of the Widow Bedott PaperSj Mrs. Frances 
Miriam Whitcher. 
VOL. III. 4 



BEDOUIN, b&TOMa or -fn (Ar. Bedwi, 
Badawi, pi. Badwin, those of the desert). A 
typical nomadic people, still found in their pur- 
ity in the deserts of central Arabia, where, in 
language, social life, and religion (outside of 
their profession of Islam), they retain much of 
primitive Semitism. They have also wandered 
over northtrn and northeastern Africa, north- 
ward to the Caucasus, and eastward beyond the 
borders of Persia, the rural and semi-urban con- 
ditions of parts of all these countries modifying 
not a little their desert-born peculiarities. 
Through the Berbers and Moors, with whom 
they have mixed, the Bedouin have had an in- 
fluence upon Spain and southern France, which, 
in the case of the latter country, is made much 
of sociologically by Desmoulins in his Les Fran- 
fais d'aujourd'hui (Paris, 1898). In these mi- 
grations much intermixture with other peoples 
has occurred. Their independence, spirit of lib- 
erty, sense of hospitality, restlessness, etc., all 
find expression in a rich fund of song and story 
where the dreamy and exaggerative imagination 
of the race 1ms full play. Among the desert 
Arabs the Mufachara, or tribal song duel, a sort 
of primitive arbitration court, was developed. 
The contrast and interrelations of desert and 
oasis, and the vicissitudes of migratory life, arc 
reflected in the social and domestic institutions 
of the Bedouin. The worst side of their char- 
acter, the love for pillage and destruction, evi- 
denced from the earliest times, has gained them 
an unrm iable reputation the world over as 
robbers par excellence. Nearly all the Bedouin 
are Mohammedans. (See SEMITES.) Consult 
Burckhardt, \otcft on Bedouins and Wahabys 
(London, 1830) : Blunt, Bedouin Tribes of the 
Euphrates (London, 1871M : Zwemer, Arabia, the 
Cradle of Islam (1900), and the general 
works on Arabia; also the valuable Encyclo- 
pedia of Jslam, now being published under the 
editorship of Dr. Houtsma. 

BED'SORE'. A sore on the hip, back, heel, 
etc., often a very troublesome complication of 
disease, to which' a patient is liable when for a 
long time confined to bed and cither unable 
or not allowed to change his position. Bed- 
sores are due to lowered nerve tone and pres- 
sure. Thus they are likely to occur in cases of 
continued fever, or any other prolonged debili- 
tating disorder, in paralysis, and in cases of 
fracture. The skin, at certain projecting bony 
parts, chiefly about the region of the buttocks 
or on the heel, is apt to inflame, ulcerate, and 
slough, from the continued pressure, especially 
if the patient is not kept perfectly clean as, 
for example, when the evacuations and urine 
escape involuntarily, or the skin is softened by 
excessive perspiration. In a few of the cases the 
patient complains of a sense of discomfort at 
the parts; in others the sores give rise to ex- 
quisite suffering. In all cases of prolonged su- 
pine position the parts naturally pressed upon 
by the weight of the body should be carefully 
examined every day. When a long confinement 
in bed is expected, attempts should be made to 
thicken the cuticle and enable it to bear pres- 
sure better, by sponging with alcohol, and the 
patient should be put on an air bed or a water 
bed (q.v.). If the area, when first seen, looks 
led and rough, further damage is often pre- 
vented by covering it with a piece of zinc-oxide 
plaster and at once removing local pressure by 
air cushions specially constructed for cases of 
this kind. If possible, the patient should be 


made to alter his position frequently. Ex- 
coriations should be treated like other ulcers, 
with balsam of Peru, or iodoform and bismuth, 
or strapping with adhesive plaster. 

BEIXSTRAW (Galium). A genus of plants 
belonging to the family Rubiaceee, and dis- 
tinguished by a small wheel-shaped calyx and 
a dry two-lobed fruit, each lobe containing a 
single seed. The leaves are whorled, and the 
flowers minute; but in many of the species the 
panicles are so large and many-flowered that 
they ornament the banks and other Hit nations 
in which they grow. The species are \cry nu- 
merous, natives chiefly of the colder parts of the 
Northern Hemisphere, or of mountainous regions 
within or near the tropics. About 300 specios 
are known, some of them very common weeds. 
Among these is the yellow bedstraw (Galium 
verum) sometimes called cheese rennet, because 
it has the property of curdling milk and is 
used for that purpose a small plant with 
linear dcflexed leaves and dense panicles of 
bright yellow flowers, very abundant on dry 
banks. The flowering tops, boiled in alum, af- 
ford a dye of a bright yellow color, much used 
in Iceland; and the Highlanders of Scotland 
have long been accustomed to employ the roots, 
and especially the bark of them, for dyeing yarn 
red. They are said to yield a red color fully 
equal to that of madder, and the cultivation of 
the plant has been attempted in England. The 
roots of other species of the same genus possess 
similar properties, as those of (ialium trifidum, 
a species abundant in low marshy grounds in 
Canada and the adjacent United States; and 
those of Galium boreale, another North American 
species used by some of the Indian tribes. Like 
madder, they possess the property of imparting 
a red color to the bones and milk of animals 
which feed upon them. Medicinal virtues have 
been ascribed to some of the species, as Galium 
rigidum and Gal turn molluijo, which have been 
extolled as useful in epilepsy. The roasted 
seeds of some, as G (ilium aparine, the trouble- 
some goose grass or cleavers remarkable for the 
hooked prickles of its stem, leaves, and fruit 
have been recommended as a substitute for 
coffee; but it does not appear that they contain 
any principle analogous to caffeine. This plant 
is a native of the northern parts of Europe, 
Asia, and America. Tts expressed juice is in 
some countries a popular remedy for cutaneous 
disorders. The roots of Galium tuberosum are 
farinaceous, and it is cultivated in China for 
food. The name "bed straw" is supposed to be 
derived from the ancient employment of some 
of the species, the herbage of which is soft and 
fine, for strewing beds. 

BEE (commonly explained as "the trembler," 
from the root 6W, to fear; AS. bed, Oer. Bicrre). 
Any hymenopterous insect of the group Apoidea. 
This group (the Lirmiran "genus A pi*" and until 
recently regarded as the single family Apidir. or 
at most two families, Apida* and Andrenidap) 
comprises those Hymenoptera which have the 
hind feet dilated or thickened, the hairs of the 
head and thorax feathery, and the tongue adapted 
to lapping the nectar of flowers. 

Bees stand, in organization and intelligence 
and in social and constructive abilities, at the 
head of the whole insect tribe; they abound in 
all parts of the world, but are most numerous in 
the warmer latitudes; more than 1500 species 
are known to science: they exert a most impor- 
tant influence upon the vegetable world by their 

services in the cross-fertilization of plants, some 
of which now depend wholly upon their coopera- 
tion for their existence; and they furnish man- 
kind with the important food honey, some spe- 
cies being semi -domesticated for the purpose of 
making it in large and manageable quantities for 
man's benefit. 

Habits. All bees feed, when adult, on saccha- 
rine juices, particularly the nectar of flowers ; but 
the larva? are fed by their elders on "beebread," 
which consists of the pollen of flowers collected 
by the bees and made into small masses. They 
begin their search with the opening of flowers in 
the spring, ami do not cease it until the wither- 
ing of the last blossoms in the fall compels the 
insects to desist and to go into winter quarters. 
There the social species have stored a supply of 
honey in a series of small waxen chambers or 
"cells," combined into "combs," upon which they 
subsist until spring, while the solitary species, 
which do not lay \ip such stores, mostly die; but 
their larva*, snugly placed in burrows, or other 
concealed or parasitic situations, remain quies- 
cent until the retuin of warm weather, when 
they emerge. These remarks apply to the colder 
climates; in the tropics winter is not to be 
feared, but extensive droughts must be provided 
against. It is the habit of bees to devote their 
searching to a single sort of flower as long as it 
serves their purpose, each individual visiting 
blossom after blossom of that kind, instead of 
searching flowers indiscriminately: and to this 
habit is due the great service they accomplish in 
cioss fertilization. See POLLINATION. 

Feeding. To enable them (or such, here- 
after described, as do this work) to reach their 
liquid food in the nectaries, usually at the bot- 
tom of tube-like flowers, the bees have developed 
to the highest degree the prolonged mouth parts 
or "proboscis" characteristic of hymenopterans, 
and the extensile ligula or "tongue" is hairy, and 
terminates in a little spoon-like part, by which 
the nectar is brushed or lapped out of its recep- 
tacles and conveyed into the mouth. Here it is 
partly swallowed into a dilatation of the troop li- 
ngua,* analogous to a bird's ciop, and called the 
"crop" or "honey -bag" where it is "ripened" into 
honey (q.v.). When enough has been obtained, 
it is disgorged either as food for those of the 
community which remain at home in the nest, or 
to be stored in the comb cells of those species 
which lay up winter stores. The mouth of bees 
is also employed for cutting and tearing, and to 
this purpose" their upper jaws are especially 
adapted. The bumblebees thus open their way 
into the tubes of flowers which are so deep and 
narrow that they cannot otherwise reach the 
nectar at the bottom. Others make use of their 
mandibles to cut out portions of leaves, or of 
the petals of flowers, to form or line their nests; 
the hive bee uses them in working with wax, in 
feeding larvre with pollen, in cleaning out cells, 
in tearing to pieces old combs, in combats, and 
in all the great variety of purposes for which 
organs of prehension are required. 

But it is not by means of any of the organs 
connected with the mouth that bees collect and 
carry to their nests the supplies of pollen need- 
ful for their young. The feathered hairs with 
which their bodies are partly clothed, and par- 
ticularly those with which their legs are fur- 
nished, serve for the purpose of collecting the 
pollen, which adheres to them. It ia brushed 
into a hollow on the outer surface of the first 
joint of the tarsus of each of the hinder pair of 





2 A BURROWING BEE (Hahctis flavipes). 
3. A PARASITIC BEE (Nomada solidaginit) 




TUNNEL OF No. 5, BORED IN WOOD, AND SHOW- K). A LEAF-CUTTER BEE (Megachile argentftta). 
i -o POO'- in i ** - IN r!H A MRPRR 11. ROS^-I FAF OUT RY No. 10. 




8. QUEEN, HONEY BEE (Carnlolan variety). 


6. COMB, showing worker, brood and queen oelle. 



legs, this joint being therefore very large, com- 
preBsed, and of a square or triangular form a 
conformation to which nothing similar is found 
in any other family of insects. This hollow re- 
ceptacle is known as the corbiculum or "pollen 
basket"; and in the social bees it is possessed 
only by the workers, since the perfect males 
(drones) and females (queens) never collect 

Faculties. Bees possess a very high develop- 
ment of the nervous system, brain, and senses. 
The great compound eyes, as well as the ocelli 
characteristic of the higher hymenopterans, are 
here as highly developed as anywhere perhaps 
higher and bees depend greatly upon their eyes 
for information, observing carefully the situa- 
tion of their home or any other place to which 
they may wish to return when leaving it for the 
first time, then rising in higher and larger circles 
until they catch sight of some landmark, when 
they strike straight towards it through the air; 
hence the proverbial phrase, "a bee line." Their 
visual sense of form nnd color must be well 
advanced also, and the bearing of this upon the 
development of color and form in blossoms is 
a matter of very curious interest and of much 
importance in the history of the mutual develop- 
ment of these insects and the plants they fre- 
quent. They are able, also, to guide their move- 
ments in the dark as accurately as in the full 
light of day at least within the nest or hive; 
and this power is generally ascribed to the an- 
tennrp, or "feelers," which are supposed to be not 
merely delicate organs of touch, but also organs 
of hearing or of smell. It is certain that the 
social bees communicate with each other by 
means of their antenna;, and that they avail 
themselves of tlfese organs for their ordinary 
operations, for recognition of each other, and 
for what may be called the conduct of the affairs 
of the hive. There can be no doubt that bees 
possess in a high degree the sense of smell; and 
their possession of the senses of taste and hear- 
ing is almost equally unquestionable, whatever 
difficulty there may be in determining the par- 
ticular organs of the latter sense. The degree 
of development of these senses differs not only 
among the various families, but in the several 
forms of ouch Hpenes: thus a male honeybee 
has 13,000 facets in each eye*, while the workers 
have only 0000; and Cheshire calculates that 
one antenna of a male has 37, 000 olfactory cavi- 
ties, while a worker's antenna has only about 

Classification. The latest conclusions of 
hymenopterists, following the lead of the late 
W. Tl. Ashmead, of the United States National 
Museum, are expressed in placing the bees as a 
superfamily Apoidoa of the hcterophagous Hy- 
menoptera, and in dividing them into 14 groups 
ranking as families. The first two of these 
are "social" in their habits, forming communi- 
ties in which each individual performs some 
duty for the common weal, namely, the true 
bees (Apida*) and the bumblebees (Bnmhidir). 
The remaining families are bees of "solitary" 
habits, each one living and working alone, even 
when the species is somewhat gregarious. These 
solitary forms are: The hairy digger bees of 
the family Anthophorida?, the cuckoo bees 
(Nomadidie), the small carpenter bees (Cerati- 
nidae), the large carpenter bees ( Xylocopidce ) , 
the mason, leaf cutter, and potter bees (Me- 
gachilid), the parasitic Stelidne, the burrowing 
Andrenidee, Golletidse, Prosopidce, and others. 

Of these the Prosopidae are simplest and lowest, 
and as they are world-wide in their distribution, 
they are considered by evolutionists as the actual 
representatives of the primitive bee type, whence 
all have issued that are known to us to-day. 

Solitary Bern. Most of the Collctidae bur- 
row, making rather rude tunnels, or utilizing 
cracks in stone walls. The Andrenidce do the 
same. This is a very large and widespread fam- 
ily, numerously represented in the United States 
and in Europe. All are small, comparatively 
smooth, wasp-like, and often metallic in color. 
A notable genus is Halirtun, which are among 
the, smallest and most numerous of bees. "This 
genus, together with Sphecodes, differs from all 
other solitary bees in the fact that the impreg- 
nated females hibernate, . . . the males dy- 
ing. The ensuing spring the surviving females 
dig their burrow, make and provision their cells, 
and oviposit." The great genus Andrena is also 
commonly represented in the United States as 
well as other parts of the world, and, like Halic- 
tus, digs burrows 6 to 10 inches deep, from 
-which chambers branch off, the walls of which 
are "glazed with a mucous-like secretion." These 
are among the earliest of insects to appear in the 
spring, fl.\ing about the "pussy willows." They 
burrow and lay eggs in May, provision their 
nests with pollen about June 1, and the young 
appear in August in the Northern States. The 
Stelidap, of the Old World, are entirely parasitic 
in the nests of other bees, where they mature 
earlier than do the rightful owners and kill such 
of their larvae as they encounter, after con- 
suming the food provided for the latter. The 
cuckoo bin's (q.v. ) of the family Nomadidae also 
lay their eggs and dwell in the nests of other 
bees, but seem to do so on perfectly good terras 
with their hosts. 

The smooth and pretty "carpenter bees" of the 
family Ceratinidu? are small, active, generally 
metallic blue, blue-black, or bright green, and 
fond of sunshine. "They bore tunnels into the 
steins of pithy plants and form their cells in 
these burrows. They are Aery commonly found 
in brambles. The cells are lined with a delicate 
silky membrane and are separated from one an- 
other by mud partitions. The common Ceratina 
dupla is a familiar example. With this bee the 
cells are filled with a paste of honey and pollen, 
upon which the larva; feed." The great carpen- 
ter bees proper, the Xylocopidae, are, on the other 
hand, among the largest and most hairy of the 
tribe and make large burrows in solid wood. 
(See CARPENTKB BEE.) The family MegachilidiP 
is composed of a variety of highly developed 
bees, some of which burrow, while others make 
nests in wooden tunnels lined with pieces of 
leaves or form cells of clay. (See LEAF CUT- 
thophoridflc are also hairy bees of rather large 
size and gaudy colors that burrow in the ground. 
This completes the sketch of the solitary fami- 
lies, which agree in having only two forms 
sexually perfect males and females and in the 
absence of wax -making power, while their pollen- 
gathering implements are very poor in the lower 
ranks, and in the higher by no means equal to 
those of the two social families next to be con- 

The social bees (bumblebees and honeybees) 
arc readily distinguished from other and plainly 
inferior members of the tribe by several striking 
peculiarities, succinctly stated by L. O. Howard 
as follows: "Each species is composed of three 

classes of individuals males, females, and 
'neuters' or workers. They live gregariously in 
larger or smaller communities. They have the 
power of secreting wax, from which their cells 
are made, and the larvee are fed from time to 
time by the workers. The outer side of the di- 
lated posterior tibiae is smooth and in the 
workers is hollowed into a shining plate for 
carrying pollen, which is collected by moans of 
the pollen brushes on the basal joint of the hind 
tarsi. The maxillary palpi arc very small. As 
a general thing the body is covered with hair." 

The lowest place in this category is occupied 
by the bumblebees (Bombidae), or "humblebccs," 
as they are more frequently termed in Great 
Britain. These are fully described elsewhere 
(see BUMBLEBEE) ; and here it need only be said 
that their colonies, inhabiting nests under- 
ground, are not permanent. All the members 
perish on the approach of winter except the im- 
pregnated females ("queens"). These hide away 
singly, and each one founds a new colony early 
in the succeeding spring. Consequently the colo- 
nies are small, rarely exceeding 200 individuals, 
in American species at least; and no greater 
stores of honey tire accumulated than sullice for 
the season's needs. 

Racial Bees. A distinct step in development, 
from every point of view, is the family Apida?, 
or honeybees; for these form permanent colonies, 
lasting through the winter by means of stored 
food, the amount of which is proportionate to 
and adequate for the needs of the colony, al- 
though that may and usually does number many 
thousands of lives; dispose of their unwieldy 
surplus of population by migration; and eon- 
duct a community life of extraordinary activity 
and usefulness by a systematic economy and a 
body of instincts, modified by intelligent judg- 
ment, which cannot be matched elsewhere in the 
animal kingdom. This activity and productive 
power has long been turned to the use of man 
in the care of a few species which have been do- 
mesticated since prehistoric times. The different 
species of honeybee in a wild state generally 
make their nests in hollow trees or among the 
branches of trees, sometimes under ledges or in 
clefts of rocks; and their stores of honey are 
not only sought after by man, but afford food 
to numerous animals, some of which equally de- 
light to prey upon their larvae. Several species 
have been made, in a limited degree, to subserve 
man's needs in a more regular way. The com- 
mon bee of southern Asia (Apis indica) is kept 
in limited numbers, according to Benton, in 
earthen jars and sections of trees, simulating 
its natural home, in parts of the East Indies. 
Its cells are smaller than those of our hive bee, 
and under the rude methods employed only 10 
or 12 pounds of honey are obtained. Another 
small East India bee (Apis florea) builds a 
comb about the size of one's hand in the open 
air, attached to a twig of a bush, and does not 
seem capable of domestication. Apis dorsnta of 
the Far East, on the other hand, is of gigantic 
size, and Benton first learned its peculiarities. 
They build immense oval combs, often 6 or 6 
feet long and 3 or 4 feet wide, which they at- 
tach to overhanging ledges of rocks or large 
limbs to lofty trees in the primitive forests of 
southeastern Asia and the neighboring islands, 
including the Philippines. Benton found thnt 
when these combs were placed in frame hives 
the bees did not desert them and were easily 
handled; the quantity of wax and honey was 

[6 BEE 

always very large, and there seems no reason 
why this kind of bee should not be brought under 
cultivation in civilized regions. Several other 
species of possible importance in the future 
exist in other parts of the tropics, as Apis 
adansonii of West Africa, Apis unicolor of Mada- 
gascar and Mauritius, and the closely related 
stingless bees of the tropical American genus 
Melipona. Consult Bingham, Fauna of British 
India: Bees and Wasps (London, 1897). 

Fossil Bees. The earliest forms of bees, as 
far as definitely known, lived in Tertiary times. 
A few specimens belonging to the order Hyme- 
noptera have been found in Mesozoic strata, but 
it cannot be said with certainty that they in- 
clude representatives of the group Apoidea. In 
the Tertiary period this group was probably 
fairly abundant, as a large number of fossil 
wpecies have been described from Tertiary strata 
in Europe and America. The best-known Euro- 
pean localities are Oensigen (Switzerland), 
Eadoboj (Croatia), and Roth and Krottensee 
((jermany), where 7 species of Bombus, 5 of 
Anthophorites, 1 of Anthopora, 2 of Apis, and 
2 of Osmia have been found. In America the 
Tertiary lake beds of Florissant, Colo., have 
yielded a number of species of Apoidea bees, 
but the specimens generally are not suiliciently 
well prescncd to permit of exact determina- 
tion. The family Andrenidie is represented in 
fossil form by a few specimens from North 
Cermany and from Florissant. 

The COMMON HONEYBEE (Apis mcllifcra). 
This is supposed to be of Asiatic origin and \\as 
domesticated about the eastern end of the Medi- 
terranean at the dawn of history, the bee keepers 
of Egypt, Syria, and Greece practicing many of 
the arts used with bees at piesent, such as 
moving them to new pastures from time to time, 
etc. It traiolrd into Europe with the Iloman 
civilization, if not before, and came to America 
with the early colonists. Several races have 
been developed* in the course of this long history 
of semi-domestication, and the best of them long 
ago reached the United States. Its communities 
seem ordinarily to number from 10,000 to 00,000 
individuals. These communities are made up of 
three classes of bees. A single one is a fully 
developed female, capable, after a single fertili- 
zation, of almost unlimited production of eggs; 
she is the mother of the band, and is usually 
termed the "queen." Another consists of male 
bees, or "drones," which at certain seasons num- 
ber from 000 to 2000. The third and most 
common class, counted by thousands in a flour- 
ishing community, are females whose generative 
organs are so undeveloped that they rarely 
produce eggs. They are therefore popularly 
but erroneously called "neuters," but are better 
known as "workers," since they perform all the 
labors of the hive. 

The workers have a body about half an inch 
in length and about one-sixth of an inch in 
greatest breadth, at the upper part of the abdo- 
men. The antennae are 12-jointed and terminate 
in a knob. The abdomen consists of six joints 
or rings, and under the scaly coverings of the 
four middle ones are situated the WOOD pockets, 
or organs for the secretion of wax. The ex- 
tremity of the abdomen is provided with a sting 
which "is straight. The basal joint of the hind 
tarsi is dilated to form a pollen basket, and 
the legs arc well provided with hairs for collect- 
ing the pollen and brushing it into this recep- 

The males, or drones, so called from the pe- 
culiar noise which they make in their flight, are 
much larger than the workers and thicker in 
proportion. The antennae have an additional 
joint. The eyes are remarkably large and meet 
upon the crown. 

The perfect females, or queen mothers, are con- 
siderably longer than either the workers or the 
males; they are also distinguished by the yel- 
low tint of the under part of the body and differ 
from all the other inmates of the hive in the 
shortness of their wings, which, instead of reach- 
ing to the extremity of the abdomen, leave some 
of its rings uncovered. Neither male.s nor queens 
have wax pockets, nor have they pollen baskets. 
Their legs also are less hairy. The sting of the 
queen bee is curved. The mandibles both of the 
males and perfect females are notched or toothed 
beneath the tip, while those of the workers are 
not. There are two rival theories for explain- 
ing the origin of the different kinds of bees in 
a colony. Dzierzon maintains that fertilized 
queens can lay fertilized or unfertilized eggs at 
will, the former in queen cells, and worker cells, 
the latter in drone cells. Dickel contends, on the 
contrary, that by a variation in the food the 
workers can produce at will, queens, drones, or 
workers out of indifferent eggs or larva?. 

The greater part of the life of the queen or 
mother bee is spent in laying eggs for the in- 
crease of the population of the hive; and this 
increase goes on at a rapid rate, as the queen 
not unfrequently lays 3000 eggs in a day. The 
number, however, varies great Iv. In cold 
weather it is Nery small, but the invariable 
presence of brood in different stairs, in a well- 
stocked hive, proves that some eggs are laid 
even in winter. During the later spring months 
the number is very great; many practical 
apiarians considering that as many as 3000, or 
even 4000, are deposited daily. The community, 
however, is not destined to an indefinite in- 
crease; but in certain circumstances sirarminy 
takes place, and new colonies are founded. 

The impregnation of the queen takes place 
high in the air, and usually within a few days 
after she has emerged from the cell. It is the 
only occasion of her ever leaving the hive, except 
that of swarming. The question has therefore 
been asked, why there are so many males in a 
bee community ; but no very satisfactory answer 
has been given to it. The males are not known 
to fulfill any other purpose than that of the 
propagation of their species; and after the 
swarming season is over, the greater part of 
them are ruthlessly massacred by the workers, 
as if in dread of their consuming too much of 
the common store. The greater part of the work- 
ers themselves are supposed to live for from one 
to nine months; the duration of the life of the 
queen bees is rarely more than three years. 

An eloquent and picturesque narrative of the 
nuptial flight of the queen bee has been given by 
Maurice Maeterlinck in his book, The Life of the 
Bee. No sooner has the union been accomplished 
than the male's abdomen opens, the organ de- 
taches itself, dragging with it a mass of en- 
trails, and the emptied body falls dead toward 
the earth. This extraordinary flight and its 
tragedy seem to be Nature's effort to secure 
cross fertilization, and at the same time a selec- 
tion of the best available mates. To the queen 
mother of the hive is given a power of flight that 
only the strongest males can equal; nor does 
either of them seem much inclined to copulate 

7 BEE 

until their air tubes are distended with air 
and until under the excitement of extreme 
exertion. Hence the lofty flight is necessary, 
and the best one of all the males alone can 
overtake the fleeing queen. After impregnation, 
the queen returns to her hive, is cleaned and 
cared for by the workers, and thenceforth de- 
votes herself to motherhood for the increase of 
her tribe. 

Eggs and Young. The queen bee, when about 
to begin to lay eggs, is the object of great atten- 
tion on the part of the workers. She moves 
about in the hive, attended by a sort of retinue 
of about 10 or 15 workers, by some of which 
she is frequently supplied with* honey. But the 
name of queen bee appears to have originated 
in a mistaken notion that something analogous 
to a monarchy subsists in the beehive; and 
imagination being permitted a free scope, many 
things have been invested with a false coloring 
deiived from this analogy. 

The queen bee at first lays eggs which give 
birth to workers, and afterward produces eggs 
which become drones. With unerring instinct 
she places each egg in the kind of cell appro- 
priate to it, which has been prepared before- 
hand by the workers, the drones' cells being 
larger than the workers' cells. The cells in 
which future queens are to be reared are very 
unlike all the others, but the eggs differ in no 
respect from those deposited in workers' cells. 
It is a curious circumstance that queens of 
which the fecundation has been prevented till 
they are considerably older than usual lay 
mainly drone eggs. It occasionally also happens 
that some of the worker bees lay eggs, and 
these invariably produce drones. 

The eggs of bees are of an oblong shape and 
bluish-white color, about one-twelfth of an inch 
in length. They are hatched in about three 
days. The larva* are little, worm -like creatures, 
having no feet, and lying coiled up like a ring. 
They are diligently fed by the working bees 
until, in about five days, when large enough 
nearly to fill the cell, they refuse food, upon 
which the attendant bees seal up the cell with 
wax, and the larva, spinning itself a fine silken 
envelope or cocoon, is transformed into a pupa; 
and about the twenty-first day from the deposi- 
tion of the egg the young bee, in its perfect 
state, breaks the covering and issues from the 
cell. It is caressed and supplied with food by 
the attendant bees and is believed not to try its 
wings until several days old. The cell from 
which a young bee has issued is speedily 
cleaned out and prepared for the reception of 
another egg or of honey. The fine silken en- 
velope of the pupa, however, remains attached 
to the cell, of which the capacity thus becomes 
gradually smaller, until the cells of old combs 
are too small to receive eggs and can be used 
for honey alone a fact of which the importance 
in relation to the economical management of 
bees is obvious. The spinneret, by means of 
which the larva spins the cocoon, is a small 
organ connected with the mouth. The food 
with which the larvtp are supplied is a mixture 
of pollen, honey, and water, with the addition, 
possibly, of some secretion from the bread glands 
of the working bees, by which it is prepared. It 
varies a little, according to the age and kind 
of the larva, and the peculiarities of that given 
to young queens appear to be indispensable to 
their fitness for their future functions. Pollen 
is constantly found stored up in the cells of 

the hive, and is called "beebread." Most peo- 

Sle have met with such cells in honeycomb, and 
ave observed the strikingly peculiar taste of the 

The combe of a beehive are parallel to each 
other, forming vertical strata of about an inch 
in thickness, and distant about half an inch 
from each other. The cells are therefore nearly 
horizontal, having a slight and somewhat vari- 
able dip towards the centre of each comb. The 
central comb is generally first begun, and next 
after it those adjoining it on each side. Circum- 
stances frequently cause some departure from 
this uniform and symmetrical plan, which, how- 
ever, still remains obvious. Each comb consists 
of two sets of cells, one on each side ; and it may 
be mentioned as an illustration of the wonderful 
industry of bees, and the results of their com- 
bined labors, that a piece of comb 14 inches 
long by 7 inches wide, and containing about 
4000 cells, has been frequently constructed in 
24 hours. The greater part of the comb con- 
sists of the kind of cells fitted for breeding 
workers, a smaller part of it of the larger or 
drone cells. After the principal breeding season 
is over, the cells of some parts of the comb are 
often elongated for the reception of honey; and 
sometimes comb of greater thickness, or with 
unusually long cells, is constructed for that pur- 
pose alone, in which case the mouths of the 
cells are inclined upward more than is usual 
with the ordinary brood cells. When a cell has 
been completely filled with honey, its mouth is 
sealed or covered with wax. 

The comb partition is composed of a multi- 
tude of little rhombs, or four-sided figures, with 
equal and parallel sides, and two obtuse and 
two acute angles, the obtuse angles being angles 
of 109 and the acute angles of 71, agreeing 
with the results of mathematical ann lysis, ap- 
plied to the difficult question of the form of the 
facets of a three-sided pyramid, which should 
terminate a six-sided prism, so as to combine the 
greatest economy of materials with the greatest 
strength. On looking at a piece of empty honey- 
comb, placed between the eye and the light, we 
readily perceive that the cells are not opposite 
to each other, cell to cell; but that the point of 
meeting of three sides of three cells, on one side, 
is opposite to the centre of a cell on the other 
side a circumstance which is calculated greatly 
to increase the strength of the whole fabric. Jt 
follows also from this that the terminating 
pyramids of the cells on the one side do not 
interfere with the form of the cells on the other 
side; but the three rhombic facets, which ter- 
minate each cell, belong likewise to three dis- 
tinct cells on the opposite side of the comb. 

The only departure from perfect regularity in 
the form of the cells is in the transition from 
the smaller or workers' cells to the larger or 
drones' cells, which, when it takes place, is 
managed with great simplicity and beauty of 

Beeswax. The material of which cells are 
built is chiefly wax (see BEESWAX), which is 
at first of a white color, but becomes brownish- 
yellow with age, and in very old combs almost 
black. Although wax exists as a vegetable prod- 
uct, yet beeswax is now known to be produced 
in the bodies of bees; and it has been found that 
they produce wax and build combs when sup- 
plied only with honey or saccharine substances. 
The bees which are about to proceed to wax 
making suspend themselves in clusters in the 

hive, attaching themselves to each other by 
means of hooks with which their feet are pro- 
vided; and while they remain motionless in 
this position, the wax appears to be formed, 
in small scales, which they afterward take in 
their mouths and curiously work up with a se- 
cretion from the mouth itself, passing the wax, 
in the form of a minute riband, through the 
mouth, first in one direction and then in the 
opposite one, and finally depositing it in its 
proper place for the foundation of the comb. 
The bees which elaborate and deposit the wax 
do not, however, always construct the cells; 
others aiding in this, partly by a process of ex- 
cavation in the wax deposited. It is supposed 
by many naturalists that some of the working 
bees are exclusively waxworkers, some nurses, 
etc.; but others think that there is only one 
class of working bees, all ready for any kind 
of work according to circumstances. 

But wax, although the chief, is not the only 
material of the combs. Piopohs (q.v.) is also 
employed in small bands to give greater strength 
to the cells, the mouths of which are surrounded 
with it and made thicker than their walls. This 
substance, which is obtained by bees from the 
\iseid buds of trees, is also employed for more 
firmly attaching the combs to the hive, for clos- 
ing up apertures in the hive, for covering up 
obnoxious substances, which are too large to be 
removed, and for a variety of similar purposes. 

The Origin and Rearing of Quccntt. Queen 
bees are hatched and reared in cells very differ- 
ent from the rest. They are vertical and not 
horizontal in their position not hexagonal, but 
rather oval in form und much largei than the 
other cells, even in proportion to the size of 
the animal that is to inhabit them; they are 
generally placed on the ed^e of a comb, and 
when they have served their purpose, are par- 
tially removed, so that during winter they 
resemble acorn cups in appearance. 

Recently artificial queen rearing has been put 
on a practical basis. A number of round cells 
are made about the si/e of natural queen cells 
a pel placed on a frame in the upper part of the 
hi\e. They arc then smeared with royal jelly, 
and ordinary larva; one to three days old are 
placed in the cells. The bees complete the cells 
and feed the growing larvtp with royal jelly so 
that they develop into queens. Two queens can- 
not long exist in the same community. There 
is implanted in them a deadly rivalry; and the 
mother bee, if permitted, would even tear open 
every queen cell of which the inmate has nearly 
approached maturity, and inflict death by her 
nting; but workers throng around the queen, 
hem her in, and prevent the execution of her 

tfwarmina. The queen now becomes restless; 
her agitation communicates itself to those 
around her and extends through the hive; the 
ordinary work of the community is in great part 
neglected; fewer bees than usual are seen to 
leave or return to the hive; and at last the 
queen bee rushes forth, preceded and followed 
by crowds which press and throng upon each 
other, form a buzzing cloud in the air, and 
very generally settle upon a bush in the neigh- 
borhood, where they soon congregate closely to- 
gether, hanging by their claws in a dense clus- 
ter. Sometimes they rise up in the air, and fly 
off at once to a considerable distance, apparently 
to some previously selected place in the hollow 
of a tree in the chimney or roof of a house, 



where they happen to find an aperture- or in 
some suck situation. More frequently they 
settle not far from the hive which they have 
left, often on some very humble plant, or even 
on the grass, and soon rise again. It is the 
care of the keeper to prevent this by providing 
them immediately with a suitable habita- 
tion in a new hive, invitingly placed above 
them, or into which he puts the swarm after 
they have congregated closely together as above 
described. It sometimes happens that bees 
hurry out of their hive without their queen, 
in which case they do not in general congre- 
gate so closely together where they settle, and 
soon return to the hive again. Swarming gen- 
erally takes place on a fine day; and when the 
bees seem on the very point of coming out, a 
cloud passing over the sun is enough to retard 
it. Bad weather occasionally not only retards 
but prevents it, the young queens being at last 
killed in their cells. A week after the first 
swarm of the season has left the hive with the 
old queen, as is usually if not always the 
case, the first young queen emerges; and if 
the bee community is a large and prosperous 
one, other young queens also come forth from 
their cells/ and leave the hive with successive 
swarms, the number of which depends upon 
the climate, the season, etc. Jn England, it is 
not uncommon for a beehive to send off three 
swarms in a summer, the first being almost 
always the largest, and not infrequently itself 
sending off a swarm before the season is over. If 
a large production of honey is desired, it is cus- 
tomary for bee keepers to prevent more than one 
swarm coming from each hive during a single 
season. This swarming of the bees is, of course, 
made necessary by the over population of the 
hive, and is Nature's method of providing for the 


Showing two great queen cells, and worker cells contain- 
ing an egg, larvae, and pupa in various stages. 

increase and proper dissemination of the species, 
by the establishment of new colonies. That the 
swarms should, in a wild state, seek new homes 
at a considerable distance is necessary, because 

only thus could the bee communities become suf- 
ficiently scattered to enable all to find sufficient 
flowers to furnish food. 

Bees left without a queen, and with no means 
of supplying the want, appear to feel themselves 
cut off from the very purpose of their existence; 
the labors of the community are slackened, and 
its members soon dwindle away. It has al- 
ready, however, been stated that bees left with- 
out a queen can provide themselves with one 
by transforming and enlarging a worker's cell 
which contains an egg or very young larva. This 
process is sometimes carried on as if by several 
distinct parties, in different parts of the hive at 
once; and, as if aware that time will be gained, 
the bees generally prefer cells containing larvte of 
two or three days old to those containing eggs. 

Winter Life. Bees become torpid during cold 
weather and consume comparatively little food. 
They are readily aroused from this state, how- 
ever, as may at any time be proved by tapping 
on a beehive, when it will be found that the 
temperature of the interior of the hive rises 
rapidly. Respiration is considerably lessened in 
the state of torpidity, and the temperature rises 
when it is resumed. The respiration of bees 
takes place by air tubes or tracheae (see IN- 
SECTS), and is very active when the insect is 
in a state of activity. The respiratory move- 
ments are easily seen in looking at a bee. The 
consumption of oxygen by this process might be 
expected soon to reduce the atmosphere within 
a hive to a state in which it could no longer 
support animal life; but in summer, when respi- 
ration is active and the hive populous, a con- 
stant circulation of air is maintained by the 
insects themselves, some of which are employed 
in a rapid vibration of their wings for this pur- 
pose. A greater or smaller number of them, ac- 
cording to circumstances, may frequently be 
seen thus engaged in fanning the air at the 
mouth of a beehive. 

Enemies. Among the enemies of bees, men- 
tion should be made of the wax or bee moths 
which, notwithstanding the danger of the stings 
of the bees, enter the hives and deposit their 
eggs. They belong to the small subfamily Gal- 
leriinre, with only six species in the United 
States. The largp'wax moth, Gnlleria mellonella, 
a well-known pest, is a purplish-brown and yel- 
low moth, which creeps into the hive at night 
to deposit her eggs. The larvae hide by day 
and feed by night on the wax, burrowing 
through the cells and doing much damage, 
even to the extent of destroying the colony. The 
bee colony should be kept strong, the cracks in 
the hive should be well filled to keep out the 
moth, and all moths and larva? seen should be 
killed. The lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is 
less widely distributed and does not cause as 
much injury. Ants often become a serious 
pest. Mice sometimes eat their way into the 
hives in winter and destroy and plunder un- 
molested. The bee louse (Braula cceca) is a 
troublesome parasite of bee colonies in the 
Mediterranean region, being most frequently 
found on the thoraces of queen bees. Several 
species of robber flies and dragon flies occasion- 
ally capture bees and eat them. There are also 
a number of bee-killing birds in Europe and the 
United States. 

Diseases. The greatest drawback to apicul- 
ture is that of disease among bees, both of the 
adults and of the larvee or brood. The diseases 
of the brood, which are the more generally dis- 

iributed and serious, are known as European 
foul brood, often referred to as "black brood," 
caused by Bacillus pluton; American foul brood 
caused by Bacillus larvce; and sac brood caused 
by a filterable or ultra-microscopic virus. It 
has been conservatively estimated that the loas 
from diseases of the brood in the United States 
alone reaches $1,000,000 annually. The two 
forms of foul brood are widely distributed, oc- 
curring both in Europe and America. Both 
weaken colonies by reducing the number of 
emerging bees needed to replace the old adult 
bees which die from natural or other causes. 
The general appearance of the larvae affected 
with foul brood is similar in the two forma, 
the differences being found in the age of the 
larvae affected, in their response to treatment, 
and in the appearance and ropiness of the dead 
larvae. Much the same treatment is necessary 
to effect a cure. In appearance the brood in a 
diseased comb is irregular and scattered and un- 
like the compact masses of cells in healthy broods 
which contain larvae of the same age. The dis- 
eased larvae are pale yellow and unlike the 
pearly white healthy brood; later they turn 
brown, appear flabby, and are not so much 
curled up on a cell bottom as are the normal 
larvae of the same size. When the larvae do 
not die until the cells have been capped over, 
as is usually the case with American foul brood, 
cells are found here and there which are darker 
in color than the healthy ones. When these cells 
are opened, a brown mass is found which if 
drawn out is stringy and ropy; this ropiness 
is the surest practical indication of the presence 
of American foul brood. 

When hives have been infected sufficiently long 
to show marked decline in the number of bees, 
the disease is likely to spread rapidly, as the 
remaining bees are usually inactive, and do 
not defend their hives against robber bees from 
strong healthy colonies, which in turn fall vic- 
tims to foul brood. Both forms of foul brood 
spread from colony to colony and from apiary 
to apiary in much the same way. The common 
manner of conveying the virus is in honey which 
has become contaminated. The only reliable 
method of relieving the condition without de- 
stroying the entire diseased colony is to remove 
the bees from their infected surroundings to a 
new hive. This, commonly known as the shak- 
ing treatment, consists in the removal of all 
infected material from the colony and in com- 
pelling the colony to take a fresh start by 
building new combs and gathering fresh stores. 
It is done by shaking the bees from the old 
combs into a clean hive on clean frames. 

Sac brood, often spoken of as "pickled brood," 
is a disease somewhat resembling foul brood, but 
without the characteristic ropiness. The larvae 
can be removed from the cell without rupturing 
their body wall and when thus removed have the 
appearance of a small closed sac. When badly 
infected, the colony becomes appreciably weak- 
ened by this disease. The treatment is the 
same as for foul brood. 

The diseases of adult bees which are of less 
importance and less imperfectly known are so- 
called paralysis, the cause of which is unknown ; 
non-infectious and infectious dysentery, the lat- 
ter, also known as the Isle of Wight Disease, 
being caused by the protozoan Nosema apis, and 
by spring dwindling. In England the Isle of 
Wight disease hag seriously threatened the 

& - B&EBE 

Bibliography. For standard works, see Ht- 
MENOPTEBA; INSECT. For classification of Ameri- 
can bees, consult: Cresson, "Synopsis of Fami- 
lies and Genera of the Hymenoptera North 
of Mexico," in Trans. Am. Entom. Soc. (Phila- 
delphia, 1887); Ashmead, "Classification of the 
Bees," in Trans. Am. Entom. Soc. (Philadelphia, 
1899) ; H. J. Franklin, "The Bombidaj of the New 
World," I and 11, in Trans. Am. Entom. Soc., 
1912, Nos. 3-4; 1913, No. 2. Popular works: 
Maeterlinck, The Life of the Beo f Eng. trans, by 
Sutro (New York, 1901) ; Morley, The Bee Peo- 
ple (New York, 1897); Huber, Houvelles Ob- 
servations sur lea Aleilles (1st ed., Paris, 1794) ; 
G. S. Graham-Smith et al., "Report on the Isle 
of Wight Bee Disease (Microsporidiosis)" in 
Jour. M. Agr., 1913, Sups. 9 and 10. United 
States Department of Agriculture publications: 
Phillips, "Bees," Farmers Bulletin 447; "The 
Treatment of Bee Diseases," id. 442 ; White, "The 
Bacteria of the Apiary," etc., Bureau of Ento- 
m.ology Tech.-tfrs. Bulletin 14; "The Cause of 
European Foul Brood," Bureau of Entomology 
Circular 157; "Sacbrood," id. 109; Snodgrass, 
"The Anatomy of the Honey Bee," Bureau of 
Entomology, Tech.-8rs. Bulletin 18. 

BEE, BARNARD E. (1824-01). A Confederate 
general, born in South Carolina. He graduated 
in 1845 at West Point and served with great 
ability and gallantry in the Mexican War. He 
was on frontier duty from 1848 to 1861, became 
a brigadier general in the Confederate army, and 
was mortally wounded while leading his brigade 
at Bull Run, July 21, 1801. 

Confederate general, brother of Barnard K. Bee, 
born in Charleston, S. C. He was secretary on 
the commission which ran the boundary line be- 
tween Texas and the United States from the 
mouth of the Subino River to Red River (1839), 
acting as a representative of Texas. President 
Houston, of Texas, sent him as a commissioner 
to treat \utli the Comanche Indians in March, 
1843, and although he and his associates were 
at first made prisoners, the mission was finally 
successful. When the hostilities with Mexico 
began, he resigned his office of secretary of the 
Texas Senate, and joined Gen. Ben McCulloch's 
cavalry. lie became a brigadier general of the 
Pnnisional army of Texas in 1801 and in the 
Confederate army in 1802. 

BEE, THE. A weekly magazine, first pub- 
lished by Mr. Wilkie, a London bookseller, on 
Oct. 10, 1759. It ran through only eight num- 
bers, but is notable from Goldsmith's contri- 


An American ornithologist and explorer, born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., and educated at Colum- 
bia University. Having been appointed in 
1899 curator of ornithology of the New York 
Zoological Society, he originated the collection 
of living birds in the New York Zoological Park 
and brought it up to first place, with a census 
of 900 species and 3000 specimens. In addition, 
he headed scientific expeditions to Nova Scotia, 
Florida, Mexico, Venezuela, British Guiana, the 
Himalayas, Borneo, China, and Japan. His 
most important trip, under the auspices of the 
Zoological Society, was undertaken in search 
of data for a monograph of the pheasants, a 
work costing over $100,000. His publications in- 
clude: Notes on the Psychology of Birds (1903) ; 
Two Bird-Lovera in Mexico (1905); The Bird 


1. BEECH (Fagus) ; typical form. 

2. BOX (Buxus sempervlrens). 


(1906) ; The Log of the Bun (1906) ; Geographic 
Variation in Birds with Reference to Humidity 
(1907) ; Ecology of the Adult Hoatzin (1909) ; 
An Ornithological Reconnaissance of Northeast- 
ern Venezuela ( 1909 ) ; Our Search for a Wilder- 
ness (1910); Racket Formation in the Tail 
Feathers of the Motmot (1010); Notes Pre- 
liminary to a Monograph of the Phasianidce 
(191$). Mr. Beebe is one of the contributors to 
the 1914 edition of the NEW INTERNATIONAL 

American kingbird. In reference to its habit 
of catching honeybees, see KINGBIRD. 

BEECH (OHG. buocha, Lat. fag us, Gk. 0^765, 
phCgos, oak; cf. Skt. bhalsh, to eat), Fagus. 
A genus of trees of the family Fagacecc. The 
species are not numerous; moHt of them are 
forest trees of great beauty. The genus has been 
divided into two sections Eufagus, with six 
species in the Northern Hemisphere, and Nolho- 
fagus in the Southern, mostly in the Andean 
region of South America, with a dozen species. 
By some botanists these are considered distinct 
genera. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) 
sec Plate of BALSAM forms pure forests in 
many parts of Europe. It grows to a height 
of 100 to 120 feet and a diameter of 4 feet, and 
when standing alone becomes a very ornamental 
tree, with far-spreading branches, which often 
droop gracefully almost to the ground. It has 
thin, ovate, obscurely toothed leaves, finely 
ciliated on their margins. Its bark is smooth and 
is often of a whitibh color. The beech thrives 
best in light but not sandy soils and does not 
send its roots deep into the ground, but rather 
horizontally under the surface. The wood is 
more or less of a reddish-brown color. It is 
very hard and solid but brittle, and when 
exposed to the open air \ery liable to rot and 
to be eaten by worms. When kept under water, 
it is very durable; hence its use in the erection 
of mills and for weirs, sluices, etc. It is also 
employed for many purposes by cabinetmakers 
and turners. It is very much used in France for 
making the sabols, or wooden shoes, worn by the 
peasantry, being preferred for this purpose to 
every other wood except walnut, on account of 
its incapacity for absorbing water. It is one 
of the best kinds of firewood in Europe. The 
bark is sometimes employed in tanning when 
oak bark is scarce. The beech bears lopping 
ucll and is often planted for hedges. Beech- 
nuts, when fresh, have a sweet taste, like that 
of a walnut. They contain in large quantity a 
bland fixed oil, along with starch, a little sugar, 
and an astringent substance. A volatile, nar- 
cotic, poisonous principle, called fa nine, is also 
found in them, but more in the husk than in the 
kernel; and when not only the smooth, leath- 
ery, outer husk, but also the thin brown inner 
pellicle has been removed, they constitute a 
wholesome food. They are, however, more gen- 
erally used for feeding swine, poultry, etc., and 
arc much employed in France and other parts of 
Europe for the manufacture of beech oil. When 
expressed without the application of heat and 
well clarified, this oil has an agreeable taste 
and is used for food; it keeps long without be- 
coming rancid. Beech forests anciently abounded 
in England, and great herds of swine were fed 
in them. The beech is not, in general, found 
in Europe north of lat. 59, although it 
occurs 2* farther north in the Scandinavian 
Peninsula and in the temperate parts of Asia. 


In gardens and pleasure grounds a variety is 
very frequently to be seen, the leaves of which 
have a blood-red color. The same color appears 
also in some degree in the leaves of the beech 
of North America (Fagus ferruginea, or Fagus 
americana as written by some botanists), which 
is distinguished by ovate, coarsely serrated and 
much acuminated leaves. It forms extensive 
forests in the northeastern United States and 
the adjoining British possessions; and its wood, 
which is of a somewhat red or rusty color, is 
more valued than that of the white beech. Sev- 
eral species of beech are natives of the more 
elevated parts of the south of New Zealand; 
others belong to the south of South America. 
Fagus, or hothofagus, is, in fact, more charac- 
teristic of the colder latitudes of the Southern 
than of the Northern Hemisphere. Fagus, or 
Xothofagus, cunning hamii is the "myrtle tree" 
of the mountains of Tasmania a very large tree, 
with evergreen leathery leaves, in form much 
resembling those of the birch. Fagus bctuloidcs 
is the evergreen beech of Tierra del Fuego, where 
it forms forests of which the dark-green foliage 
contrasts strikingly in winter with the dazzling 
snow. The wood is too heavy and brittle for 
masts, but makes tolerable planks, and is car- 
ried to the treeless Falkland Islands for roofing 
houses. Fagus antarcliea ascends higher on the 
mountains about the Strait of Magellan. It 
has deciduous leaves and much resembles the 
common beech. Fagus procera grows in the 
Andes of Chile and attains a majestic size. It 
is a valuable timber tree. In the 'United States 
Carpinus carolimana, a small tree, is called 
blue beech and water beech. A number of spe- 
cies of trees are called beech in Australia from 
the resemblance of their timber to the European 


An American philanthropist and writer. She 
was born at East Hampton, L. I., tho daughter 
of Lyman Beecher, and the sister of Henry Ward 
Beccher and of Harriet Beecher Stowe. At 
the age of 19 years she was betrothed to Pro- 
fessor Fisher, of Yale, who shortly after lost 
his life at sea. She never married, but dedicated 
herself to the ad^ancement of woman's educa- 
tion, opened a school at Hartford in 1822, and 
in 18,32 one for young women in Cincinnati. 
Though she gave this up in 1834 on account of 
ill health, she continued to organize societies and 
schools for training women to social service, and 
to this end published numerous books, among 
which \\ere True Remedy for the Wrongs of 
Women (1851), Letters to the People on Health 
and Happiness (1855), Common Sense Applied 
to Religion (1857), and Religious Training of 
Children in the School, the Family, and the 
Church (1864). She was a brilliant but rather 
eccentric woman. 

BEECHER, CHARLES (1815-1000). An 
American Congregational divine. lie was born 
at Litchfield. Conn., the fourth son of Lyman 
Beccher; was fitted for college at the Boston 
Latin School and at Lawrence Academy, Groton, 
and graduated at Bowdoin in 1834. He studied 
theology at Lane Seminary and officiated as 
pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Fort 
Wayne, Ind., from 1844 to 1851; of the First 
Congregational Church, Newark, N. J., from 
1851 to 1854; of the Congregational Church, 
Georgetown, Mass., in 1857. From 1870 to 1877 
he resided in Florida and wag for two years 

superintendent of public instruction. In 1885 he 
became stated supply at Wysox, Pa., and died at 
Haverhill, Mass., April 21, 1900. He aided 
Henry Ward Beechcr in the compilation of The 
Plymouth Collection, and Mrs. Stowe in Sunny 
Memories of Foreign Lands, and published, 
among other books, The Incarnation (1849), 
Pen Pictures of the Bible ( 1855 ) , Spiritual Mani- 
festations (1879), Eden Tableaux (1880), and 
edited his father's autobiography and corre- 
spondence (2 vols., 1863). 

An American paleontologist, born at Dunkirk, 
N. Y. He graduated at the I T ni verity of Michi- 
gan in 1878 and obtained the degree of Ph.D. 
from Yale in 1889. His early work in paleon- 
tology was done under the direction of Prof. 
James Hall, at Albany, K. Y. In 1888 he reeeived 
an appointment at Yale University, was made 
professor of historical geology in 1892, and after 
the death of Professor Marsh he became the 
curator of the geological collections and profes- 
sor of paleontology. Beecher's most important 
contributions have been to the knowledge of the 
development and structure of the trilobites and 
brachiopods. Several papers on the ontogeny 
and phylogeny of these and other classes of ani- 
mals were collected in one volume entitled 
Studies in Evolution (1901; reissued, 1913), 
and appeared as one of the Yale Bicentennial 
publications, ffe also published "Brachiospon- 
gida?: A Memoir on a (Jroup of Silurian 
Sponges" (Memoirs of the Pcabody Museum of 
Yale University, vol. ii, part i, 1889). He be- 
came a member of the National Academy of Sci- 
ences in 1899. Consult "Biographical Memoir 
of Charles Emerson Beecher" in National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, vol. vi 

BEECHER, EDWARD (1803-95). An Ameri- 
can Congregational dhine, born at East Hamp- 
ton, L. I., the second son of Lyman Beecher. lie 
graduated at Yale, 1822, and in theology at An- 
dovcr; was pastor of Park Street Congrega- 
tonal Church, Boston, from 1820 to 1830; pres- 
ident of Illinois College from 1830 to 1844. He 
officiated as pastor of the Salem Street Church, 
Boston, from 1846 to 1856, and of the Congrega- 
tional Church at Oalesburg, 111., from 1856 to 
1872; then removed to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he 
engaged in literary and missionary work, and 
was pastor of the Parkville Congregational 
Church from 18H5 to 1889. He was for six years 
senior editor of The Congregationalist and was 
for several years on the editorial staff of The 
Christian Union. Dr. Beecher wrote much on 
the theme that man is in a progressive state, the 
present being the outcome of a former life and 
a preparation for a future one to succeed after 
death; that the struggle between good and evil 
will not end with this life, but in some future 
era all conflicts will be ended, evil will disappear, 
and harmony become established. These views 
are set forth in The Conflict of Ages (1855) 
and The Concord of Afjes (1860). He also pub- 
lished Baptism: Its Import and Mode (New 
York, 1850) ; The Papal Conspiracy Exposed 
(New York, 1855; Edinburgh, 1856); History 
of Opinions on the Scriptural Doctrine of Retri- 
bution (New York, 1878). He died in Brooklyn, 
July 29, 1895. 

BEECHER, HENBY WARD (1813-87). A Prot- 
estant pulpit orator, born in Litchfield, Conn., 
June 24, 1813. He was the eighth child 
and third son of Lyman Beecher. From his 

father he inherited a virile nature, a Puri- 
tan conscience, indomitable courage, and great 
force of character; from his mother, Roxanna 
Foote, of Cavalier ancestry and Episcopalian 
training, susceptibility to culture, love of music 
and art, a mystical disposition, and an al- 
most feminine tenderness of nature. He en- 
tered Amherst College at 17, attained only mod- 
erate standing in college studios, but threw 
himself with enthusiasm into the study of Eng- 
lish literature, phrenology, and elocution, and 
was active outside the college in prayer meetings, 
lectures, and lay preaching. In Lane Theological 
Seminary he pursued the same enthusiastic but 
somewhat fitful methods of study and alternated 
between a missionary enthusiasm and great 
spiritual depression accompanied with skepti- 
cism. His doubts were finally settled by a spirit- 
ual experience of Jesus Christ as the revelation 
of a God of infinite love and pity, which became 
the foundation both of his theological thought 
and his Christian life. On graduation he ac- 
cepted the pastorate of a Presbyterian church of 
20 members at Lawrenceburg, Ind., on the Ohio 
lliver, where he served both as sexton arid 
preacher. He was thence called after two years 
to a New School Presbyterian church in Indian- 
apolis, where his engaging personality, vivid 
imagination, and dramatic oratory brought him 
oversowing congregations. Eight years later he 
was called to the newly organized Congrega- 
tional "Plymouth Church," in Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Here he preached for nearly 40 years to congre- 
gations of between 2000 and 3000. During a 
large part of his ministry one sermon each week 
and his Friday evening*" lecture Room Talks" 
were reported and published in full. Congrega- 
tional singing was a feature of the public .ser- 
vice, and the "Plymouth Collection," edited by 
Mr. Beecher in 1855, though since superseded 
by better hymnals, was the pioneer of them all. 
Several notable levivals of religion took place, 
and the church grew in membership to between 
3000 and 4000, with two connected chapels or 
missions. Mr. Beecher also took an active part 
in the anti sin very campaign, readily cooperat- 
ing with the extreme Abolitionists, though he 
himself always advocated non-interference with 
slavery in the States and its gradual extinction 
under the Constitution by prohibiting its ex- 
tension. He was also heard from the platform 
on every public question and was in great request 
as a Lyceum lecturer. The most notable of his 
addresses outside the pulpit were five orations 
delivered by him in England in 18(i3, where he 
successfully faced and eventually controlled more 
than one mob, and where he everted a great 
influence in transferring the public sympathies 
of England from the southern to the' northern 
side in the American Civil War. At the close 
of that war he advocated a policy of trust in 
the South and limited suffrage for the negroes 
with generous provision for their education and 
by so doing separated himself politically from 
the Republican party loaders. He was an early 
student of Spencer, Tyndall, Darwin, and Hux- 
ley, though not their follower, and accepted 
the doctrine of evolution on its first appearance, 
believing and teaching that it confirmed a ra- 
tional Christianity. He accepted the Higher 
Criticism and applied it to the interpretation 
of the Bible. By instinct and temperament al- 
ways an advocate of minimum govern mental 
interference, he threw himself enthusiastically 
into the campaign for the election of Mr. Cleve- 


land in 1884 on the platform of tariff for revenue 
only. He retained his pulpit power to the last 
and died after a brief illness of apoplexy on 
the 8th of March, 1887. 

When the Independent was established, Mr. 
Beecher became first a regular contributor, then 
an editorial writer, then editor in chief. He soon 
resigned this position, his friend, Theodore Tilton, 
taking his place. The paper continued to publish 
his sermons until his break with the "Radical 
leaders on the reconstruction problem, when their 
publication was suspended. In 1870 The Chris- 
tian Union was established, with Mr. Beecher 
as editor in chief. This was shortly followed bv 
an attack by Mr. Tilton upon Mr. Beecher, end- 
ing in a suit against him for adultery. The 
trial, which lasted for six months, ended in a 
disagreement of the jury, of the 12 voting in 
Mr. Beecher's favor. Other investigations were 
more decisive. The largest and most representa- 
tive council of the C'ongrcgational churches ever 
known in the history of the denomination de- 
clared unanimously their undiminished confi- 
dence in him; and at a public meeting tendered 
to him on the occasion of his seventieth birth- 
day by the citizens of Brooklyn, without respect 
to church or party, eight years after the trial, 
and presided over by the justice who had pre- 
sided at the trial, the public confidence of the 
community in him was expressed in the strongest 

In his later ministry Mr. Beecher habitually 
spoke extemporaneously. lie was us dramatic 
in private comersation as on the platform, 
and his imagination was as fertile. Surpassed 
in charm of manner and grace of diction by many 
orators, in combination of charm and power he 
was surpassed by few or none. The fervid pas- 
sion of his oratory swayed his audience at the 
time, his marshaling of facts and his appeal to 
the reason rendered the impression permanent, 
while a mystical imagination often opened to 
the hearer a vision of a \\orld invisible. Tie 
married (1S37) Kunicc White Billiard, born in 
West Sutton, Mass., Aug. 26, 1812. His \\idow, 
three sons, and one daughter survived him. 

Consult Biography of Jlcnry \\'aid ftccchcr, by 
his sons, William C. Beecher and Samuel Sco- 
ville, assisted by Mrs. Beecher (18S8); Life of 
Henry Ward Beecher, by J. II. Barrows (1893) ; 
Henry Ward Itccchcr, by Lyman Abbott (1903) ; 
and Henry Ward Beecher. A Study of his Life 
and Influence, by Newell Dwight Ilillis (1013). 
Of his published works all are reprints of ser- 
mons, addresses, or occasional periodical articles 
with two exceptions: Norwood, a tale of New 
England life, and the Life of Christ. Prayers 
from Plymouth Pulpit (1SG7) interpret his devo- 
tional spirit; Yale Lectures on Preaching (1872- 
74) gives both his philosophy of preaching and 
his pulpit and pastoral methods; Evolution and 
Religion (1885-80) affoids the best interpreta- 
tion of his theological views. 

BEECHEB, LYMAN (1775-1863). An Ameri- 
can theologian. He was born in New Haven, 
Conn., Oct. 12, 1775; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Jan. 10, 1803; descended from one of the New 
Haven Colony of 1638. He lost his mother when 
an infant and was adopted by an uncle, Lot 
Benton; graduated from Yale in 1797, and 
next year became pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church* at East Hampton, L. I., where his wife, 
Roxanna Foote, increased their slender means by 
teaching a private school. Mr. Beecher'e sermon 
on the death of Alexander Hamilton (killed in 


a duel with Aaron Burr in 1804) gave him im- 
mediate fame, which rapidly increased until he 
was recognized as one of the foremost preachers 
in the country. In 1810 he went to Litchfield, 
Conn., where he was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church 16 years. In 1814 he delivered 
and printed a series of six sermons against intem- 
perance, which added greatly to his reputation 
for eloquence and power. He was also foremost 
in the Unitarian controversy which pervaded 
eastern New England. In 1826 he became pastor 
of the Hanover Street Congregational Church, 
Boston. In 1832 he became president of Lane 
Theological Seminary, a new institution near 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and held the office for 20 years, 
during the first 10 of which he was pastor of 
the Second Presbyterian Church in Cincinnati. 
In 1835 he was 'tried by his Presbytery for 
teaching false doctrines, but was acquitted then, 
and again on appeal to the Synod. When the 
Presbyterian church divided, he went with 
the New School branch (1838). In 1852 he 
returned to Boston, intending to revise and pub- 
lish his writings, but his mental powers failed, 
and not very long afterward he retired from 
public work, removing to Brooklyn, where he 
lived with his son, Henry Ward Beecher. He 
was married three times and had 13 children. 
All his sons, seven in number, became clergy- 
men. Dr. Beecher's sermons and speeches, though 
usually delivered extemporaneously, were the 
result of careful study and were marked by 
boldness, convincing argument, shrewd common 
sense, and irresistible wit. Consult: his Col- 
lected 11 'or A** (3 vols., Boston, 1852) ; Autobiog- 
raphy and Correspondence, edited by his son, 
Charles Beecher (New York, 1863) ; also James 
C\ White, Personal Reminiscences of Lyman 
firecher (Xew York, 1882): E. F. Hayward, 
Lifman. Beecher (Boston, 1904). 

\n American Congregational clergyman, born at 
Litchfield. Conn. He graduated at Illinois Col- 
lege, 1843, and from 1854 until liis death was 
pfistor of a church in Elmira, N. Y., where he 
died. The son of Lyman Beecher, he shared the 
family genius and was noted for eccentricity 
and practical philanthropy. His publications 
embrace Our Seven Churches (1870), in which 
is a series of observations upon seven denomi- 
nations in Elmira, and a posthumous work, In 
Tune With the Ntars, stories for children, edited 
by Clara J. Parson (1902). 
An American educator and author, born in 
Ifampden, Ohio. He graduated at Hamilton Col- 
lege in 1858, studied at the Auburn Theological 
Seminary, and in 1865 was appointed professor 
of moral science and belles-lettres at Knox Col- 
lege. From 1871 to 1908 he was professor of 
the Hebrew language and literature in Auburn 
Theological Seminary. He contributed fre- 
quently to periodicals and published: Farmer 
Tompkins and his Bibles (1874) ; Prophets and 
the Promise (1905) ; The Dated Events of the 
Old Testament (1907): The Teaching of Jesus 
Concerning the Future Life (1908); Reasonable 
Biblical Criticism (1911). 


(1796-1856). An English rear admiral and ge- 
ographer, som of Sir William Beechey. He en- 
tered the navy in 1806, in 1814 was appointed 
to the Tonnatit, and in 1815 participated in 



the battle of New Orleans. In 1818 he accom- 
panied, in the Trent, the Arctic expedition under 
Franklin, and in 1810 served on the Hecla dur- 
ing Lieutenant Parry's voyage. From 1825 to 
1820 he commanded the Blossom, which sought 
to cooperate by way of Bering Strait with Arctic 
expeditions approaching from the eastward. 
Having been promoted to be captain, he in 
1835-30 explored a part of the South American 
coast and from 1837 to 1847 was employed on 
the Irish coast survey. He was made rear ad- 
miral in 1854, and a year later he was elected 
president of the Royal Geographical Society. He 
was the discoverer of Ports Clarence and Grant- 
ley and published A Voyage of Discovery to- 
wards the North Pole (1843). 

BEECHEY, SIB WILLIAM (1753-1839). An 
English portrait painter. He was born at Bur- 
ford, in Oxfordshire, Dec. 12, 1753. He is 
said to have been a house painter before becom- 
ing a student at the Royal Academy. In 1793 he 
was made portrait painter to Queen Charlotte 
and won the patronage of the court and of the 
fashionable class. He was knighted by George 
III for his picture, now at Hampton Court, 
which represents the King reviewing troops, 
which also brought him the rank of R.A. His 
earlier drawings exhibit more care and finish 
than are shown in his later works, when hi.s 
popularity was assured. As a murk of his in- 
dustry, it may be noted that in 04 years lie 
exhibited 362 portraits at the exhibitions of the 
Royal Academy. Among the famous people 
whom he painted were Lord Nelson, Lord Corn- 
wallis, John Kemblc, and Mrs. Siddons. HE is 
well represented in the National and the Na- 
tional Portrait Galleries, London, and in manv 
American collections, including the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, New York. He was very 
popular in his day and is still counted among 
the most celebrated of Knglish portrait painters; 
but he excels neither in line nor in color. His 
portraits of women lark grace, as those of men 
character. Consult Redgrave, A Century of 
Painters of the English School (London, 1866). 

BEE EAT'ER. A bird of the family Mcro- 
pidse within the order Coracii formes. They are 
related to rollers, kingfishers, and jacanmrs, and 
in the Old World play the same role that the 
latter do in our tropics. The 40 members of 
the family are mainly African or Oriental. They 
have ratrier long beaks arid long swallow-like 
wings, giving them great grace and speed in 
flight and enabling them to capture insects on 
the wing. All wear a gorgeous plumage, green 
being the prevailing tint, and all the species 
have suffered great persecution from those who 
collect feathers and skins for millinery pur- 
poses. The common bee eater (Al crops apia&ter) 
is perhaps the most beautiful bird of Europe. 
The crown and mantle are rich chestnut, passing 
lower down into primrose, the head white and 
black and the throat yellow, while the rest of 
the plumage is mainly vivid greenish-blue. Like 
several related families, the bee eaters breed in 
holes in earthen banks, sometimes 6 to 8 feet 
long and of their own digging, and often gather 
in great colonies; the shining white eggs rest 
upon the earth, but become half buried after a 
time in the wings and rejected parts of insects. 
The food of these birds consists almost wholly 
of bees and wasps. They congregate about bee- 
hives and, swooping close to them, seize and 
consume honeybees in great numbers, until the 

cessation of flowers in August, and consequently 
of bee work, compels these birds to migrate 
southward. In mid-Africa the natives observe 
their movements as a guide to stores of wild 
honey. See Plate of KINGFISHERS, MOTMOTS, 




BEEFEATER (beef + eater, menial; cf. 
AS. hlafacta, servant, from hlfif, loaf -f- etan, 
to eat). The popular designation for the British 
sovereign's Yeomen of the Guard. Since the 
reign of Henry VII they have formed part of 
the monarch's train at royal banquets and other 
state occasions. Their costume, maintained with 
unimportant alterations for nearly four cen- 
turies, has much to do with their attractiveness 
to Bight- seers. The appellation is commonly, but 
erroneously, supposed to be a corruption of the 
French beaufetier or buffctier one who attends 
the buffet, or sideboard. Skeat maintains that it 
means simply enter of beef, a servant or depend- 
ent, and quotes eaters (from Ben Jonson) and 
poirdcr-bcrf-lubbers, similarly used. Consult 
Preston, Yeomen of the Guard (London, 1887). 

BEE-FLY. A fly of the family Bombyliidfle, 
many of which resemble bees in general appear- 
ance, their bodies being more or leas covered 
with dense whitish or yellowish hair. Some 
resemble bumblebees, while others are much more 
slender. They are flower-flies, living upon the 
nectar of flowers, and are efficient agents in the 
cross fertilization of plants, the pollen adhering 
readily to their hairs. The larva* are parasitic 
in the egg-pods of grasshoppers and also prey 
upon caterpillars, such as cutworms. 

BEEF'STEAX' CLUBS. A number of well- 
known social clubs, formed for the most part in 
London in the eighteenth century. The earliest 
of these was founded in 1700, with Richard Est- 
eourt, the actor and friend of Sterle, as prori- 
dore, and having as members many of the wits, 
authors, and men of affairs of the day. The most 
famous of the clubs, however, was the "Sublime 
Society of Steaks,'* founded in 1735 by John 
Rich, then manager of Covent Garden Theatre. 
The story is told of the formation of this club 
that Lord Peterborough supped accidentally with 
Rich on steak and beer, and found these so 
much to his taste that the meetings became 
regular. They were held in a room in the 
theatre, and, as in all true Beefsteak clubs, the 
refreshments were limited to steaks with beer or 
wine. Hogarth, Thornhill, Wilkes, Garrick, Dod- 
ington, Aaron Hill, Leonidas Glover, Beard, 
the tenor, and other famous men belonged to 
this club. In 1785 the Prince of Wales joined 
the "Steaks," and afterward the Dukes of Clar- 
ence and Sussex and the Duke of Norfolk be- 
came members. Other devotees were the poet 
Morris and John Kemble. After the burning of 
Covent Garden, the "Sublime Society," as it was 
called, had rooms first in the English Opera 
House, then in the Bedford Coffee House, and 
finally in the Lyceum (1838), where it remained 
until it disbanded in 1867. Sheridan founded 
a Beefsteak Club in 1749, with Peg Woffington as 
president, and with rooms in the Royal Theatre, 
Dublin. The present Beefsteak Club of London 
was established in 187fi with rooms in Toole's 
Theatre. In the United States the well-known 
newspaper correspondents* organization of Wash- 
ington, D. C.j the "QricUron," is in a general way 



similar to the English clubs. Consult Arnold, 
Life and Death of the Sublime Society of Steaks 

BEEP TEA. A light article of diet for sick 
persons and convalescents, which should contain 
some of the proteids i.e., nitrogenous nutritive 
material of moat, as well as the extractives 
generally prepared by placing scraped or chopped 
lean beef in a glass jar with cold water. After 
standing for half an hour or so, the jar, which 
should be tightly covered, is placed in a sauce- 
pan of water and gradually heated. For the 
first hour the temperature should be below the 
coagulating point of meat protein (1G7 F.). It 
should then be allowed to boil a short time to 
take away the raw taste and coagulate the red 
coloring matter. A little salt is then added to 
suit the taste. Beef tea has little food value, 
but it is somewhat at miniating to the appetite. 
It should not be given in heart disease (where a 
decreased amount of fluid is desirable), gout, or 
kidney disease. Mutton, treated in a similar 
manner, yields a broth which is believed to be 
somewhat less easily digested and may be hurt- 
ful, to invalids especially, if the fat be not 
skimmed off from the liquid. A knuckle of veal 
affords a similar broth or tea. Chicken brotli 
is, perhaps, the most readily digested and is 
special ly suitable for invalids in cases of great 
irritability of the stomach. 


BEE KEEPING. The several common races 
of the honey bee are known as the common 
black, brown, or German; the Italian; the Carni- 
olan; and the Cyprian. The German race shows 
considerable variation in its muikings and quali- 
ties; the workers have a dull rusty-brown color, 
especially about the thorax. Their disposition 
to fly toward and sting a person approaching the 
apiary and of stinging when they are manipu- 
lated, and other faults, have put them in dis- 
favor. The Italian race, golden-yellow in color, 
requires less skill in subduing and handling and 
is perhaps the most popular. The Carmolans, 
gray bees from the elevated Alpine province of 
Carniola, Austria, is the largest race and grow 
steadily in favor. The Cyprian, the yellowest of 
the original races, is native to the island of 
Cyprus. Though smaller-bodied and more slen- 
der than bees of the European races, they have 
produced the largest yields of honey. Other races 
are known as the Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, 
and Tunisian. 

The apiary or stock of beehives should, of 
course, be situated in a neighborhood where 
flowers sufficiently abound for the supply of 
honey. It is, however, by no means certain to 
what distance bees roam. Some authors mention 
a mile as the probable distance; but the opinion 
has apparently been hazarded on mere conjec- 
ture, and there seem to be good reasons for 
supposing that a much greater distance niiglit 
more correctly be named. But whatever dis 
tance bees may be capable of traveling in quest 
of honey, it is undoubtedly of great importance 
that they should have good feeding ground in the 
immediate neighborhood of the apiary; and in 
many parts of the world the practice prevails of 
removing them from place to place, according 
to the season, in order that advantage may be 
taken of the greatest abundance of flowers. Thus 
in the south of Scotland beehives are very fre- 
quently removed to heath -covered tracts in the 
beginning of August, and remain there till the 
heath is out of flower; and this affords in many 


parts of the country the most plentiful honey- 
harvest, although in other parts, especially where 
white clover abounds, the greatest quantity of 
honey is obtained earlier in summer. 

As to the form of beehives, and the material 
of which they should be made, there are great 
differences both of opinion and practice. Glass 


hives, and hives with glass windows, which can 
be covered at pleasure with wooden slides, are 
employed by those who wisli to observe the move- 
ments and habits of bees; but for profitable 
purposes wood and straw are the materials in 
common use. In some parts of Europe cylindri- 
cal cork hives are much used, made by removing 
the wood of a portion of the cork tree, and leav- 
ing the bark uninjured ; and hives of earthen- 
ware are common in Greece and Turkey. Frame 
hives, properly managed, are most successful. 
The hive which is most lined in the United 
States, and which, with slight modification, has 
been adopted in England and her colonies, was 
invented by Langstroth. It is important that 
the owner should have facilities for giving in- 


Dadnnt-Quinby form of Langstroth hive, open: a, front 
of brood apartment; 6, alighting board; c, movable en- 
trance block; d, cap, e, straw mat; /, carriage-cloth cover 
for frames; g, g, frames with coinbs. (From Langatroth.) 

creased room both above and below the stock- 
hive; increased room above is required for 
the reception of pure honeycomb unmixed with 
brood; and the capability of adding to the hive 
below, by raising it up *an additional story, is 


often requisite to prevent swarming, which is 
incompatible with tie collection of a large store 
of surplus honey. 

Bees require attention at the time of swarm- 
ing, that they may not fly away and be lost. 
They require also to be fed during winter, when, 
on account of a bad season, the lateness of the 
swarm, or other cause, they have not enough 
honey to support them. A common rule is that 
the weight of the contents of the hive must be 
at least 20 pounds, that the bees may survive 
the winter without being fed; and even in this 
case a supply of food for a short time in spring 
promotes the activity of the bees and their sum- 
mer prosperity. The food ordinarily supplied 
to bees is either the coarser kind of honey or 
sugar and water. Strong ale and sugar boiled 
is also frequently given as food. The prac- 
tice has very largely prevailed of killing bees 
by fumes of sulphur in order to take from them 
their honey in the end of autumn, a portion 
only of the increase of the stock being kept 
through the winter. This practice still has its 
advocates; but the majority of bee keepers take 
only what they can by top boxes or supers, or by 
cutting out combs, preserving all hives which 
are not so light that there is no good hope of 
their surviving the winter. 

When honey is to be taken from bees, the per- 
son doing it must be carefully protected from 
their stings by gloves, veil, etc*. It is best done 
during the heat of a fine day, when the bees 
more readily leave the combs of the super that 
is taken away and return to their hive. A little 
gentle tapping generally causes them to leave 
the combs, and a feather is used for brushing 
off those which are slow to do so. The smoke 
of the common puffball causes them to fall down 
in a stupor, from which they speedily recover, 
and its use is very convenient. It is* gathered 
and dried for the purpose. Chloroform is also 
sometimes used for the same purpose; but the 
effect is apt to be fatal, unless care is taken to 
choose the morning of a fine day, so that the 
stupefied bees may have time to recover in the 
air and sunshine. Objections which might be 
raised against stupefying substances for sniokins: 
bees do not apply to wood for this purpose, such 
as hickory or hard maple. 

Bees are much less apt to sting when swarming 
than at other times, due to their being gorged 
with honey, and in general all the necessary 
operations ae performed without gloves or 
veil and with perfect safety. The sting of a boo 
is to many persons a thing of no groat conse- 
quence, although in some it causes groat local 
inflammation and swelling, and general derange- 
ment of health. The application of a little am- 
inonia usually relieves the pain; or an onion 
cut through the middle. 

The apiary should, of course, be in a sheltered 
place and where it enjoys a good amount of sun- 
shine. The hives are Very generallv placed at 
short distances in the open ground, but some 
bee keepers protect them by a shed. In the for- 
mer case each hive is usually covered with a 
straw hood in winter, to keep away the rain, as 
dampness is particularly injurious to bees. For 
the avoidance of dampness, and to prevent the 
bees from coming in contact with the ground 
when they hang in a great cluster at the door of 
the hive when the weather is hot and the hive 
very populous each hive is raised to a height 
of at least 15 or 18 inches from the ground. 

Bibliography. Consult: Cheshire, Bee* and 

Bee-Keeping (London, 1885-88) ; L. L. Lang- 
stroth, The Hive and Honey-Bee (Hamilton, 111., 
1908) ; A. I. and E. R. Root, The ABC and 
X Y Z of Bee Culture (Medina, Ohio, 1913) ; 
Benton, The Honey-Bee: A Manual of Instruc- 
tion in Apiculture (Dept. Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, 1896) ; Maeterlinck, The Life of the Bee 
(Eng. trans., New York, 1001) ; Comstock, How 
to Keep Bees (New York, l!)05). See HONEY. 


BEE LOUSE. A minute wingless fly para- 
sitic on honeybees. One is* known, Braula ecrca, 
constituting the family BraulidtE at the end 
of the dipterous series. Tt is similar to the 
LOUSE FLIES (Hippoboscidir), alao known as 

BEELZEBUB, te-eTze-biib, or BEELZEBUL. 
The name of the chief of the demons in Matt. x. 
2;->; xii. 24, 27; Mark iii. 22; Luke xi. 15, 18, 
19. It seems to be the Aramaic form of Baal 
Zcbub, the god of Ekron. The alternative 
form, Beelzebul, though avoided in the Syriac, 
is well supported in the Greek manuscripts 
and is supposed to go back to Baal, 'lord,' 
and zebul, 'habitation/ 'temple'; or, less prob- 
ably, to Baal, 'lord.' and zebcl, 'dung/ A name 
meaning 'Lord of the (heavenly) mansion* might 
easily take on the meaning 'Lord of the (infer- 
nal) mansion.' The change of a god into a 
demon is a common religious phenomenon. See 

BEEMSTER, bfim'ster. A region about 15 
miles north of Amsterdam in the Dutch province 
of North Holland, once a lake, and reclaimed at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. It 
has an area of 17,8-5 acres and is very fertile 
and well adapted to cattle raising. The com- 
mune of Beemster has a population of 46S9. 

BEER, (AS. bcor, OHO. bior, Gcr. Her; prob- 
ably a dissimilation for *breor and connected 
with AS. brtiowan, OHG. brinican, Ger. brauen, 
to brow; another etymology refers beer to AS. 
&<?o, barley). The term "beer," in its broadest 
sense, denotes any fermented liquor that has 
not undergone distillation. This definition of 
beer is very comprehensive and includes many 
varieties of fermented liquors not commonly 
known as beer. The name has also a more 
limited meaning. In England the name "beer" 
usually denotes some form of ale, and in tho 
United States and in continental Europe the term 
is practically restricted to lager beer, which, 
however, is made in a variety of qualities. Brew- 
ing is the name given to the process of manu- 
facturing beer, although, strictly speaking, tin 
manufacture consists of two separate processes 
known as malting and brewing, which will bo 
found discussed fully under BREWING. 

Historically, bcor is of great antiquity; it was 
manufactured by the Egyptians and afterward 
by the Greeks, Romans, and ancient Gauls. 
Among the ancient writers who mention bee? 
are Herodotus, Tacitus, Pliny, Xenophon, and 
others. The Romans are supposed to have intro- 
duced the art of brewing beer into Britain, the 
only intoxicating beverages used by the Britons 
previous to the Roman conquest being mead and 
cider. Naturally the process of brewing prac- 
ticed by these ancient peoples has been vastly 
improved upon by modern brewers, who have 
called in the knowledge of chemistry, bacteri- 
ology, etc., to aid them in perfecting their art. 
In certain sections, especially in parts of Ger- 
many, beer is prepared with malt hops and water 


only. In oilier places, however, especially in 
America and Kngland, for some of the malt is 
substituted corn, rice, cane-sugar syrup, in- 
verted cane or beet sugar, glucose syrup, grape 
sugar, or prepared corn products. 

Varieties. While beer is the generic name for 
all malt liquors, many of these liquors are 
known by other names, the principal of which 
will be enumerated and briefly explained. 

Ale would seem to have been the current name 
in England for malt liquor in general before the 
introduction of the use of hops from Germany 
about 1524. After this date the German word 
Bier ('beer') was used at first to distinguish 
the hopped liquor from ale, the unhopped. As 
now used, ale signifies a kind of top fermenta- 
tion beer containing more or less hops, but dis- 
tinguished chiefly by its strength or high per- 
centage of alcohol. In the manufacture of ale 
the first fermentation is checked, while a con- 
siderable percentage of sugar remains undeeoin- 
posed, which by the subsequent fermentation in 
the barrels is changed to alcohol and carhonic- 
ticid gas. The length of time which ale in left to 
ripen in the barrels is one week for mild 
ale, from two to four months for pale ale, and 
from 10 to 15 months for strong ale. Burton ale 
may contain at times as much as 8 per cent of 
alcohol. The Scotch ales are distinguished for 
the smallness of the quantity of hops used 
and for their vinous flavor. They are fer- 
mented at a lower temperature than English 
ales, which are fermented at from 6f> to JH) F. 
India pale ale differs chiefly in having a larger 
quantity of hops. 

Porter is a kind of malt liquor which came 
into use in London in 1722. According to Leigh, 
"the malt liquors previously in uso were ale, 
beer, and two-penny, and it was customary to 
call for a pint or tankard of half-and-half i.e., 
half of ale and half of beer, half of ale and half 
of two-penny, or half of beer and half of two- 
penny. In the course of time it also became 
the practice to ask for a pint or tankard of 
three-thirds (or, as it became corrupted, Hirer 
threads), meaning a third each of ale, beer, and 
two-penny; and thus the publican was obliged 
to go to 'three casks for a single pint of liquor. 
To avoid this trouble and waste, a brewer by 
the name of Harwood conceived the idea of mak- 
ing a liquor which should partake of the united 
flavors of ale, beer, and two-penny, lie did so 
and succeeded, calling it entire, or entire butt 
beer, meaning that it was drawn entirely from 
one cask or butt: and being a hearty, nourish- 
ing liquor, it was very suitable for porters and 
other working people. Hence it obtained the 
name of porter, and was first retailed at the 
Ulue Last, Curtain Road, Shoreditch." The chief 
characteristics of porter are its dark-brown 
color, peculiar bitter flavor, and agreeable fresh- 
ness in drinking. It was originally brewed with 
malt roasted until slightly brown; now, how- 
ever, under the improved system of brewing, pale 
malt, with the addition of some highly roasted 
malt (or other coloring matter) for the sake 
of color only, is used. Enormous quantities are 
brewed by the London brewers. A kind much 
stronger than ordinary porter or ale is also ex- 
tensively brewed in London, Dublin, and else- 
where, under the name of stout. It is quite 
dark in color and has a pronounced caramelized 
malt-like aroma and taste. If the product is 
young, its taste is sweetish, but after aging it 
assumes a characteristic tartness. 

57 BEEE 

Lager leer, which is now so extensively manu- 
factured in the United States, takes its name 
from the fact that it is kept several months in 
a storehouse (Lager in German) to ripen. In 
the manufacture of lager beer this long storage 
is not usually practiced in the United States. 
The wort is prepared in much the same manner 
as for ale, and is pumped from the hop-jack into 
shallow coolers placed in the upper stories of 
the brewery, and then passed over a pipe cooler 
or through a refrigerating apparatus until it is 
reduced to a temperature of about 45 F. Thence 
it is carried in pipes to large fermenting tuns 
and placed in cool cellars, or in chambers cooled 
by ice or artificial refrigeration, having a tem- 
perature of 40 to 45 F. Here yeast is added, 
which, in the course of about 1 .V24 hours, incites 
fermentation, this being manifested by the ap- 
pearance of minute bubbles of carbonic-acid gas, 
which, as in the fermentation of ale, carry a 
little of the yeast with them. This does not, 
however, remain there, but, discharging the gas, 
to which it had adhered, settles to the bottom 
in the form of a viscous mass, this mass, with 
that which remains there, constituting what is 
called bottom yeast. The slow fermentation 
employed in the process of making old-type lager 
beer causes a clarification and the commence- 
ment of a ripening, which affords a beverage free 
from the objectionable qualities of the common 
beer that goes under the same name, but which 
is known to brewers under the name of Schenk- 
bier, or present-use, leer. This is fermented in a 
much shorter time ; but the saccharine and other 
matter is not fermented to the same extent as in 
the German article. It must be noted, however, 
that, owing to the introduction of improved proc- 
esses of fermentation, clarification, and impreg- 
nation of beer with carbonic-acid gas into the 
American brewing industry many of these objec- 
tionable features are now removed. For the 
purpose of neutralizing what acetic or other 
acid might appear from a secondary fermenta- 
tion, or for producing by interaction with it an 
additional quantity of carbonic-acid gas to give 
it "life," some brewers add in the operation of 
casking (racking) a quantity of bicarbonate of 
soda, immediately upon which the bung is driven 
in and the beer is ready for market. German 
lager, however, lies a long time to ripen, and 
attains certain qualities not possessed by any 
other kind of beer, and highly prized by lovers 
of this beverage. The lager beer brewed in 
the United States can very appropriately be 
called an American type of beer because the 
American has cultivated his taste for this style 
of brew. In the United States beer is drunk 
much more rapidly and colder than in Europe. 
Boek beer is lager beer of extra strength and 
containing more alcohol, made in the spring of 
the year. It requires two months to brew and 
ripen, and in making it 1 pound of hops to 3 Ms 
bushels of malt are used. 

Among the less-known varieties of beer must 
be mentioned the following: "Brunswick 
Mumme" is a peculiar kind of beer formerly used 
in Great Britain and still used in Germany and 
somewhat in the United States. In its original 
form it was made of malt and wheat, to which 
some bre\vers added a certain proportion of oats 
and bran meal. 

Another kind of beer, sold in California and 
vicinity, which is becoming popular, is stnam 
beer. It derives its name from the fact that it 
is highly effervescent and under high pressure, 

BEER 58 

thus resembling the properties to some extent 
of confined steam. For the process of preparing 
this beer, see article on BREWING. 

In Pennsylvania a bottom fermentation beer 
containing very little alcohol is sold under the 
name of swankey. The name in all probability 
is a corruption of the German "Schwenke.*' 
The materials employed in its preparation are 
malt, hops, yeast, water, and some condiment 
like anise. 

Another variety of beer (top fermentation) 
sold in Germany and to some extent in the 
United States is Weiss beer ('white beer'). The 
Berlin Weiss beer is prepared from wheat, bar- 
ley malt, hops, and water. After about a three- 
days fermentation the beer is filled directly 
into bottles and jugs and stored for about 8 
to 14 days, after which it is ready for con- 
sumption. The material used in the preparation 
of American Weias beer rarely includes wheat, 
and in most instances it is made from barley 
malt and corn grits. The mashing process also 
differs somewhat from the European method. 

Malt extracts or malt tonics are fermented 
beverages made from high-dried malt with an 
addition of either caramelized malt, black malt, 
or roasted corn, or a combination of several of 
the latter and hops and water. They are brewed 
in with a heavy original (wort) gravity (10 to 
18 Balling). This class of preparations usually 
contains more alcohol and solids than the ordi- 
nary lager beer, and their sale is confined almost 
exclusively to the drug trade. The term "malt 
extract" must not be confused with the unfer- 
mented extract of malt, which is sold chielly in 
a thick, syrup-like form. The latter prepara- 
tions, if properly prepared, contain a starch - 
digesting enzyme and are used in medicine. The 
fermented beverages do not contain this enzyme. 
Spontaneous fermentation beers are those in 
which the fermentation is incited by yeast, bac- 
teria, etc., which fall into the wort accidentally 
and are sold chiefly in Belgium. They are not 
pure barley malt Deers and are prepared with 
40 to 50 per cent of unmalted wheat and barley 
malt. In Japan a kind of beer brewed from rice 
called sak6 is drunk. 

In South America the Indians prepared and 
drank a beer made from corn, and known as 
chica, or maize beer, long before the Spanish 
conquest. The process following in making chica 
is similar to that of beer brewing. The maize 
is moistened with water, allowed partially to 
germinate, and dried in the sun. The maize malt 
so prepared is bruised, treated with warm water, 
and set aside until the fermentation is over. 
The chica or maize beer has a yellow color and a 
pleasant acid taste. In the valleys of the 
Sierra the maize malt is chewed between the 
teeth by the Indians and members of their 
households, and the chewed morsel, incorporated 
with the saliva, is put in jars with hot water, 
when the fermentation proceeds more rapidly 
than before, and a more highly prized beer is 
obtained. The chica is also made from barley, 
rice, peas, manioca, pineapples, and grapes. The 
Crim Tatars prepare a beer from millet seed, 
called bouza, or millet beer. The same seed is 
used in Sikkim, on the southern slopes of the 
lower Himalayas, and yields beer there called 
murwa. The Arabians, Abyssinians, and many 
African tribes employ teff, the seeds of Poa 
abys8inica t and millet seed as sources of beer. 
The Russians prepare a beer from, rye called 
kvass, or rye beer. The Tatars fermented milk 

into koumiss, or milk beer. The Arabians used 
the milk to yield their leban, and the Turks to 
produce their yaourt. In the north of Scotland, 
the Orkneys, and some parts of Ireland, butter- 
milk or sour milk is allowed to stand till fer- 
mentation begins, and an intoxicating liquor 
results. The South Sea Islanders prepare a 
beer from the root of Macropiper methysticum, 
or the intoxicating long pepper, which is called 

Composition. The exact composition of beer 
is not accurately knov>n, but the principal con- 
stituents are water, alcohol, dextrin, maltose or 
malt sugar, glycerin, several kinds of acids, pro- 
tein, the essential oil arid resin, from the hops, 
and mineral salts. Ale and beer, and especially 
lager beer, contain considerable nutriment in 
the sugar and dextrin that they hold in solution; 
and in certain parts of Germany, where lager 
beer is very freely drunk, it seems to take the 
place to gome extent of other food. The bitter 
substances that enter into its composition ap- 
pear also to exercise a mildly tonic effect. The 
percentage of alcohol by weight in the most 
popular ales and lagers is as follows: Burton 
Ale, 8.25; Guinness's Stout, G.29; Scotch Ale, 
4.41 ; New York Lager, 3.85; Munich Lager, 3.74; 
Schenk-bier, 3.00. For statistics of production 

BEER, bflr, ADOLF ( 1831-1002) . An Austrian 
historian, born at Prossnitz, Moravia. lie 
studied history, philology, and political econ- 
omy at the univeisities of licrlin, Heidelberg, 
l*i ague, and Vicuna. In 1858 he wus appointed 
professor at the Commen ial Academy of Vienna, 
and in 181J8 he Mas called to a similar chair in 
the technical nigh school in that city. As one 
of the foremost promoters of educational reform 
in Austria, he received in 1870 an important 
appointment Jii the Miuibtry of Education. He 
was elected to the Reichsrath in 1873 nnd became 
a member of the Upper House in 1897. The fol- 
lowing are a few of the principal works of this 
prolific author: AUgcmcinc Gcschichte des Welt- 
handcJs (1800-84): DIG Finantcn Ocntcrreichs 
im 19tcn Jahrhundcrt (1877) : Die orirntalischc 
Polltik OestcrreichH scit 1774 (1883); Die 
bsterrcichischc Ilanddspolitik im IPtcn Jahr- 
liundcrt (1891); Joseph IT vnd (Jraf Ludwig 
Cobcnzl, ihr Brief wet-hscl (2 vols., 1901). 

BEER, GEORGE Louis (1872-1920). An Amer- 
ican historian and educator, born on Staten 
Island, New York City. He graduated from 
Columbia University in 1892 and in the follow- 
ing year took the degree of A.M. From 1893 
to 1903 he was engaged in the importation of 
tobacco from Cuba, and during a portion of 
this period (1893-97) was also a lecturer on 
European history at Columbia University. He 
became a member of many historical and other 
learned societies. His writings on historical 
subjects include: Commercial Policy of England 
toward the American Colonies (1893); British 
Colonial Policy, 1754-65 (1907) ; Origins of the 
British Colonial System, 1578-1660 (1908) ; Old 
Colonial System, 1660-1754: part i, in 2 vols., 
Establishment of the System, 1660-1688 (1913). 
BEEB, MICHAEL (1800-33). A German dra- 
matic poet, born in Berlin. He won a consid- 
erable success with his tragedy of Klytamncs- 
tra (Berlin, 1819). His other works are Die 
Braute von Aragonien (1819); Der Paria 
(1823), a one-act tragedy, which depicted the 
situation of the Jew in modern Germany and 


was praised by Goethe; and Struensee (1828), 
bia most successful work, for which his brother, 
the famous composer, Meyerbeer, wrote an over- 
ture and incidental music. His complete works 
were edited by Edward von Schenk (1835), who 
also published a volume of his correspondence 
(1837). Consult Paul Hoffman, "Urkundliches 
von Michael Beer und tiber seine Familie" in 
Euphorion (vol. xv, )908). 

BEER, WILHELM (1797-1850). A German 
astronomer, brother of the preceding. In the 
Thiergarten of Berlin he built an observatory, 
where, with his friend Mildler, he made a par- 
ticular study of Mars and the moon. His map 
of the moon (183G) was awarded the Lalande 
prize by the French Academy. In 1849 he be- 
came a member of the Prussian First Chamber. 
He published Der Mond nach semen kosmischen 
und individuellen Verhaltnissen (2 vols., 1837) 
and Die Dreikonifjsverfassung in ihrer Gefahr 
filr Preusscn (1849). 

BEEB/BOHM, MAX (1872- ). An Eng- 
lish author and caricaturist, half-brother of the 
actor, Sir Beerbohm Troo. Ho was educated at 
Charterhouse and at Merton College, Oxford, 
and began a not very prolific literary career 
with contributions to The Yellow Booh. Lord 
Northcliffe, then Mr. Alfred C. Harmsworth, 
recognized his talent and secured his services 
for papers under his control. Thus launched, 
he became a contributor to many London peri- 
odicals. As a caricaturist, his talent is unmis- 
takable, and he hit off the eccentricities and 
peculiarities of the leading figures of English 
social and political life in a long series of 
drawings there have been five exhibitions of 
them since 1901 which highly amused the Lon- 
don public. In 1895 he spent some months in 
America with Bcerbohm Tree, and in 1910 he 
married Florence Kahn of Memphis, Tenn. His 
books, excepting his one novel, Zulcika Dobson, 
are largely composed of material originally 
contributed to periodicals. His novel does not 
represent him at his best. It is a satirical and 
burlesque story of Oxford life. His reputation 
rests properly upon his essays, satires, and 
skits, which made him the pet of a London 
literary circle. Brilliant, blase, irresponsible, 
audacious, egotistical, and with the courage of 
his lack of convictions, he belonged logically 
to the Wilde and Beardsley period. In a jest 
not without truth, he himself declared, in 1900, 
that he was already outmoded. Be this as it 
may, there is a wit, an elegance, a piquancy, 
and an aroma to his style that arc all his own 
and lend him a certain distinction. His pub- 
lished work includes the slender volume. The 
Works of Max Bccrbotnn ; More; Yet A (fain: 
and The Happy Hypocrite, all brought out 
between 1896 and 1900; and Caricatures of 
Twenty-five Gentlemen; The Poet's Corner; 
The Second Childhood of John Bull: A Book of 
Caricatures; Zuleika Dobson: A Christmas 
Garland (a series of parodies) ; and Fifty 
Caricatures which appeared between 1900 and 

BEEBE, MBS. BERNABD (1856-1915). An 
English actress. She was born at Norwich, a 
daughter of Mr. Wilby Whitehead. Aftrr study- 
ing as the pupil of Hermann Vezin she began 
her dramatic career in 1878 at the Ope>a 
Comique, London. Her marriage, not long af- 
terward, took her from the stage, but she re- 
turned to it as Mrs. Bernard Beere and in 1883 
attracted notice in Fedora and as the Countess 
VOL. III. 5 


Zicka in Diplomacy. In 1888 she played at 
the Opera Comique in As in a Looking-Glaaa 
and Masks and Faces. She visited America in 
1892. In 1897, after another retirement, she 
reappeared in Charlotte Corday and A Sheep in 
Wolfs Clothing. In 1900 she became the wife 
of H. C. S. Olivier. Her last appearance was at 
the Coliseum in 1905, in a sketch called The 

BEER MON'EY. A peculiar payment to 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers in the 
British army, established in the year 1800, at 
the suggestion of the Duke of York. It con- 
sisted of one penny per day for troops when 
on home service, as a substitute for an issue of 
beer and spirits. It continued as an addition 
to the daily pay until 1873, when, the stop- 
pages for rations having been abolished, the 
opportunity was taken to consolidate beer 
money and pay proper. 

FRANCOIS (1829-1912). A Belgian statesman, 
born at Ostend. He was elected a member of 
the Chamber of Deputies in 1874 and in 1884 
received the portfolio of agriculture, industry, 
and art. Soon afterward he was appointed 
President of the Council and Minister of Finance, 
lie proved to be exceedingly skillful in dealing 
with many important questions, such as the re- 
\ision of the constitution and proportional repre- 
sentation in the elections. Owing to the lack of 
adequate party support in connection with tho 
latter measure, lie resigned in 1894. In 1895 
he was elected President of the Chamber of 
Deputies. Tie was a leading member of the In- 
ternational Peace Conference, both in 1899 and 
in 1907 In 1909 he received one-half of the 
Nobel peace prize. 

An American social worker, born in New Haven, 
Conn. lie graduated from the Sheffield Scien- 
tific School in 1897. As a result of over study 
and other conditions, he lost his reason and was 
for several years an inmate of sanitariums and 
asylums. lie recovered and in 1908 published a 
remarkable book entitled A Mind that Found 
lisclf (2d ed., 1912), an account of his experi- 
ences in the institutions where he had been con- 
fined, in addition to being a psychological study 
of the progress and development of his disease 
and his final return to mental health. It is one 
of the few authentic documents written by those 
who have lost their reason and recovered it. In 
1909 he helped to found the National Commis- 
sion for Mental Hygiene, a body organized for 
the study of mental diseases and the treatment 
of those suffering from them. He was also an 
organizer of the Connecticut Society for Mental 
Hygiene, and became its executive secretary. In 
addition to the book mentioned above, he wrote 
The Value of Social Service as an Agency in 
the Prevention of Nervous and Mental Dis- 
orders, and A Society for Mental Hygiene as aw 
Agency for Social Service and Education. 

BEERS, ETHEL LYNN (1827-79). An Ameri- 
can poet, born at Goshen, N. Y. Her earlier 
writings appeared under the name of ETHEL 
LYNN, derived from her baptismal name, Ethel- 
inda. By birth an Eliot, descendant of the 
famous New England apostle to the Indians, 
she married William H. Beers and afterward 
used her full name. She is best known for the 
war lyric, "All Quiet Along the Potomac," which 
appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1861. The au- 
thorship of this popular poem wag soon claimed 


for others, especially for a Southerner; but 
Mrs. Beers's right to it is undisputable. Her 
verses were collected just at the time of her 
death in a volume entitled All Quiet Along the 
Potomac, and Other Poems (1879). 

BEERS, HENBY AUGUSTIN (1847-1926). An 
American professor and litterateur, born in 
Buffalo, N. Y. He graduated at Yale in 1869 
and taught there from 1871 to 1875, when he 
was made assistant professor of English litera- 
ture and in 1880 professor. His chief publica- 
tions are: a collection of verses. Odds and Ends 
(1878); A Century of American Literature 
(1878); Nathaniel Parker Willis and Prose 
Writings of N. P. Willis (1885) ; a second col- 
lection of verses, The ThanJJcss Muse (1885); 
An Outline Sketch of English Literature (1886) ; 
From Chaucer to Tennyson, (1890); Initial 
Studies in American Letters (1891); A Subur- 
ban Pastoral and Other Tales (1894) ; The Wai/s 
of Yale (1895) ; A History of English Romanti- 
cism in the Eighteenth Century (1899) ; A His- 
tory of English Romanticism in the Nineteenth 
Century (1901); Points at Issue (190-1); ,!///- 
ton's Tercentenary (1910). Professor Beers be- 
came known also as a frequent contributor to 

BEERS, bars, JAN VAN (1821-88). A Flem- 
ish poet, born in Antwerp. In 1844 he became 
a librarian of the Antwerp Library and in I860 
professor of Flemish language and literature at 
the Athenaeum in that city. His works include 
Levcnsbccldcn (1858) ; Gevocl en Leven (1800) ; 
Rijzende llaren (1883). Consult the biography 
by Pol de Mont (Haarlem, 1889). 

BEERSHEBA, bA'er-she'ba or be-er'she-ba 
(Heb. leer, well + sheba, oath, or seven), the 
modern BIR-EL-SEBA. One of the Simeonite towns 
in southern Judah (Josh. xix. 2 ) . Two stories are 
told in explanation of the origin of the place and 
of the name. According to the one (Oen. xxi. 
22-31), the place received its name as the "well 
of oath/' because of the alliance formed here be- 
tween Abraham and Abiraelech, King of Ccrar, 
which was ratified by a gift of seven cue lambs 
from Abraham to Abimelech as a witness of the 
fact that the well was dug by Abraham. In fur- 
ther commemoration of the event Ahraharn is 
said to have planted a tamarisk at the place 
and to have invoked the name of Yahwe. The 
other account (Gen. xxvi. 26-33) ascribes the 
name giving to Isaac and apparently explains 
it as the well of "seven." Beersheba was situ- 
ated in the extreme south of Palestine, about 52 
miles southwest of Jerusalem. Its position led 
to the phrase "from Dan to Beersheba" as com- 
prising Hebrew territory from north to south. 
Various interesting events are recorded by bibli- 
cal tradition as having taken place at Becrshcba. 
It Was here that Abraham received the command 
to sacrifice Isaac (Gen. xxii.). In later days 
Isaac sojourned here. Esau was robbed of his 
birthright and blessing here (ib. xxviii. 10), and 
here Jacob sacrificed to Yahwe on his journey 
into Egypt (ib. xlvi. 1); the sons of Samuel 
were judges here (1 Sam. viii. 2), and to this 
place Elijah was forced to flee from Jezebel's 
wrath (1 Kings xix. 3) and from a locality in 
its neighborhood he set out upon his 40 days' 
jonrney to Horeb. Leaving aside these tradi- 
tions, it is clear that Beersheba was the site of 
an ancient sanctuary to which importance waft 
attached by the Hebrews as late as the days of 
Amos (Amos y. 5). As to the name, the 
sanctity attaching among the Semites to the 


number seven makes it more plausible to explain 
the name as the "seven wells" in the sense of the 
"sacred well," rather than as the "well of oath," 
which appears to rest upon a play on the name. 
After the captivity Beersheba was occupied by 
the Jews. In the days of Euscbius it was a 
great market town with a Roman garrison. 
Bishops of Beersheba are occasionally mentioned. 
The notitia dignitatum mentions Dalmatian and 
lllyrian troops as stationed there. The city is 
found on the Madeha map. By the fourteenth 
century, however, it was deserted. There are 
extensive ruins on the northern bank of the 
Wady el Scba. On that side of the valley arc 
also the seven wells, which supply excellent 
water; they are all from 5 to 9 feet in diam- 
eter and about 45 feet deep. The new town 
has grown up in recent years southwest of the 
old city. It is the seat of a kaimakam, has in 
the neighborhood of 1660 inhabitants, a serai, a 
mosque, a post and telegraph office, a khan, and 
a number of stores. Consult CJuerin, Jj/f/dr, vol. 
M, ])]>. 277 ff. (1869); Benzingor, in Baedeker, 
Palestine and Syria, p. 170 (5th ed., Leipzig, 

BEESLY, bez'li, EDWARD SPENCER (1831- 
1915). An Knglish scholar and historian. He 
was educated at Wadham College, Oxford, was 
professor of Latin at Bedford College (London) 
m 1800-89, and professor of history in Uni- 
^Thity College (London) from 1860 to 1893. 
He also became editor of the Portitivist Review, 
and translated some of Comte's writings. His 
publications include also Catiline, Clodius, and 
Tiberius (1878); Qiu>cn Elizabeth (1892); A 
Strong Kevond Chamber ( 1907). In his Catiline, 
etc., he seeks to rehabilitate the three men with 
whom the book deals. 

BEESTON". A manufacturing town of Not- 
tinghamshire, England, on the Trent, 3 1 /, miles 
southwest of Nottingham. It has important 
lace-making, machinery, cycle, and automobile 
factories. Pop., 1891, 61)48; 1901, 8950; 1911, 

BEES'WAX. The plastic material secreted 
by bees and used by them in making their cells. 
Jt is largely produced in Europe and in the 
United States and is an important article of 
export from various parts of Asia and Africa. 
Beeswax is a solid, tough substance, having a 
pale yellowish-brown color, a specific graxity 
of about 0.96, and a pleasant odor resembling 
honey. It melts at 67 C. (152.6 F.). 1 he 
crude wax is separated from the honey by pres- 
sure. The comb thus obtained is treated with 
water and heated and stirred until the wax 
melts. The wax is then run into ti vessel of 
cold water, where it is further washed and 
allowed to solidify. As thus obtained, it is 
used on floors and for making sealing wax, litho- 
graphic crayons, and mastic varnish. Crude 
beeswax may be bleached by exposing thin shreds 
of the yellow wax to air and sunlight; the re- 
sulting wax is perfectly white and has neither 
taste nor smell. Wax may also be bleached 
with nitric acid and chlorine, although the latter 
combines with it. Candles made of wax that 
has been bleached witli chlorine yield, on burn- 
ing, stifling vapors of hydroohloride acid. This 
fact, first investigated by Dumas, led to the 
establishment of the substitution theory in or- 
ganic chemistry. The facility with which bees- 
wax bleaches depends upon the variety of the 
wax. Certain varieties can scarcely be bleached 
.at all. Bleached wax is employed in candle 

BEET 61 

making, and in modeling figures, flowers, and 
similar objects. 

BEET (AS. bete, Lat. beta). A genus of 
plants of the family Chenopodiacese. There are 
about 15 species, mostly biennials, with smooth, 
ovate, stalked root leaves, and tall, leafy flower- 
ing stems. They are natives of the temperate 
parts of the Old World. Tho only species of 
economic importance is the Beta vulgaris. This 
has been in cultivation since before the Christian 
Era, and has been developed as a root vegetable, 
leaf vegetable, and as a foliage plant. The root- 
vegetable varieties, cultivated in gardens, consti- 
tute our table beets. Their color and form vary 
from dark blood-red to scarlet and white and 
from turnip shape to long tapering forms. The 
earlier and smaller varieties are usually turnip- 
shaped. As- a vegetable, the garden beet is 
ooiled, pickled, used as a salad, and the tops 
cooked for "greens." Young beets are exten- 
sively grown as an early markot -garden crop in 
the vicinity of all the larger cities in the United 
States and are sometimes forced under glass. 
(See VEGETABLES for illustration.) Garden 
beets require a deep, rich, loose, well-tilled soil. 
The seed is sown an early in spring as the 
weather becomes settled, in drills 18 to 36 
inches apart, and the young plants are after- 
ward thinned to 4 to 6 inches in the row. The 
wider rows permit of horse cultivation. Some 
50 varieties of garden beets are grown in the 
United States. Of the early varieties, Early 
Blood Turnip, Eclipse, Egyptian, and Bassano 
are standard sorts. The Mangel-wurzel, or Man- 
gold, is the variety now usually grown for cattle- 
feeding. It is a coarser and very large form of 
the common beet. It is planted as soon as the 
ground can be tilled in spring, in drills 2 to 3 
feet apart, and the plants are allowed to stand 
from 12 to 14 inches distant in the row. Fur- 
ther cultivation consists in keeping down the 
weeds, and shallow tillage. Golden Tankard, 
Golden Yellow Mammoth, and Mammoth Long 
Red are standard varieties. The sugar beet is 
a form of the common beet in which the per- 
centage of sugar has been greatly increased by 
cultivation and selection. It is extensively 
grown in central Europe and in the northern 
and western United States for the production 
of sugar. (See SUGAR BEET.) The strain of 
the Beta wlgari*, which is grown as a pot 
herb, both leaf and leaf stalk being eaten, is 
generally known as Chard or Swiss Chard, and 
will be considered under the head of CHARD 
(q.v.). The foliage varieties of beets are grown 
for their ornamental value, and are used for 
bedding and for borders where strong and heavy 
effects are desired. The large leaves of the sev- 
eral varieties are richly marked with different 
shades of red, orange, silver white, and inter- 
mediate shades. Like all succulent roots, the 
beet has a high water content, 88 per cent, and 
owes its food value to the 10 per cent carbo- 
hydrates it contains. A little protein, fat, and 
ash are also present. Beets are cooked in many 
ways and are wholesome, palatable, and gen- 
erally liked. 

Beet Diseases. Beets are subject to a num- 
ber of fungus attacks, some of which are con- 
fined to the leaves, others occurring upon the 
roots. The most destructive disease of the 
leaves is the leaf spot or blight, due to Ccrco- 
spora beticola. The leaves are more or less cov- 
ered with ashy spots, and later, by their drying 
up and falling away, little is left of the leaf 


but the framework. When the attack is severe, 
the growth and maturity of the crop is affected 
to a considerable degree. Bordeaux mixture 
(see FUNGICIDES) will prevent this disease, if 
the leaves are kept well covered with it from 
June through the growing season. The fungus 
winters in the old leaves, which should there- 
fore be collected and burned or they may be 
used as silage. A red rust caused by Uromycev 
let a; and a white rust due to Cystopus blitii 
occur on the leaves. Both will yield to applica- 
tions of the more common fungicides. 

The fungus Phoma letcr is quite destructive 
of l>eets in Kurope, the leaves and roots being 
attacked. The leaves are blackened and the fun- 
gus follows them to the root, where a rot quickly 
sets in. Sugar beets are especially subject to 
this trouble. 

Upon the roots the scab is one of the worst 
troubles. It is due to the same cause as the 
potato scab and will require the same treatment. 
A root rot due to Cortirum vagum solan t is 
troublesome in Europe. Small roots are killed 
and larger ones injured by the fungus, which 
readily survives in the soil. On this account, 
where the disease has appeared, other crops 
should be grown for a number of seasons. This 
disease, so far as reported, is most destructive 
to sugar beets. A bacterial disease of sugar 
beets is reported. The roots are not killed, but 
their sugar content is considerably reduced. It 
may be recognized by the greater prominence 
of the fibres in a cut section of the root, by the 
difference of color, and by less solid structure. 
No certain means for its prevention are known. 
Curly top, a disease recognized by the curled 
leaves, is rather common on sugar beets in the 
West. Its presence is usually accompanied by 
a diminished sugar content. Various insects, 
fungi, and other agents have been reported as 
the cause of this trouble. 

BEET, JOSEPH AGAR (1840- ). An Eng- 
lish divine, lecturer, and author. He was born 
nt Sheffield and was educated at Wesley College, 
Sheffield, and at Wesleyan College, Richmond. 
For 21 years he was engaged in pastoral work; 
from 1885 to 1005 he was a theological tutor 
at Wesleyan College, Richmond ; and he was one 
of the original members of the faculty of the- 
ology in the University of London. The Uni- 
versity of Glasgow conferred upon him an hon- 
orary D.D. Dr. Beet delivered the Fernley Lec- 
ture' on the "Credentials of the Gospel" in 1880, 
and in 1806 came to America, where he gave a 
series of lectures at the University of Chicago, 
at the summer schools of Chautauqua, and at 
Ocean Grove. Two of his theological works 
have been translated into Japanese and have 
been adopted as text-books in Japan. His pub- 
lications include: Credentials of the Gospel 
(1880); commentaries on St. Paul's epistles, 
Through Christ to God (1802); The New Life 
in f7im*(1895) ; The Last Things (1807; 1013) 
in all of which he brings the methods of 
science and philosophy to bear upon the theo- 
logical questions which he treats. He published, 
besides the books already named: A Manual of 
Theology (1006) ; Church, Churches, and Sacra- 
ments (1007) ; The New Testament: Its Author- 
ship, Date, and Worth (1000) ; The Old Testa- 
ment: Its Contents, Truth, and Worth (1912); 
A A>?/ to Unlock the Bible (reissue, 1913). 

BEETHOVEN, bn'to-ven, LUDWTO VAN (1770- 
1827). A German composer, the unsurpassed 
master of instrumental music. He was bapt'zcd 



In Bonn, Dec. 17, 1770, and it is generally as- 
sumed that he was born on the preceding day. 
His father Johann (c.1740-92) was a singer 
in the electoral chapel at Bonn; and his grand- 
father Ludwig (1718-73) had also been a singer, 
and since 1701 kapellmeister at the same chapel. 
When only four years old, Beethoven showed de- 
cided love for music, so that his father, a weak 
and shiftless character and a very mediocre 
musician, began to instruct him on the piano 
and violin, not for the sake of cultivating a 
great talent, but for the sordid reason of ex- 
hibiting his sou as a musical prodigy. Accord- 
ingly he proved a relentless and cruel task- 
master. In 1770 the boy was placed under the 
instruction of Tobias "Pfelffer, an excellent musi- 
cian, who, however, left Bonn the next year. 
Beethoven's unusual talent was now so evident 
that the Elector charged himself with the ex- 
pense of his further musical training. Thus the 
court organist Van den Eeden, who was also a 
remarkably fine pianist, became Lud wig's teacher 
on both organ and piano. After this teacher's 
death, in 1781, the instruction was continued 
by the new court organist, C. G. Neefe. It was 
he that first introduced Ms pupil to the myste- 
ries of musical composition. In 17K2 young 
Beethoven became Neefe's assistant at the or- 
gan, while at the same time he played viola 
in the orchestra. When only 13 years old, he 
conducted, during Neefe's occasional absences, 
the opera rehearsals at the piano. As early as 
1781 he wrote his first compositions, a set of 
variations on a march by Dressier and three 
sonatas for piano, all of which show a remark- 
able command of form. Nevertheless, it was 
his playing, rather than his compositions, that 
at this time excited general admiration. 

In the spring of 1787 Beethoven visited 
Vienna, at a time when Cluck, ITaydn, and 
Mozart were living there. On that occasion 
the boy's masterly improvisation elicited those 
prophetic words from Mozart: "Keep your eyes 
on him; some day he will make a stir in the 
world." According to Ries, Beethoven actually 
had a few lessons from the famous master, who 
would have accepted the young man as a pupil 
had he not been entirely absorbed in the com- 
position of Don Giovanni. Alarming news from 
nome caused Beethoven to terminate his visit 
abruptly; he reached home only a few days 
before his beloved mother died of consumption 
on July 17, 1787. After her death home life 
became almost unbearable, for the weak father 
now abandoned himself completely to the vice 
of intemperance. 

Under these circumstances it was fortunate 
for the young man that already before his visit 
to Vienna his masterly playing had been tho 
means of introducing him as a teacher into 
some of the best families of Bonn. Among 
these was the widow of the Privy Councillor 
Von Breuning, two of whose children, Stephan 
and Leonora, became and remained Beethoven's 
fast friends throughout life. Mrs. von Breun- 
ing treated the young musician as her own son. 
In this cultured and refined family Beethoven 
spent the greater part of his time, and here 
he first became acquainted with the master- 
pieces of German and English literature, for 
his general education had been sadly neglected. 
In fact, he had not attended school since his 
thirteenth year. Among the men whom he 
met at this time two play an important role in 
his life: Dr, Gerhard Wegeler and Count Wald- 

stein. The former married Leonora von Breun- 
ing and, together with Beethoven's pupil, Ferdi- 
nand Ries, wrote a biography of the master; 
the latter, a Viennese by birth, came to Bonn in 
1787 and immediately divined the extraordinary 
genius of the young man. It is almost certain 
that he was instrumental in persuading the 
Elector to send Beethoven to Vienna. In 1700, 
on his first journey to England, Haydn passed 
through Bonn, and the Elector personally intro- 
duced his young organist to the famous mas- 
ter. Definite arrangements for a course of in- 
struction under Haydn were probably not made 
till Haydn's second visit on his return from 
London in July, 1702. By the end of October 
everything had been settled. Under date of 
Oct. 20, 1702, Count Waldstein wrote the follow- 
ing parting letter: "Dear Beethoven. You are 
now about to depart for Vienna. The long-de- 
layed fulfillment of your wishes is at hand. 
The Genius of Mozart is still lamenting the 
death of his pupil. With tho fertile Haydn he 
has found a refuge, but no occupation. Through 
him he desires once more to be joined to some 
mortal. By means of untiring application you 
will receive the Genius of Mozart from the 
hands of Haydn." 

According to Thayer, Beethoven arrived in 
Vienna about Nov. 10, 1702. In his quality of 
court organist of the Elector of Cologne, an 
uncle of the reigning Emperor of Austria, Leo- 
pold II, and as the protege of Count Wnldstcin, 
who was related to some of the noblest families 
of Vienna, Beethoven was immediate!} admitted 
to the most exclusive circles. Without delay 
he began his lessons with Ilnydn. but before long 
the critical pupil discovered that the famous 
composer was a poor teacher. As arrangements 
had been made by the Elector for Beethoven to 
study with Haydn personally, it was impossible 
to change teachers without giving ofTense. 
Therefore, in order not to lose liis time, Beet- 
hoven visited Haydn regularly, but becretly he 
had arranged with Johann Schenk (tj.v.) for a 
thorough course in counterpoint. When at the, 
end of 1703 Haydn undertook his second journey 
to England, he sent his pupil to the famous 
theorist Albrechtsberger (q.v.). With him 
Beethoven spent an entire year, until May, 
1705, reviewing simple and double counterpoint 
and taking up canon and fugue. A considerable 
number of exercises of this time have been pre- 
served. They show the same painstaking care and 
critical attitude that characterized the master's 
method of production throughout his career. 

While Beethoven was thus pursuing a syste- 
matic course of instruction under his teachers, 
he did not entirely neglect original composition. 
Ever since his first attempts in 1781 he had con- 
tinued composing, but his productivity was not 
by any means prolific. The fact that he never 
published any of these works in their original 
form seems to prove conclusively that he re- 
garded these early attempts merely as a prepara- 
tion for his future career. In this connection 
it may be stated that as recently as 1011 the 
manuscript of a symphony, bearing on its title- 
page the name of Beethoven, was discovered 
by Dr. Stein in the archives of the University 
of Jena. Internal evidence shows that the work 
is undoubtedly a genuine work of Beethoven, 
and that it antedates the symphony which the 
master himself published as his first. External 
circumstances point to a period before 1792 as 
the probable date of composition. 




From the very beginning the musical atmos- 
phere of Vienna seems to have exerted a bene- 
ficial influence on Beethoven's productive ac- 
tivity, for, considering the time spent in writ- 
ing exercises for his teachers, the number and 
dimensions of the works that originated between 
1792 and May, 1795, is remarkable. The fact 
that he published nothing before 17p5 affords 
striking proof of the severe self-criticism to 
which he always subjected his own works. 

In the year 1795, in his twenty -fifth year, 
Beethoven began his public career. In March 
he appeared in one of Haydn's concerts with his 
own concerto for piano and orchestra in C, in 
the double r61e of virtuoso and composer, and in 
October his opus 1, three trios for piano, vio- 
lin, and 'cello, appeared in print. Before that 
time he had played only in the circles of the 
nobility to which he had been introduced by 
Count Waldstein. Here his remarkable talent 
found immediate recognition and secured for 
him an exceptional position. Many anecdotes 
are told of Beethoven's independence of spirit 
and lack of social manners. Frequently this 
led to unpleasant incidents and even temporary 
estrangement from his best friends; but in the 
end all such breaches of etiquette were over- 
looked and pardoned. 

With his friend and patron, Count Lich- 
nowsky, Beethoven visited Prague in 179G and 
played in the houses of the nobility. The 
flattering reception accorded to him in these 
circles induced him to visit also Dresden, Leip- 
zig, and Berlin. In the Prussian capital he 
played at court, and King Frederic William II 
was so impressed that he tried to induce the 
young master to settle in Berlin. But the 
King's death in the following year prevented 
the plans from being carried out. Of the next 
three or four years practically nothing is known 
beyond the fact that Beethoven spent the sum- 
mer of 1707 in Pressburg and Pcsth and that 
ho fell seriously ill. To this illness is attrib- 
uted an affliction of the ear which slowly but 
steadily impaired the master's sense of hear- 
ing, and about the year 1819 resulted in total 

Not until his thirtieth year did Beethoven ap- 
pear before the general public in his own con- 
certs. Before that his public appearances, few 
and far between, had been restricted to con- 
certs given by other artists. The remuneration 
he received for playing at the houses of his 
patrons was sufficient to relieve him from the 
necessity of accepting a regular position or 
giving lessons. All his time wa* devoted to 
composition. Tt is true that then, and also later, 
he did accept specially talented pupils, but not 
from necessity. Among the very few persons 
ihat could boast of having had personal instruc- 
tion from the great master were the Archduke 
Rudolf, Karl Czerny (q.v.), and Ferdinand Ries. 
On April 2, 1800, Beethoven gave the first con- 
cert of his own compositions. Of the works 
that were then performed for the first time, 
the beautiful Septet, op. 20, and the First Sym- 
phony, op. 21, quickly found their way into 
the regular concert repertoire throughout Aus- 
tria and Germany and spread the fame of their 
author. At comparatively short intervals one 
great work followed another, so that within three 
or four years Beethoven was a prominent figure 
in the world of music; even publishers began 
to vie with one another for the possession of 
works by the new master, whose name was men- 


tioned by many reviewers in the same breath 
with Haydn and Mozart. For his concert of the 
year 1803, at which the Second Symphony, the 
third concerto for piano and orchestra, and the 
oratorio Christus am Qlberg had their first hear- 
ing, the prices of admission were doubled. At 
irregular intervals Beethoven gave such concerts, 
which he called "academies," and at which only 
his own works were performed. 

In 1808 Jerome Bonaparte, King of West- 
phalia, sought to attach the famous Vienna 
master to his own court at Cassel by offering 
him 600 gold ducats and the title of IlofkapeU- 
mcistcr. No sooner did this news become known 
in Vienna than Archduke Rudolf and the counts 
Kin sky and Lobkowitz pledged themselves to 
the payment of 4000 florins annually if Beet- 
hoven would refuse the King's offer and re- 
main in Vienna. After he thus found himself 
in comfortable, even affluent, circumstances, he 
began to entertain plans for extended concert 
tours, especially to London; but the unsettled 
condition of affairs due to the Napoleonic wars 
prevented the realization of these schemes. 
Therefore the master remained in his adopted 
city, devoting himself to the creation of im- 
perishable masterpieces. 

Up to that time the fame of Beethoven had 
been limited to the circles of musicians and the 
more serious music lovers. The general public 
did not understand the new works, and their 
attitude was one of respectful admiration for 
the " learned" composer. A concert given on 
Dec. 8, 1813, established the master also in 
tlie popular favor. Maelzl, the inventor of the 
metronome, suggested to the composer the idea 
of celebrnting the downfall of Napoleon after 
the battle of Leipzig. Thus originated the 
" Battle Symphony," one of Beethoven's weakest 
productions, one which he himself later called 
cine Dummhcit ('a piece of folly'). This work, 
together with one of his very greatest, the 
Seventh Symphony, in A, constituted the pro- 
gramme, and it was the inferior work which 
roused the audience to a fren/y of enthusiasm, 
so that four days later the concert had to be 
repeated. In the following year, 1814, the mas- 
ter's only opera, Fidclio produced originally in 
1805 without success was thoroughly revised. 
In this new form it was received with storms 
of applause on May 23, and has maintained a 
foremost place in the operatic repertoire to 
this very day. On the occasion of the famous 
Congress of Vienna, in the fall of 1814, Fidelio 
was chosen as the festival opera in honor of 
the gathering of the European monarchs (Sep- 
tember 26) ; and on November 29 Beethoven 
directed a concert of his own works, at which 
the same potentates were present. Several of 
them, especially the Empress of Russia, ex- 
pressed their high esteem of the master by 
means of very substantial gifts. 

The period from 1815 to 1818 is the most un- 
productive in the composer's life. In November, 
1815, Beethoven's brother Karl died, leaving his 
eight-year-old son to the guardianship of his 
famous brother. As the mother's reputation 
was not of the best, Beethoven adopted his 
nephew and burdened himself with his educa- 
tion. Unfortunately the boy from the very 
beginning became an endless source of trouble 
to his great uncle. In order to regain posses- 
sion of her child the mother instituted a law- 
suit, which dragged along from one court to 
another for four years, when the boy finally 


was awarded to his uncle. At the same time 
he was also involved in a lawsuit against the 
heirs of Count Kinsky, who, after the latter's 
death, refused to pay their share of the 4000 
florins guaranteed to Beethoven in 1809. And 
behind these petty annoyances there loomed 
larger and constantly larger the dreadful spectre 
of total deafness. The only ray of hope in this 
sad time came in June, 1817. It was an offer 
from the London Philharmonic Society to write 
two new symphonies and to come to conduct 
them personally. The sum offered was 300. 
Beethoven eagerly accepted. But the worries 
just described, combined with his weakened 
physical condition, prevented the fulfillment of 
the agreement. Nevertheless, the plan was not 
abandoned. Among the sketches of the year 
1817 are some which were later used in the 
Ninth Symphony. They evidently were in- 
tended for one of the symphonies to be written 
for London. Likewise the projected journey is 
the theme of various letters as late as 1824, 
when the Philharmonic Society formally re- 
newed its offer. The ojily great works written 
from 1815 to 1819 are the two bonatas for 
piano, op. 101 and 100, and the two sonatas for 
piano and 'cello, op. 102. 

The appointment in 1819 of his former pupil, 
the Archduke Rudolf, as Cardinal Archbishop of 
Olmiitz suggested to Beethoven the idea of writ- 
ing a festival mass for the occasion of the 
solemn consecration which was to take place the 
following year. But the very first number, the 
Kyrie, assumed such colossal proportions that 
the completion of the work for the intended pur- 
pose was out of the question. The score of the 
Missa, Solcmnia was not finished till towards the 
end of 1822. Scarcely had the master written 
the last note, when he was again engrossed by 
a new work of gigantic scope, the Ninth Sym- 
phony. From now on till his death there was 
no pause in Beethoven's productivity. During 
these last years were written the three "last" 
sonatas, op. 100, 110, 111, and the last quartets, 
op. 127, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135. 

About the year 1817 Beethoven's health, which 
had never been robust, began gradually to de- 
cline. If he had had some one who would have 
taken proper care of him and furnished him 
the comfort of a well-regulated home, matters 
might still have been mended. At all times of 
his life Beethoven had been very irregular about 
his meals. When absorbed in his work, he would 
go without food and even sleep for long periods. 
But even when he found that his health pre- 
vented him from undertaking the journey to 
London, he continued in his irregular habits. 
After the lawsuit about his nephew had been 
Battled in 1820, troubles were by no means at 
an end. When the boy grew older, he was mis- 
led by evil companions, and in the fall of 1825 
it was discovered that he had been guilty of 
forgery. The blow was a terrible one, but the 
magnanimous uncle not only made full resti- 
tution and extended a complete pardon, but 
even kept the young man more closely about 
him in the hope of saving him. But in vain. 
Having failed in his examinations, driven to 
desperation by his creditors, and not daring to 
disclose the true state of affairs to his uncle, 
Karl (he was named after his father) made an 
attempt at suicide in the summer of 1826. He 
was found with a bullet wound in his head and 
brought to Beethoven's house. The effect of 
catastrophe upon the master is described 


by Schindler: "Signs of deepest grief were visi- 
ble in his bent carriage. The decision and firm- 
ness that characterized his every movement were 
gone. A septuagenarian stood before us." 
Symptoms of some severe illness made their ap- 
pearance. After Karl had recovered, it was de- 
cided that he should enter the army. Beethoven 
was all alone. In this extremity his brother 
Johann came forward. The brothers had never 
been on good terms; but there was no alterna- 
tive, and the master accepted his brother's hos- 
pitality at the latter's estate at Gneixendorf. 
Ilere &eethovcn finished the adagio of the quar- 
tet op. 135, his last composition, on Oct. 30, 
1820. A quarrel with his brother and sister- 
in-law put a sudden end to the visit. On a 
cold, wintry day, December 2, Beethoven re- 
turned in an open carriage to his home in 
Vienna, where he arrived in a state of utter 
exhaustion. At first the physicians diagnosed 
the case wrongly, and thus aggravated the 
malady, which at last was recognized as Bright's 
disease. With heroic fortitude, without a word 
of complaint, the master bore his sufferings for 
three 1 months. On .Tan. 3, 1827, when he real- 
ized that the end was near, he made his last 
will according to which hi.-i nephew Karl be- 
came his sole heir. After his death it was 
learned that his savings amounted to 20,000 
florins. But even in this long agony of death 
the master mind was still busv with plans of 
great works, among them a iVnth Symphony. 
In March the London Philharmonic Society sent 
a check for 100, for which the master dictated 
a letter of thanks on March IS. During a 
terrific thundcrst'rui on the afternoon of March 
20, 1827, the iiinnorttil spirit left its earthly 

Beethoven was ne\er married in spite of 
the fart that he was richly blessed with the 
friendship of many noble women. On more 
than one occasion he seriously entertained the 
thought of marriage. But invariably the object 
of his affection belonged to the high aristocracy, 
and the prejudices of the times prevented the 
realization of the master's desires. Much ro- 
mance has been woven about these love affairs, 
yet even to-day little more is positively known 
ihun WHS known by Dr. Wcgelor, who wrote in 
1838: "Beethoven was never without an affair 
of the heart, which generally took a deep hold 
of him. At least as long as I lived in Vienna 
ho always had some love affair, and frequently 
bad made conquests, which, if not impossible, 
would have proved extremely difficult for many 
an Adonis." 

Beethoven was a passionate lover of nature. 
The summers he always spent in the open coun- 
try in the vicinity of Vienna. There he would 
walk with his sketch book always in his pocket, 
writing down his ideas as they came to him. 
These preserved sketch books afford a wonderful 
insight into the workings of this master mind. 
The constant erasures and alterations show that 
he rarely employed his themes in their original 
form. Some of the most marvelous th ernes were 
thus elaborated from rather ordinary original 
conceptions. These sketches bear testimony to 
the extreme care of Beethoven's workmanship, 
as well as to the rigorous self-criticism exercised 
during actual composition. Naturally such a 
method of production is somewhat slow, and in 
consequence the sum total of Beethoven's works 
is not large when compared to that of some 
other masters, especially Bach. These considera- 


tions have misled several biographers, even 
Thayer, to attribute to Beethoven a lack of 
facility both in invention and execution. This 
charge is most readily disproved by Beethoven's 
consummate mastery of the free fantasia, which 
excited the admiration of Mozart, and to which 
the most famous musicians of Beethoven's own 
time bear enthusiastic testimony. In art it is 
not quantity, but quality, that counts. Haydn 
wrote 104 symphonies, Mozart 40, Beethoven 9. 
That among Beethoven's works there are some 
of decidedly inferior quality is largely due to 
the avarice of his brothers, who sold to pub- 
lishers, without Beethoven's consent or knowl- 
edge, manuscripts that were never intended to 
be given to the world. 

In the works of Beethoven absolute instru- 
mental music lias reached its culminating point 
a point beyond which further progress seems 
impossible, not even conceivable. Haydn and 
Mozart had developed and definitely established 
the instrumental forms which Hertlioven chose 
as the most fitting vehu le for the expression 
of his genius. He began exactly where his great 
predecessors had left off. In following the paths 
which they had pointed out, it was not only 
natural, but it became ine\itable that the very 
nature of Beethoven's themes, calling for more 
extended and complex development because of 
their wider range, greater depth, and intenser 
emotionality, should lead to an enormous ex- 
pansion of these forms, to an increase in the 
technical apparatus, to more exacting demands 
upon the mental pmvrr and mechanical skill of 
the executants, to cntirch new harmonic and 
rhythmic combinations. Beethoven did not de- 
stroy existing forms. On the eontrarv, he con- 
clusively proved their high artistic value. By 
subjecting especially one of them to the severest 
tests, Beethoven demonstrated that in the hands 
of a master the sonata form (q.v.) is not a 
stencil hampering freedom of expression, but a 
plastie mold adaptable to an infinite variety 
of content. Beethoven's power of emotional ex- 
pression is as intense as it is universal. In 
this respect he far surpasses all his predecessors, 
even the mighty Bach. By using his art as the 
subjective expression of his own profound per- 
sonality Beethoven opened new vistas that pre- 
sented undreamt-of possibilities in the direction 
of emotional intensity; and it is in this direction 
especially that modern music has developed. 

In its development the genius of Beethoven 
shows three distinct phases. The first period 
extends from 171)5 to 1808 and, roughly speak- 
ing, comprises the works bearing the opus num- 
bers 1-50. Here the composer still walks in 
the paths of his predecessors, but by no means 
as a mere imitator. Even the very earliest works 
bear the impress of a powerful individuality, and 
unmistakably foreshadow the wonders that are 
to come. Already contemporary critics were 
struck by something new, and complained of 
excessive thematic development, strange and 
harsh harmonies, forced rhythms. When he 
reached the end of this first period, Beethoven 
had already advanced beyond Haydn and Mozart 
in some respects, notably in his treatment of 
transition passages. Before that time it was 
customary to connect the main sections by sim- 
ple passage work, often mere scales. Beethoven 
soon dispensed with such meaningless passages 
and mere decorative accessories; his transition 
passages were built up from thematic material. 

The second period extends from 1803 to 1815, 


comprising the works from about op. 53-100. 
Usually the Third Symphony (Eroica), op. 55, 
is regarded as ushering in this period. Such 
passionate, intense accents, such oold syncopa- 
tions and incisive rhythms, such startling dis- 
sonances had not been heard before, not even 
in Beethoven's music. The advance in emo- 
tional intensity from the Second Symphony to 
the Eroica (written in 1802 and 1803 respec- 
tively) is so marked, that the law of natural 
development, which especially in the case of 
Beethoven's genius always operated gradually, 
fails to afford a satisfactory explanation. After 
a period of utter dejection and hopeless despair, 
into which he was plunged by the realization 
of his impending doom of deafness, Beethoven 
emerged a new man, a superman. Out of that 
tragic struggle with himself, in the course of 
which he had sounded the very depths of human 
anguish, his genius rose purified of all earthly 
dross, in imposing, awe-inspiring grandeur. 
Henceforth sublimity is the dominant charac- 
teristic of Beethoven's works. His themes are 
such as imperatively demand broad and exten- 
sive development; hence that expansion of the 
development sections. Here the master shows 
an amazing skill and inexhaustible fertility in 
the transformation of his thematic material. 
Frequently a mere fragment of his theme, a 
pimple rhythmic figure suffices to rear the most 
marvelous tonal structures. Truly, a creation 
out of nothing! 

The works of the third period extending from 
1816 to 1827, and comprising the opus numbers 
after 100, are characterized by colossal architec- 
tonic outline, with the minutest elaboration of 
details. The extraordinary mastery of thematic 
development of the second period appears even 
heightened and carried to the utmost limits of 
refinement and subtlety. Rhythm in its infinite 
variety becomes almost an independent factor 
of emotional expression. When approaching 
these last works for the first time, the mind is 
fairly overwhelmed, and almost confused, by 
this wealth of detail; so that until quite re- 
cently many excellent musicians considered these 
masterpieces, the very summit of instrumental 
music, as lacking in spontaneity and real in- 
spiration. As a matter of fact, it is only now 
that the "last Beethoven" is beginning to be 
understood and appreciated in wider circles. 

Beethoven wrote: 9 symphonies, in C, op. 21; 
D, op. 30; Kb, op. 55; Bb, op. 60; Cm., op. 67; 
F (Pastoral), op. 68; A, op. 02; F, op. 93; 
Dm, op. 125; 9 overtures; 5 concertos for piano 
and orchestra; 1 concerto for violin and or- 
chestra; 1 triple concerto for piano, violin, 
violoncello, and orchestra; 16 string quartets; 
3 quintets; 2 sextets; 1 septet; 2 octets; 8 
trios for violin, violoncello, and piano; 1 sonata 
for piano (4 hands) ; 38 sonatas for piano solo; 
10 sonatas for violin and piano; 5 sonatas for 
violoncello and piano; 1 sonata for horn and 
piano; 2 fugues for string quartet and quintet 
respectively ; 7 sets of variations for flute and 
piano; 3 sets for 'cello and piano; 2 sets for 
piano (4 hands) ; 21 sets for piano solo; the 
opera Fidelio; the oratorio Chriatun am filberg; 
incidental music to Prometheus, Die Ruinen von 
A then, Egmont, and Kbnig StcpJian; 2 masses 
in C and D (Missa Solemnis) ; the cantata Der 
glorreiche Augenhlick; MeeresstiHe und gliiclc- 
lirhc Fahrt; an aria, Ah Pcrfido!; 18 canons; 
67 songs; 7 books of English, Scotch, Irish, and 
Welsh songs for violin, violoncello, and piano; 


and a considerable number of smaller composi- 
tions for piano solo as well as for various com- 
binations of instruments. 

A critical edition of Beethoven's complete 
works in 24 volumes was published by Breitkopf 
and Hartel of Leipzig from 1864 to 1867. 

Bibliography. F. G. Wegeler and F. Ries, 
Biographische Notizen uber Ludwig van Bee- 
thoven (Koblentz, 1838), reprinted by A. C. 
Kalischer (Leipzig, 1906); A. Schindlor, Biog- 
raphic von Ludwig van Beethoven (Miinster, 
1840), reprinted by A. C. Kalischer (Berlin, 
1909) ; A. W. Thayer, Ludwig van Becthovens 
Leben, 5 vols., trans, from Eng. MS. by H. 
Deiters into German (vols. 1, 2, 3, Berlin, 
1866, 1872, 1877; vols. 4, 5, Leipzig, 1907, 1908), 
the standard biography; L. Nohl, Beethovens 
Leben (3 vols., Berlin, 1867), revised by P. Sako- 
lowski (Berlin, 1012) ; A. B. Marx, Ludwig van 
Beethoven t Leben und Schaffen (2 vols., Berlin, 
1884) ; F. Kerst, Beethoven im eignen Wort 
(Berlin, 1904), Eng. trans, by H. E. Krehbiel 
(New York, 1905); A. C. Kalischer, Beethoven 
und seine Zeitgenossen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1910) ; 
P. Bekker, Beethoven (Berlin, 1911); W. A. 
Thomas-San Galli, Ludwig van Beethoven (Mu- 
nich, 1913). 

COBBESPONDENCE. A. C. Kalischer, Beetho- 
vens sammtliche Brief e (5 vols., Berlin, 1908), 
Eng. trans, by J. S. Shedlock (London, 1909) ; 
F. Prelinger, L. van Beethovenft sammtliche 
Brief e und Aufseichnungen (4 volfl., Vienna, 
1908). Selections from the letters were edited 
by A. -Leitzmann (Leipzig, 1909) ; C. Sachs 
(Berlin, 1909) ; W. A. Thomas-San Galli (Halle, 
1910); H. Leichtentritt (Berlin, 1912). 

CBITICAL. W. Lenz, Beethoven et sen trois 
styles (2 vols., Paris, 1855), new ed. by D. Cal- 
vocoressi (Paris, 1909) ; G. Grove, Beethoven 
and his Nine Symphonies (London, 1896) ; C. 
Reinecke, Die Beethovenschen Klavicrsonaten 
(Leipzig, 1897), in Eng. trans. (London, 1898) ; 
W. Nagel, Beethoven und seine Klavierftonaten 
(2 vols., Langensalza, 1904) ; Th. Helm, Beetho- 
ven's Streichquartette (Leipzig, 1910) ; R. 
Nesieht, Das goldene Zeitalter der Klaviersonate 
(Cologne, 1910). 

CATALOGUES. A. W. Thayer, Chronologisches 
Verzeichniss der "Werke Beethoven* (Berlin, 
1865) ; G. Nottehohm, Thematisches Vcrzeichnisft 
der Werke Beethovens (Leipzig, 1913). 

A Beethoven Year Book under the title Bee- 
thoven Forschung, edited by Th. Frimmel, has 
been published in Vienna since 1911. 

BEETLE (AS. bltel, betel, literally 'biter,' 
from bitan, Eng. bite). An insect of the order 
Coleoptera, which seems to be wingless when 
at rest, but really possesses two pairs of wings. 
At rest one pair is folded beneath two horny 
cases that fit over the back and meet in the 
median dorsal line. These horny cases are the 
elytra, or wing covers, which are only the modi- 
fied forewings; and they distinguish beetles from 
all other insects save the earwigs, which are 
easily separable upon other grounds. 

The slight protection afforded by this arma- 
ture seems to be very advantageous to beetles, for 
they form the largest order of existing insects. 
"In bodily form," says Dimmock, "the Coleop- 
tera present every variation from long cylindri- 
cal to nearly globular, from hemispheres to 
extremely flattened disks, from straggling ant- 
like forms to compact seed-like ones." All, nev- 
ertheless, exhibit a divifrioi* of the bo4y into 
three JB,T*A, which, how-re?, ar *\rt *He typical 


head, thorax, abd abdomen, but a modification 
of 'these head, prothorax or fore body, and 
mesothorax and meta thorax combined with the 
abdomen into a hind body. 

The Head bears various appendages, and the 
mouth opens forward or downward. The mouth 


Serrate antennae and modifications 1, serrate (Ludius); 
2, pectinate (Corymbites) , 3, bipoctmate (Pnonocyphon) ; 
4, nahellate (Acmnis); 5, plumose (Dendroides); 6, 7, 8, 
irregularly serrate, approaching elaviform (clavate antenna*) ; 
9, TroROHita; 10, Oatoptnchus, 11, Colon, 12, Brvaxis, 13, 
Anogdus; 14, Liodoa; 15, EpicruH, 16, Phymaphoru: 17, He- 
terocerus, 18, Adranes, capillary and verticillate, 19, inonili- 
form (Dasvcerus), 20, lamellate (HhyHsoden), 21, Luoanus; 
22. Bolboccrus; 23, irregular (Lachnosterna) ; 24, Dmeutea. 

parts are strong, equably developed, and adapted 
both for ^nawincf and" for seizing prey. The 
mandibles are lar^e and ntrong, and in the males 
of some forms reach a great size. (See STAG 
BEETLE.) The Curculionidce, or snout beetles, 
have a long beak, but it is a prolongation of the 
head in front of the eyes, and not of any of 
the mouth parts. 

The eyes are compound and usually large and 
efTeetive, except in a few cave-dwelling species. 
(See CAVE ANIMALS.) Ocelli are absent, as a 
rule, in the adult form, even where possessed 
by the larva*. The compound eyes vary greatly 
in form und appearance and number of facets, 


Arrangement and names of mouth parts: a, labium; &, labial 
palpus; c, c, maxilla ; d, d, maxillary palpi; e t 0, eyes: /,/, 
antennae (1, pedicle; 2, acape; 3, flagellum); Q % mandibles; 
A, men turn; t, submentum; 3, gula. 

and sometimes are divided into upper and lower 
parts, so that the insect is really four-eyed; 
tliis is especially the case in some water beetles, 
which may thus see what is going on both above 
and below the surface of the water as they 
swim. The antennae (most commonly 11 -join ted) 
are placed just in front of the eyes and are 









organs not only of touch, but of smell and prob- 
ably of hearing. They appear under a variety 
of forms, some of which are pretty constant 
throughout largo groups, giving them such 
names as clavicorn, lamellicorn, serricorn, longi- 


a, head; b, prothorax; c, scutellum of mesothorax; d, a hind 
wing, e, elytra (front wings); /, spiraclcu; (/, augments of 

corn, etc. "The antenna? are said to be clavate 
when th.ckened at the extremity, in the form 
of a club or knob ; lamellate, when three or more 
of the terminal joints spread out in broad proc- 
esses which he flat upon one another; serrate, 
when the joints have on one side short angular 
processes like the teeth of a saw; pectinate, or 
comb-like, when the processes are fairly long 
nnd stand out nearly at right angles; or* flabel- 
late, if the processes are proportionately very 
long." It is believed that the senses of smell 
and hearing reside in the antenna*. The former 
is evidently well developed in most, if not all, 
beetles, while the latter seems certainly pos- 
sessed by many. The tapping of such species 
as the " death watch" implies a listener of the 
same kind; and similar evidence is furnished by 
the fact that longi corns and some other beetles 
are often capable of producing sound by stridu- 
lating or rubbing together various external hard 
parts of the body, such as wings and legs, or 
surfaces and angles on the prothorax and meta- 
thorax ; they produce some tones that man is 
incapable of hearing. These organs are pos- 
sessed chiefly by the males; and a resume of 
facts relating to it and to many other char- 
acteristics distinguishing the sexes of beetles 
may be found in chap, x of Darwin's Descent 
of Man (London, 2d ed., 1874). 

The Fore Body forms the second well-marked 
division of a beetle, and consists of the pro- 
thorax, which in Coleoptera is not united solidly 
with the two other thoracic segments, but con- 
nected movably with them. "Its tergite (promo- 
turn) is a very prominent feature in all beetles, 
reaching back to the origin of the elytra." It 
is hollowed forward to receive the head, and in 
some groups it is modified in form or possesses 
horns and spines of extraordinary appearance. 
These, as a rule, are seen only in the males, 
however, and most prominently among the 
lamellicorns. This fore body wears the fore- 
most pair of legs, with which the hinder pairs 
may or may not agree. Beetles use their legs 
more than their wings. They do fly, but less 
frequently and skillfully than they run, jump, 
climb, swim, and burrow. Most of them are 


extremely active and hence have well-developed 
fegs and feet. These are all much alike in the 
ground runners and tree climbers, but variety is 
found among those of more special haunts and 
habits. Thus, the jumpers have very long hind 
legs, with thickened femora; the diggers have 
thickened fore legs, with claws turned into exca- 
vators; the aquatic beetles have all or a part of 
their legs disposed as oars and made broad and 
flat and bordered with bristles. The parts of 
the legs \ary considerably and with such regu- 
larity that the form of the coxa is used as one 
of the main standards in classifying families, 
while larger groups Pentamera, Tetramera, etc. 
are based on number and characteristics of 
joints in the tarsi. "The tarsal joints are hairy 
beneath, and those of the anterior (and some- 
times also the middle) pair of legs of many 
male beetles are modified to clasp more firmly 
the female during copulation." The most pe- 
culiar of these modifications is seen among water 
beetles (Dysticidae). The legs of larvaj are often 
reduced to mere rudiments or are absent. 

The Hind Body is made up of the two posterior 
thoracic segments and the abdomen and is en- 
tirely hidden from dorsal view in most beetles 
by the wing covers, but the parts can be well 
seen on the ventral surface. To the mesothorax 
are attached the middle pair of legs and the 
wing covers, while the metathorax supports the 
hindmost legs and the membranous flying wings, 
which, when not in use, are curiously folded 
out of harm's way under the elytra, which also 
shield the soft-skinned abdomen. The elytra are 
not instruments of flight, except that they may 
be useful as balancers, when held out at right 
angles. They shut close together upon the back 
when at rest and in some forms are closely 


a I, prostenmm; 2, inesosternum ; 3, metasternum; 
/, /, epimera of mesothorax; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6, joinU of abdomen. 
Joints of hind legs: a, coxa; 6, trochanter; c, femur; d, tibia; 
e, tarsiu. 

united by a suture along the median line; or, 
in the case of certain running beetles, where the 
wings may be greatly aborted or perhaps may 
even be altogether absent, particularly in the 


female sex, the elytra may even be wholly 
grown together into one shield. The elytra may 
be smooth and plainly colored, or may be highly 
polished, striated, pitted, and sculptured in a 
great variety of ways, as usually occurs in the 
terrestrial families. They may also bear spines, 



The legs spring from the three thoracic segments; the re- 
mainder of the body consists of abdominal segments. 

few or many, long and short, tubercles, and other 
prominences, or be clothed with pubescence or 
scattered hairs or scales or waxy secretions. 
"The excessive brilliancy and sparkling colora- 
tion of the diamond beetle of Brazil ... is 
due to its being covered with scales; this . . . 
is common among the weevils (Curculionida?) 
and not rare in a few other families of Coleop- 
tera." Beetles exhibit almost every known shade, 
of color ( see Plate ) , and a few are iridescent, 
with beautiful metallic hues. "A little beetle 
(Coptorijcla aurwhatrra) , not uncommon on the 
wild morning-glory (fonrulrulun), looks, when 
alive, like a flattened drop of the finest polished 
gold. The species of certain families resemble 
one another in coloration and figuration ; the 
leaf beetles (Chrysomelidtt') have, for the most 
part, brilliant coloration; the ladybirds (Coc- 
cinellida?) have, for prevailing colors, red, yel- 
low, and black, mostly arranged in round or 
roundish spots" (Dimmock). As a general rule 
those whose lives are passed in the open sun- 
light are more bright in color than those that 
habitually dwell in cavities, under stones or 
water, or in the dark. 

Habits and Food. Beetles dwell in the great- 
est variety of situations and in nearly all parts 
of the world. A few live in salt water, more in 
fresh waters, and a limited number breed in 
hot springs. Under great stones and in caves 
dwell a good many blind beetles, the degenera- 
tion of the visuaTorgans in some of which has 
proceeded BO far as to include even the optic 
nerves and lobes. Certain other forms are para- 
sites in other animals or are to be found in the 
nests of termites and ants; for the very inter- 
esting facts of this association, see SYMBIOSIS. 

The food of beetles and their young is as di- 
verse as their habitats. A vast number of them, 
such as Hydrophilido? and Chrysomelidaj, feed 
on vegetable matter, both living and dead, above 
or beTow ground. Still another vast host, Ci- 
cindelidffi, Carabidae, Dytiscidce, and Coccinellidee, 
live on animal food, which either the adults or 
their predaceous larvse capture alive, or ap- 
propriate when found dead, according to the 
custom of the species. In this fondness for 
decaying and excrementitious matter, often 

minute in quantity, they perform an excellent 

Enemies and Defenses. Birds, rodents, 
fiogs, toads, and reptiles all prey upon beetles, 
both adult and larval. Flies, wasps, mites, and 
predaceous beetles feed on them, or lay eggs 
within them which develop at the expense* of the 
strength and substance of their host. They are 
infested with parasitic worms and protozoa, 
fungi destroy them, and inclement weather and 
lack of food help to reduce their ranks. Against 
these adversities various beetles are more or less 
protected by having a coloration like that of 
soil, leaves, or the bark of trees, \vhile certain 
others look like excrescences on the leaves of 
their food plants, or caterpillar dung and still 
others hide themselves under heaps of their 
own frass. A few look like sticks and seeds, 
the cocoons of one form resembling the seed pod 
of the food plant. A good many feign death by 
dropping to the ground. The bombardiers (q.v.) 
shoot at a pursuer. Tlie abdomen of a number 
of beetles is held up in a warning attitude, as if 
to sting. Certain longicoriis have the disagree- 
able taste and smell of fireflies and even possess 
yellow markings in the region occupied by their 
luminous disks. For the luminescence charac- 
teristic of the Lampyndue see FIREFLIES; LUMI- 

Economic Importance. The blister beetles 
(q.v.) are used to make blister plasters, partic- 
ularly tlio one commonly known as Spanish ily. 
The grubs of various beetles are roasted and 
eaten by both white men and natives of the 
tropics;' and the Komans, according to Pliny, 
fattened certain grubs (CoRSutt) with Hour, to 
prepare them for the table. This COBBUB was 
probably a member of the genus /Viowiia, the 
larva; of which are still eaten in some parts of 
the world. The hard parts of brilliant tropical 
species are often mounted as je\\'ls to form 
pins, cull' buttons, hat pins belt buckles, and the 
like. Fireflies sewed in gauze are used by Cuban 
women to adorn ball dresses. Many beetles, 
such as those of the ladybird family, prey on 


a, labrum; b, labial palpus; c, c, maxillae; d, maxillary 
palpi; /, /, antennae; Q, mandibles. 

plant-eating insects; others, such as carrion and 
dung, and the burying beetles, place their c<*gs 
upon stable refuse, and a great many beetles 
fertilize flowers. Taken as a whole, beetles are 
economically injurious; for they ravage growing 
and stored crops, living wood, lumber, both 


sawed and manufactured, carpets, furs, hides, 
woolen goods, cured meats, books, and zoological 
collections. The Dermestids (q.v.) are especially 

Life History. Owing to the difficulty of rear- 
ing beetle larvifi, we know comparatively little 
of the life history of beetles. All undergo com- 
plete metamorphosis. The eggs are laid in the 
situations where the economy of the species de- 
mands that the grub should be born, in order 
to maintain itself, i.e., upon or within access of 
its food. Thus aquatic beetles lay their eggs 
in the water, leaf eaters upon plants, wood 
borers beneath the bark and in crevices of tim- 
ber; the weevils upon tender seed pods or young 
seeds, and so on. The scarabs (wee DUNG 
BEETLE; SCARAB) roll up their eggs in a ball of 
dry dung, and the burying beetles place theirs 
upon the carrion which is buried to await the 
hatching of the young. When the eggs are not 
laid so late as to be intended to remain dormant 
over winter, they hatch quickly, and the larva 
begins at once to feed upon its intended fare. 

The larva 1 are commonly called "grubs," are 
usually whitish or of dull, inconspicuous hues, 
and ordinarily have three pairs of legs, one pair 
for each of the first three thoracic segments, 
which may vanish in older stages; but grubs 
that live within their food may be legless. 
Grubs may possess traces of still other legs, a 
number of them having a pscndopod on the pos- 
terior end of the abdomen. Like adult beetles, 
grubs have mandibulnte mouth parts, and i-ei- 
tain forms have channels in the mandibles 
through which liquid food is sucked. The lanal 
state lasts for a numl>er of years, which makes 
those sjKH'ies injurious to agriculture far more 
formidable than they might otherwise become. 

Some beetles pupate in cocoons or cases, made 
of agglutinated bits of earth and wood. Those 
larvir that bore in wood go into the pupa stage 
in their burrows. Some forms pupate in the 
ground, others on the surface of the ground : 
while still others, such as the ladybird, sus- 
pend themselves to objects above ground by the 
posterior ends of the body. Several pupate in 
the last larval skin. The pupal state of the 
majority of beetles lasts only two or three 
weeks, but in some cases it lasts several years. 
On account of the hardness of the exoskeleton, 
beetles retain their shape well when dried, and 
hence collections of them are made with more 
ease than is possible in other departments of 
entomology, and adult beetles have been studied 
more thaii any other order of insects. 

Classification. The enormous numbers of 
beetles do not adequately impress us, since 
beetles are less on the wing, and hence we sec 
them less than flies, wasps, butterflies, or moths. 
The form and variation of the external parts are 
almost wholly used to determine their classifica- 
tion. The present number of described species is 
not far from 150,000, of which more than 11,000 
species inhabit America north of Mexico, repre- 
senting 8,3 families. The old subordinal di- 
visions Clavicornia, Serrieornia, etc. based on 
the shape of the antennas are no longer accepted 
as scientific, and in their place various subdi- 
visions have been proposed. A commonly ac- 
cepted classification is the following, based on 
the tarsi: (1) Cruptotetranierafnur iomts in 
the tarsus, one rudimentary: Coccinellidaj and 
Endomychidce. ( 2 ) Cryptopentamerafivr joints, 
one being abortive: Chrysomelidae, Gerambycidae 
Hongioorns), Brenthid*; Curculionidce, etc. (3) 


Heteromera- four front tarsi five-jointed, hind 
tarsi f our -join ted : Meloidsp, Stylopidtr, Tene- 
brionidee, etc. (4) Pentamera five-jointed: 
Ftinida?, derides, Lampyridae, Elaterida?, Bu- 
I/reatidae ( serricorns ) , Scarabseida (lamelli- 
corns), Hydrophilidae, etc., including about half 
of all known beetles. 

Many of these, and other families, will be 
found described elsewhere, in their vocabulary 
places. See also English names of groups or 

Bibliography. For general works, see IN- 
SECT. For the most recent and only general 
work on the classification of North American 
Coleoptera, consult Le Oonte and Horn, A Classi- 
fication of the Colroptera of North America, 
Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1883). 
For an excellent general account consult Kel- 
logg, Awwican Insects, 1008. A very complete 
list of the systematic writings on N. A. Coleop- 
tera brought up to 1895 and arranged by fami- 
lies is published under "Bibliographical Kefer- 
cnees in Henshaw's Third Supplement to the 
Coleoptera, etc. (Philadelphia, 1895). Most of 
the literature applies to single families, tribes, 
and genera, and references to important groups 
will be found mentioned underneath the ac- 
counts of these given elsewhere. 

BEETLESTONE'. A hard nodule of clay 
ironstone composed of shale. It is found at 
Nevvhaven, Wales. It is capable of taking a 
high polish and is therefore used by lapidaries 
to make ornaments. The name "beetlcstone" is 
from a fossil frequently found in the nucleus of 
the nodule; the fossil was formerly supposed to 
be a beetle, but is now known to be a coprolite. 

BEETYLING (hectic, a heavy wooden mallet, 
from the root heat). A mechanical finishing 
process applied to linen and afterward to cot- 
ton shirting, in imitation of linen, to give the 
cloth a hard and wiry look, by flattening the 
yarn irregularly in an angled manner, and also 
in finishing fine linen danuibk. This is done by 
upright wooden stamps, placed close together 
in a row, with their square butts resting on 
a roller over which the cloth passes, doubled 
in a particular way, so that the yarn, when 
struck, acquires an angled appearance. Linen 
weft yarn for sailcloth is likewise beetled by 
such a machine, or by hand hammering on a 
large flat stone with a wooden mallet, to soften 
the yarn for easiness of working it in weav- 
ing. The yarn is also passed between longi- 
tudinally grooved rollers for the same purpose. 

BEET PULP. A term applied to the mass 
of sliced sugar beet remaining after the extrac- 
tion of the su^nr. II is a voluminous by-product 
of beet-sugar factories, and with the growth of 
the beet-sugar industry the means of utilizing 
it have received considerable attention. Beet 
pulp is fed quite extensively to cattle and sheep, 
and in Europe has been successfully fed to milch 
cows. Large feeding sheds are erected near the 
factories in some parts of the United States, 
several thousand head of steers and sheep being 
fed upon the beet pulp, supplemented by hay 
and a little grain. The pulp contains about 90 
per cent of water, and in the wet condition must 
be fed at once or preserved in silos, which may 
be very crude. It would not pay for hauling 
any distance. It is also dried at an increasing 
number of factories and then keeps well and has 
a feeding value comparable with corn meaL 

ETS, batf, NIKOLAAS (1814-1903). A 
Dutch poet and author, born at Haarlem. He 
became professor of theology at the University of 
Utrecht, but is principally known by his contri- 
butions to belles-lettres. His Camera Obscura 
(1839, 18th ed., 1888), which he published 
under the pseudonym of llildebrand, has been 
called the finest piece of prose in the Dutch 
literature of the last century. *Jt has been 
translated into several modern languages. His 
poetry, though inferior to his prone, enjoyed 
also great popularity. Among his poetic tales 
may IK? mentioned (3uy tie Vlaming (1853) and 
Ada van Holland (1846). His lyric songs in- 
clude Korenbloemen (1853); Jficuwc gcdivhtcn 
(1857); Verstrooide gedichten (1862); Harp- 
toonen (1892). His poetry was published in 
five volumes ( 1886-91 ) . He was also the author 
of some critical essays and several works on 
theology, among them Stiohtelijke wren (7 vols., 


BEETZ, bats, \YTLHELM VON (1822-8G). A 
German physicist, born at Berlin. He was at 
first professor of physics at the artillery school 
there. In 1855 he was appointed professor of 
physics at the University of Bern and in 1858 
at the University of Erlangen. He was called to 
the chair of physics at the Munich Polytechni- 
kum in 1868. He made researches in regard to 
the electrical conductivity of liquids, galvanic 
polarization, and other problems; contributed 
extensively to 1'oggendorff's Annalen and pub- 
lished Leitfadcn der J'hysik (2d ed., 1857; llth 
ed., 1893), and Grundzitge der ISlectricitatsleltre 

BEE'VTLLE. A town, and the county-seat 
of Bee Co., Tex., 90 miles (direct) southeast of 
San Antonio; on the San Antonio arid Aransas 
Pass and the Galveston, Tlarrisburg, and San 
Antonio railroads (Map: Texas, D 5). It has a 
mild and equable climate, is in a region adapted 
to fruit and vegetable growing, and exports live 
stock, cotton, and bee products. Its chief in- 
dustries include a broom factory and a cotton- 
seed-oil mill. Beeville adopted the commission 
form of government in 1912. Pop., 1910, 3269. 

BEFANA, bn-fft'na (It. Befana, or Befania, 
corrupted from Epiphania, Epiphany). The 
name given in Italy to a singular custom pre- 
vailing on the festival of that name (January 
6). According to tradition, the Befana WUH an 
old woman who, being busy cleaning the house 
when the Three Wise Men of the East passed 
by on their way to offer their treasures to the 
infant Saviour, excused herself for not going 
out to see them, on the ground that she would 
have an opportunity of doing so when they re- 
turned. They, however, went home by another 
way; and the Befana, not knowing this, has 
ever since been watching for their return. She 
is supposed to take a great interest in children 
who on Twelfth Night are put earlier to bed, 
and a stocking of each is hung before the fire. 
Shortly the cry "Ecco la Bcfana!" is raised; 
and the children, who have not gone to sleep, 
dart out of bed and seize their stockings, in 
which each finds a present bearing some pro- 
portion in value to his conduct during the year. 
If any one has been conspicuously ill behaved, 
he finds his stocking full of ashes the method 
the Befana takes of expressing her disapproba- 
tion. It was also customary in Italy, on Twelfth 
Night, to carry an effigy called the Befana in 
procession through the streets amid great re- 


joicingft; but this, which was probably the relic 
of the celebration of a Middle- Age "mystery," 
has fallen greatly into disuse. The word is also 
used to awe naughty children. See BEAN KING'S 

BEFORE THE HAST. In rigged ships, 
that part of the upper deck forward of the 
mainmast used by the enlisted men. Abaft the 
mainmast the starboard side (in port; at sea, 
the weather side) of the quarter-deck is kept 
clear of all persons, except the officer of the 
deck and the captain; while the port side (at 
sea, the lee side) is used by the officers as a 
promenade, etc. This division of the ship at the 
mainmast gave rise to the expression before the 
mast, which is used in the same sense in the 
merchant service, where the customs are similar 
but less formal. Mariners serving before the 
mast are therefore enlisted men and not officers, 
botli in the navy and in tho merchant marine. 
In modern ships of war the arrangements of 
decks and masts are so different from those of 
the old ribbed ships that the term "before the 
mast" has no meaning except as regards its 
application to the enlisted force, and it has 
fallen into disuse. 


BEGA, bii'ga, COBNELIS (1620-04). A Dutch 
painter and etcher. He was born in Haarlem 
and was a pupil of Adrian van Ostadc. hike 
his master, he chose his subjects from low life 
in its humorous aspects, especially tavern 
scenes. Among the best of his numerous pic- 
tures are the "Peasants' Concert," in the Am- 
Bterdam Museum; "The Alchemist," in the Cas- 
Hel Gallery; "Peasant Family/' in the Berlin 
Museum; and "llustic Interior," in the Louvre. 

BEGARELLI, bii'ga-rerie, ANTOXIO (c.M8- 
l/iCo). An Italian sculptor in terra cotta, the 
chief master of the Emilian school during the 
High Renaissance. He was born at Modena, 
where lie studied under local masters and passed 
most of his life. Chronological reasons as well 
as the character of his art forbid the assump- 
tion that he was a pupil of Guido Mazzoni, 
as is commonly supposed. Equally erroneous 
is Vasari's statement that he was greatly in- 
fluenced by Correggio. He was, however, just 
a.s were the painters of the Emilian school, in- 
directly influenced by Raphael. His sculptures 
are characterized by a certain nobility of form, 
a loving care in finish and detail, and a whole- 
some realism. Most of them no longer possess 
the beautiful patina, particularly in the flesh 
tints, for which they once were famous. Their 
prevailing tone is an ivory white, gilding and 
color being sparingly used; but the effect has 
been much impaired by subsequent varnishings. 
The principal defect of Begarelli's work is lack 
of composition, for his figures are grouped in 
the manner of mystery plays. Most of his 
sculptures are in his native city and the vi- 
cinity. To his early period belong a "Pieta" in 
Sant' Agostino, and the almost unknown monu- 
ment of the Prothonotary Bisebetti in San 
Cesario, and the Presepio in the cathedral 
(1527). Among the best of his other works 
are the "Madonna with the Christ Child" in the 
Galleria Estense, and the "Madonna di Piazza" 
in the Museo Civico, the "Descent from the 
Cross" in San Francesco (his most ambitious 
effort), a "Pieta" and other works in the Bene- 
dictine church of San Pietro, the monks of 
whose order were his especial patrons. His 
last years were devoted principally to 32 terra- 


cotta statues for the church of San Benedetto 
Po near Mantua. In these, as in other later 
works, he was assisted by his nephew, LORENZO 
BEGABELLI, a sculptor of note, whose works are 
often confounded with his uncle's, but differ 
from them in breadth of treatment. Consult 
the article on the Begarelli by Bagliola in 
L'Arte (1909), and in Thieme and Becker, 
Allgemeines Kunstler Lexicon, vol. iii (Leipzig, 

BEGAS, ba'gas. A distinguished family of 
German painters. The founder, KARL BEOAS 
(1794-1854), historical and portrait painter, 
was born at Heinsberg, near Aix-la-Chapelle. 
After studying with Philippart at Bonn, he 
entered the studio of Jean Antoine Gros in Paris 
(1813). Under the patronage of the King of 
Prussia he received important commissions and 
in 1821 a royal stipend for study in Italy, 
where he became an adherent of the "Naza- 
renes," or Gorman Pre-Raphaelite school. In 
1824 he returned to Berlin and became professor 
in the Koyal Academy. Ever influenced by the 
prevailing fashion, he deserted the NazaVenes 
for romanticism, and finally became a realist. 
His best work is his portraits. Among his 
principal canvases are: "Christ on the Mount 
of Olives" (1818, Garnisonkirche, Berlin); 
"Outpouring the TToly Spirit" (1821, Cathedral, 
ib.); "The Resurrection" (1827, Werdersche 
Kirche, Berlin) ; "Portrait of Thorvaldsen" 
(National Gallery, ib.) ; "Baptism of Christ" 
(Garnisonkirche, Potsdam); "Lorelei" (1834); 
"MohrenwHftche" (1843, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin). A number of his portraits of distinguished 
contemporaries (including Jacob Grimm, Meyer- 
beer, Cornelius, Alexander von TTumboldt) are 
in the Hohenzollern Museum, Berlin. 

BEGAS, KARL (the younger) (1845-11)16). 
A German sculptor, brother of Reinhold Begas, 
in whose studio, as well as in Rome, he studied 
sculpture. In Berlin he achieved distinction as 
a sculptor of extremely graceful groups, such 
as "Sister and Brother," and others in the Na- 
tional Gallery (Berlin). Dignified in design 
also are the statues of Knobelsdorff (1886, Ves- 
tibule of the Berlin Museum), and of Solon and 
Aristotle (University of Kiel). Among his 
other works are the monument commemorating 
the Franco-Prussian War, unveiled at Cassel in 
1898; the two groups representing Margrave, 
Otho IV and Frederick William IV ("Siege- 
sallee," Berlin) ; an equestrian statue of Em- 
peror William II in the Hall of Fame at Bar- 
men (1902) ; a "Boar-Hunt" in the Berlin Ticr- 
garten (1905); and the monument in Urville, 
Elsass, to Empress Auguste Victoria. 

BEGAS, OSKAB (1828-83). A German 
painter, eldest son of the elder Karl Begas. He 
was born in Berlin, studied with his father, and 
at 12 painted portraits of merit. In 1852 ho 
won a scholarship which entitled him to a two- 
years course in Italy. His principal work there, 
a "Deposition from the Cross" with life-size 
figures, won him a gold medal and the place of 
official painter in the Prussian Academy. Among 
his best-known sitters were Peter von Cornelius 
(Antwerp Museum), Pauline Lucca, Crown 
Prince Frederick, General von Moltke, and Wil- 
liam I. He also painted mural decorations (Ber- 
lin Rathaus), historical and genre pictures, like 
the "Hour of Gossip" (National Gallery, Ber- 
lin), and simple landscapes. 

BEGAS, REINHOLD (1831-1911). The most 
prominent German sculptor of the later nine- 


teenth century, second son of Karl Begas. Ha 
studied with Wichmann, Schadow, and princi- 
pally in the atelier of Rauch. At Rome he was 
much influenced, both in subjects and in realis- 
tic tendencies, by his association with Boecklin 
and by the sculptures of Michelangelo and the 
Baroque artists. His "Pan Consoling a Deserted 
Nymph" (18.57) was hailed as marking a new 
conception of sculpture in Germany and was 
followed by a series of similar subjects. Among 
the more important commissions of his earlier 
period are the group surmounting the Berlin 
Bourse (1859); the monument to Frederick 
William III at Cologne; the well-known Schiller 
monument (1871) in Berlin; and the Strousberg 
sepulchral monument (modeled in 1874), which 
won the Grand Prix at the Paris Exposition in 
1900. During this period and also throughout 
his career he modeled a multitude of busts, 
such as those of William and Alexander von 
Humboldt, Menzel, Moltke, Bismarck, and a 
whole series of the Hohenzollern family. 
The pedestals wore of a very original form, 
usually like that of a classical hcrm, richly 
decorated. He was in charge of the many 
portrait sculptures of the Berlin arsenal, 
with its Hall of Fame, for which he also 
executed the colossal statue of "Borussia" 
(1885) nnd others, and was, in fact, throughout 
his career the official sculptor of the Prussian 
court. Among his other important works are 
the marble sarcophagus of Frederick II, erected 
in 1892 in the mausoleum at Potsdam, and a 
colossal "Fountain of Neptune" (1886-91) sup- 
ported by titans and surrounded by allegorical 
figures of rivers, waves, and by fishes and sea 
monsters perhaps his masterpiece; and the 
mighty bronze group "Germania" surmounting 
the new Reichstag building. 

The reign of Emperor William II offered 
even greater artistic opportunities. Setting 
aside an official competition, the Emperor him- 
self commissioned Begas to carve the national 
monument to William I (1892-97), of colossal 
proportions and with numerous figures. He 
was also commissioned to erect the monument 
to Bismarck in front of the Reichstag build- 
ing (1901), many statues in the Siegesallee of 
Berlin, and the marble statue of Emperor Wil- 
liam II (1904) in the Palace at Potsdam. 
Begas's sculpture represents the reaction against 
the enfeebled classic tendencies of his day. It 
is characterized by a powerful realism and in- 
dividualism and often by exaggerated action, 
resembling in this regard, as well as in its dec- 
orative qualities, Baroque art, which he re- 
vived. It is to his works, as well as to his 
numerous pupils, that Berlin largely owes its 
present Baroque appearance. His best produc- 
tions are those of his middle period, particu- 
larly the mythological, genre, and portrait busts. 

BEGBIE, HAROLD (1871- ). An English 
author and journalist, born at Fornham St. 
Martin, Suffolk. He was educated privately and 
early began the practice of writing. Among 
his 'books, largely novels of the didactic type, 
are: The Political StrMwwelpeter Series (1889- 
1901); The Handy Man (1900); The Fall of 
the Curtain (1901); Master Worker* (1905); 
The Priest (1906); The Cage (1909); Broken 
Earthenware (1909), published in America 
(1910) as Twice-Born Men: and translated into 
French and published as Pots Causes (1912); 
flow/* in Action, which expands the narrative 
of Twice-Born Men (1911); The Ordinary Man 


and the Extraordinary Thing (1912); Other 
Sheep (1912); The Rising Dawn (1913). 

BEGG, ALEXANDER (1840-97). A Canadian 
historian, born at Quebec. He was educated at 
Aberdeen, Scotland, and at St. John's, P. Q. 
He early engaged in commercial pursuits, and 
in 1867 was the first to arrive at Fort Garry 
(now Winnipeg) with Canadian-manufactured 
goods for sale. During the half-breed rebellion 
in 1801) under Louis Kiel (q.v.), Begg sympa- 
thized with the discontented and had a con- 
siderable share in the successful effort to secure 
constitutional rights for them. He was the first 
to engage in the steamboat and express-agency 
business in Manitoba and was active in helping 
to establish the municipal and commercial insti- 
tutions of Winnipeg when it was a small town. 
In 1878-84 he was Deputy Treasurer of the prov- 
ince, and shortly afterward went to England as 
immigration agent for the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, lie wrote: Dot It Down (1871); The 
Creation of Manitoba (1871); Ten Years in 
Winnipeg, with W. U. Rursey (1870); and a 
valuable flint or i/ of the Xorthnest, 3 vols. 
(1804-05). lie died in Victoria, B. 0. 

BEGG, JAMKS (1808-83). A Scottish Free 
Church leader. He was born at Now Monk- 
land, Lanarkshire. Educated in Glasgow Uni- 
versity, he entered the ministry in 1829. At the 
disruption of the Scottish church he joined the 
Free church and during the remainder of his 
life was minister of the church of the Nowington, 
Edinburgh, lie headed a contingent of High- 
landers, who could be counted on to vote against 
any measure savoring in the least of liberalism 
in theology or practice. lie died in Edinburgh. 
Among his works are: A Handbook of Popery 
(London, 1852) ; Meat Kent* Brought to the 
Test of the Scripture, Lau\ Reaton, and Experi- 
ence (Edinburgh, 1838) ; The Use of Organs and 
Other Instruments of Music in Christian Wor- 
ship Indefensible (Glasgow, 1800). Consult his 
Life by T. Smith (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1883-88). 



cards, usually played by two persons, between 
whom the ca'rds are equally divided. Holding 
their cards with their backs upward, the play- 
ers lay down a card, alternately, until an honor 
is played, which is paid for by the adversary 
four cards for an ace, throe for a king, two for 
a queen, and one for a knave. When such pay- 
ment is completed, the winner lifts the trick. 
But if an honor should bo laid down during the 
payment, then the payment of the debt is 
Bopped and transferred to the opposite party, 
\\lio must pay for that in the same way; and 
so on, till a full payment is made without an 
5-onor. In the end one party pets all the cards 
into his hands and wins the game. 

BEG'GAR'S BUSH, THE. The title of a 
once popular comedy by Fletcher, Rowley, and 
Massinger (1622). Its source was probably a 
novel by Cervantes, entitled Fuerza de la sangre. 
It has been laid under tribute in The Roi/al 
Merchant (1707) and The Merchant of Bruges 
(1815). The plot deals with the usurpation of 
a maiden's throne and her restoration to it by 
the aid of her lover, a prince disguised as a 




BEG'GAR WEED (so named either because 


it indicates poverty of soil or because it was sup- 
posed to be so noxious a weed as to beggar the 
land) . A name applied to a number of species of 
Desmodium which are considered valuable as for- 
age plants or for enriching poor soils when plowed 
under. One of the best known is the Florida 
beggar weed (Dcsnt odium inolle or lartuosvm), 
which has no superior as forago produced upon 
light, sandy soils. It is an annual leguminous 
plant, growing 3 to 10 feet high, the height 
varying with the locality. When thinly grown, 
the stalks are liable to become woody; other- 
wise a large crop of forage of excellent quality 
may be obtained in from two to three months. 
Stock of all kinds seem to relish the hay, which 
has a high nutritive value. Yields of from 4 
to 6 tons of luiy per acre are reported from the 
Louisiana Experiment Stations. Florida bog- 
gar weed docs \\oll as far north as Virginia, and 
it has been extensively introduced into the West 
Indies and elsewhere. A number of other spe- 
cies of Dcsmodium are widely distributed, some 
of which may prove valuable. They, in com- 
mon with other leguminous plants, acquire large 
quantities of nitrogen from the air through the 
tubercles found upon their roots. 

BEGON, br-croN', MICHEL (1038-1710). A 
French administrator and patron of science, 
born at Blois. lie entered the French navy, and 
rose to be Iiitoiulant of the West Indies, of 
Canada, and Inter of Kochefort and of La Ho- 
chelle. In recoynition of the interest shown by 
him in the progress of science, the important 
;enus of plants Il< gornn vas mimed for him. 

BEGO'NTA. A genus of plants of the family 
P.e^oniacejp, the species of which number about 
4~>0, and are found in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres, being especially well represented in 
Mexico and Central and South America. Some 
of the species of Bcfjoma are very popular house 
plants find are extensively gro\\n under the 
names of begonia, elephant oars, hooMoak 
geranium, etc., for their handsome flowers and 
their odd-shape d and often beautiful folini'C. 
" 1'e pLmts are perennial herbs, or, in some 
CM ses, shrubby at base, and have* root systems 
rf srveral kinds, upon which schemes of cla^si- 
fu-Mtion have been based. Some are tuberous, 
some have their stems continued into a rhizome, 
others have a cluster of scale-like bulbs, while 
Ftill others have fibrous roots. Ordinarily the 
fibrous-rooted species are designated as wintor- 
blooming, the others being summer-blooming, 
unless especially forced to the contrary. The 
leaves, which are radical, or, if borne upon the 
fit em, alternate in two ranks, are usually un- 
equal-sided, and vary within wide limits in 
size, outline, and texture. The flowers are 
moiifpcious, the male usually having four petals, 
the female five, sometimes two petals. The sta- 
mens are quite numerous; the stylos two or 
four, with the stigmas twisted like corkscrews. 
The fruit consists of a winded capsule filled with 
numerous small seeds, which are without an 

Bogonins may bo propagated in a number of 
ways. Their tuberous or bulbous roots may be 
divided, their stems rooted, or they may be 
grown directly, either from leaves which are cut 
and placed in the soil, or from incisions made 
in the loaf, which lies flat upon the ground. 
The leaves form a callus whore cut, from which 
ultimately arises a number of adventitious buds. 
Horticulturally the begonias may be divided 
into the following sections: fibrous-rooted or 


winter-flowering, semi -tuberous or Socotran, tu- 
berous or summer-flowering, and rex or orna- 
mental-leaved varieties. Many cultural vari- 
eties and hybrids of each are known to the flor- 
ist, some of the hybrids being plants of great 
beauty, as the "Gloire de Lorraine," the double- 
flowered, and some of the single-flowered tuber- 
ous-rooted varieties, etc. The "Uex" begonias 
are of note on account of the remarkable colora- 
tion of the leaves in some varieties. They arc 
originally of Asiatic origin and have by crossing 
and selection yielded many fine forms. The 
Socotran species hove peltate leaves, those of the 
others being all unequal -sided. The cultivation 
of begonias was begun about 1777, and there are 
now hundreds of named varieties of recognized 
merit. Of rather easy cultivation, they do not 
seem to withstand the burning summer sun and 
frequent droughts of the United States, and 
they grow better as house plants than they do 
in the open. 

BEG-SHEHR, beg'sher', or BEI-SHEHR, 
sometimes also spelled BKY-SHEIIB (named from 
the city of the same name on its shores; Turk. 
beg, bey -|- IVrs. Mirhr, citv) (M-ip: '\ urkey in 
Asia, D 4). A freshwater lake in lat. 37 45' 
N. and long. 31 30' E., in the western part of 
the province of Konieh, Asiatic Turkey, and sup- 
posed to be the ancient daralitix. It is about 
20 miles long, and from .5 to 10 miles broad, 
and is connected by a short stream of the same 
name with Lake Soghla. 

BEGTJINES, bA-genz', BEGUI'N-33, or BE- 
GUT'T^E (MK. brrriinc, bi/<n/n t OF. bt'guinc, Ml. 
bcgitina. beglii'un. from Lambert le lit'tmc). The 
name of the earliest of nil non-monasl ic societies 
of women united for pious purposes, dating from 
the twelfth ecnturv and in all probability 
founded by Lambert le Beuc (died 11K7), n 
priest of Liege, Belgium. The popular tradition 
of Brabant since the seventeenth century, that 
a St. Bogga, daughter of Pepm, and sister of 
St. Cert rude, founded in 000 the first sisterhood 
of Bcguines at Kamur, has no historical basis. 
An account of their establishment at Vilvorde, 
near Brussels, is also deinon**triibly unauthentic. 
The Beguines were not restricted by vows, nor 
did they follow the rules of any order, but were 
united "under a niifterirure for the exercise of 
piety and benevolence, and lived generally in sep- 
arate small cottages, which collectively formed 
the bcginagium, or 'vineyard/ as it was scriptur- 
al ly termed. Their establishments were often 
enriched by liberal donations. A church, a hos- 
pital, and a house of reception or common enter- 
tainment generally belonged to every community 
of Beguinea. The sisters were distinguished 
from the rest of the laity only by their diligence, 
devotedness, piety, and charity. Societies of 
Beguinea flourished greatly during the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, when they spread them- 
selves over France and Germany. Among the 
most important were those in Hamburg, Liiheck, 
Katisbon, Magdeburg, Leipzig, Goslar, Rochlitz, 
and Gorlitz. As the pietists of the Middle Ages, 
the Beguines were often subjected to persecu- 
tions by the mendicant orders of friars; but, on 
account of their practical usefulness, were shel- 
tered by the Pope and Councils nfl well as by 
secular Authorities. Tn the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, the Beguines became united 
with the persecuted spiritualists among the 
Franciscans, and with the sect of the "brethren 
and sisters of the free spirit." Hence arose cer- 
tain heresies, which, of course, occasioned inter- 


ference on the part of the Inquisition; and on 
account of certain immoralities a synod held at 
Fritzlar required that all candidates must be 40 
years old before they could enter a society of 
Beguines. These sisterhoods maintained their 
position in Germany and the Netherlands longer 
than in other countries. In Holland they ex- 
isted at the close of the eighteenth century, and 
in the present day we find here and there so- 
called Beguinen-hSiuser in Germany; but they 
are now nothing more than alrnshouses for poor 
r.pinstcr*. In Belgium, at Ghent, there are two 
extensive Beguinages, Le Grand Beguinage de 
St. Elizabeth and Le Petit Beguinage; the for- 
mer dates from 12,'>4 and was transferred from 
near the Porte de Bruges to its present site in 
the northeast of the town in 1874. It contains 
about 600 sisters, besides 200 locataires, or oc- 
casional inmates. Their houses form a kind of 
distinct little town, which, though environed by 
a wall and a moat, is open to the visits of 
s< rangers. Le Petit Beguinage, in a different 
suburb, contains about 400 members and is also 
inclosed and has many separate houses. It is 
conducted similarly. Lace making is one of the 
industries carried on. There are within the in- 
closure 18 convents in which the younger sisters 
live; the older ons live in little houses contain- 
ing two or four occupants. Living here a life of 
retirement and piety, the Beguinea in their 
simple dark dresses go out as nurses to the hos- 
pital and perform other acts of kindness among 
tin 1 poor. As above stated, they are under no 
monastic vow, but, ha\ ing attached themselves 
to the sisterhood, it is their boast that none is 
known to have quitted it. Each one pays an en- 
traii'*e fee and yearly board. There are houses 
of Beguines also at Antwerp, Bruges, Louvain, 
and Mechlin, and a few in Holland. In 18M one 
was established in France, at Castelnaudary, in 
the department of Aude. Consult Baedeker, Bel- 
ciiuni and Holland, under "Ghent" (Leipzig, 

Similar societies of laymen appeared in Ger- 
many, the Netherlands, and the south of France 
in tlie beginning of the thirteenth century, and 
were known in Germany as Bcqhard* (Ger. be- 
gehrcn, to seek with importunity), in France as 
JScfjHinca, and in Italy as Inzacfn and borasoti ; 
but they never obtained the reputation enjoyed 
by the Beguine sisterhood. To\\ards the end of 
the thirteenth century they were commonly stig- 
matized as frons gar<;ons, \om pueri, 'ministers' 
men,' 'bede men/ 'pietists,' 'vagabonds' contemp- 
tuous titles, which expressed the low estimation 
in which they were held. On account of her- 
etics of all sorts retreating into these half-spir- 
itual communities, they were subjected to severe 
persecutions after 1367, and were gradually dis- 
persed, or joined the orders of Dominicans and 
Franciscans. In the Netherlands, where they 
had preserved a better character than elsewhere, 
they maintained their ground longer, and were 
protected by Pope Innocent IV (1245), in Brus- 
sels by Cardinal Hugo (12f>4), and in Lie"gc by 
Pope '[Trban IV ( 1261 ) ; but their communities 
disappeared in the fourteenth century. Con- 
sult: Mosheim, De Keghardis ct Beguinabu* 
(Leipzig, 1700) ; E. Hallmann, Ceschichtc des 
Ursprungs e/fr belgiscTicn BegMnen (1843) ; 
(ticsclcr. Ecclesiastical //isfori/, vol. iii (Edin- 
burgh, 1853). 

BEGUM, ba'gum or Itf'gum (Hind, begam, 
Pers. baigfm, lady, from Turk, beg, lord, prince 
-f- possibly Ar. umm, mother). A title of honor 

bestowed upon sultanas, princesses, and other 

women of high rank in Mohammedan countries. 

BEHA-EDDIN, ba-htt'ed-den'. See BOHAD- 


BBHAIM, bftlilm, MARTIN (1459-1506). A 
famous German cosmographer. He was born in 
Nuremberg, of Bohemian descent, and probably 
received his scientific training from the famous 
savant Rcgiomontanus. Taking up a mercantile 
life, he traveled over Europe, visiting Venice, 
Mechlin, Antwerp, and Vienna, for purposes of 
trade, between 1476 and 1479. In 1480 lie went 
to Portugal and began the business of making 
maps, in which he soon acquired fame and a com- 
petency. He was selected to accompany the 
Portuguese expedition commanded by Diogo 
Cam, on a voyage of discovery along the western 
coast of Africa, in 1484-85 an expedition which 
pushed nearly 20 beyond the best previous ex- 
ploration, as far as the mouth of the Congo 
River; but it is very doubtful if he went beyond 
a part of the distance. In 1486 he visited Fayal, 
in the Azores, where there was a Flemish colony, 
and he shortly afterward married the daughter 
of the Governor of the islands of Fayal and Pico, 
Jobst von Hurter. He was a member of a com- 
mission to discover some practical method of 
determining a ship's position at sea by means 
of astronomical observations, and claimed to have 
rendered important service in this connection to 
the science of navigation. In 1490 he went back 
to Nuremberg, where he lived till 1493. During 
this period he constructed a globe as a gift to 
his native city, where it is still preserved, being 
the oldest in existence; but the map is curiously 
inaccurate even for its day and generation. 
After another short residence in Fayal he re- 
moved to Lisbon, where he died, July 29, 1506. 
For his biography, consult: Murr, Diplomatische 
Ocschichte des Ritter Martin Bchaim (Gotha, 
1801 ) ; and for more modern information, Afar- 
tin Behaim: His Life and his Globe (London, 

BEHAH, bfiliam. The family name of two 
German painters and engravers of the Renais- 
sance, the most important of the so-called "Little 
Masters" of Nuremberg. Other forms of the 
name (Behaim, Beheim, Peham) also occur. The 
elder brother, HANS SEBALD (1.500-50), was 
born at Nuremberg and acquired his art under 
the influence, if not as a direct pupil, of Albrecht 
Diirer. In 1525 he was banished from Nurem- 
berg on account of his deistic and socialistic 
views. Although allowed to return late in the 
same year, he led a wandering life at Ingolstadt, 
Augsburg, Munich, and elsewhere. In 1528 he 
was accused of illegally using Dttrer's designs 
and was again banished. About 1531 he re- 
moved to Frankfort, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his life. In that year he completed 
the fine miniatures of two prayer books for Al- 
brecht of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mayence, 
now in the libraries of Aschafenberg and Cassel. 
Three years later he painted the well-known table 
now in the Louvre. Among the many illustra- 
tions which he designed for the publisher Egen- 
olph in Frankfort, the most celebrated are those 
of the Old Testament (1533). His excellent 
drawings are numerous in the principal German 
collections. He was one of the most prolific 
German engravers; the latest catalogue of his 
works (by Pauli, 1901) numbers 1074 wood- 
cuts, 252 engravings on copper, and 18 etchings. 
He made a specialty of large woodcuts designed 
for mural decorations, such as "The Military 

Pageant in Munich," the "Fountain of Youth," 
a '\March of Soldiers," each over a meter wide. 
His woodcuts are free and spirited, his line en- 
gravings neat and delicate. After 1540 his art 

BABTHEL BEJIAM (1502-40), born also at Nu- 
remberg, was influenced in his art by his brother 
rather than by Diirer, as was commonly sup- 
posed. Banished from Nuremberg along with 
his brother in 1525, he settled at Munich and 
became court painter to Duke William of Bava- 
ria. In 1540 the latter enabled him to visit 
Italy, where he died unexpectedly. The im- 
portant paintings formerly ascribed to him at 
Donaueschingen and Berlin are now known to 
be the work of a Swabian contemporary, the 
Master of Messkirch. Among the few that can 
with certainty be assigned to him are the por- 
traits of Chancellor Eck (1527) in the Weber 
Collection, Hamburg; Count Palatine Otto Hein- 
rich (1535), the Augsburg Gallery; the "Por- 
trait of a Noble Lady," in private possession, 
Munich; and 17 portraits of Bavarian dukes 
in the palace of Schleisheim. His masterpiece, 
"The Miracle of the Cross" (1530) is now in 
the Pinakothek, Munich. He ranks highest as 
an engraver, and in his later works approaches 
his brother in skill. The latest list of his en- 
gravings (Pauli, 11)05) numbers 93. More than 
any other of the "Little Masters" lie adopted the 
stylo and forms of the Italian Renaissance. 
Consult: Kootschau, Barthrl Bcham und der 
Afcistcr von Mcsskirclt (StraHsburg. 1893) ; 
Pauli, "Barthel Beliam," in Afittcilungcn der 
Gcschichte fur rrrvielfaltigendr Kunst (Vienna, 
1905); id., Hans ticbald Britain (Strassburg, 
1901) ; Rtudicn sur Kunstgeschichte, vols. cxxiv, 
cxxx (ib., 1911). 

BEHAR, bHiaV (Skt. vihara, a Buddhist 
temple or convent). A divimon in lower Bon- 
gal, British India. At the time of the readjust- 
ment of 1912 it was made a part of Behar and 

BEHAR AND ORISSA. The name of a 
province in lower Bengal, British India (Map: 
India, E 3). It was formed in 1912 and placed 
under an executive council and Liouterinnf Gov- 
ernor in accordance with an announcement made 
by King George V at the Delhi Durbar, and 
comprises the Behar, Choata-Nagpur, Turhut, 
Patna, and Orissa divisions, and the districts of 
Purnea, Monghyr, Bhagalpur, and Sonthal Par- 
ganas in the Bhagalpur division. Roughly it 
occupies a rectangular tract between the Bay of 
Bengal and the Himalayas and is bounded on 
the north by Nepal, on the east by Bengal, on 
the south by the Bay of Bengal and Madras, 
and on the north by the Central Provinces and 
the United Provinces. In the north are the low, 
flat, alluvial plains of the Ganges, in the south 
and west are the tablelands of Nagpur and 
Orissa, and along the shore of the Bay of Ben- 
gal is the fertile delta of the Ma ban ad i River. 
Rainfall is plentiful, and the principal crop is 
rice, of which immense quantities are grown. 
Other products are sugar cane, paddy, maize, 
pulse, oil seeds, indigo, and the poppy plant. 
The total area of this new province is between 
110,000 and 120,000 square miles, and the popu- 
lation in 1911 was nearly 40,000,000. The capi- 
tal is Patna (q.v.). 

BE'HBMOTH (Heb. pi. of Behemah, beast; 
as often in Hebrew, the plural indicates a 'large 
beast,' the lord of beasts as it were, and not a 
plurality of animals). An animal mentioned 


in Job xl. 15-24. There is no doubt that mytho- 
logical notions are involved in the conception. 
It is grouped {Job xl. 26-31) with the Levia- 
than (q.v.). Both are described more fully in 
Ethiopic Enoch Ix. 7-9; Syriac Baruch, xxix. 
4, ana Fourth Ezra vi. 49-62. They clearly rep- 
resent two primeval monsters. The author of 
Job xl. may have borrowed some features from 
the great beasts infesting the valley of the Nile. 
Even a wholly mythical monster cannot well be 
described without resort to reality, as the picto- 
rial representations of such beings by Egyptians 
and Babylonians show. Hence Behemoth, 'the 
colossal beast* of primeval times, occasionally re- 
minds us of a hippopotamus, just as Leviathan, 
the 'coiled' serpent of the abyss, the earth -encir- 
cling ocean, now and then recalls the crocodile. 
Consult Gunkel, Schopfung und Chaos (Gttt- 
tingen, 1896) and Schmidt, Messages of the 
Poets, pp. 200 ff. (1911). 

BEHISTUN, bft'hls-toon' (Ar., Pers. bagh, 
garden -|- Pers. stan, district, region; Biftuiun 
of the old Persian inscriptions). A ruined 
town of the Persian province of Irak-Ajemi, 
21 miles east of Kormanshah. Diodorus Siculus 
(ii, 13) says that Queen Serniramis, on a 
journey from Babylon to Kobatana, encamped 
here and had her likeness and the likenesses of 
a hundred of her guard rut into the rock of the 
mountain that rises at this place. This tradi- 
tion refers to a most remarkable inscription 
found at the limestone mountain at Behistun, 
which possessor groat historical value. The 
mountain rises to a height of 1700 feet, and the 
inscription is found at a height of 300 feet, in a 
position such that it must have b*on engraved 
with the aid of scaffolding. Although observed 
by several travelers, it was not until 1835 that 
it was copied by Sir Henry Rawlinson, after in- 
finite trouble and at groat expense. The inscrip- 
tion was made by Darius I (c.518 B.C.) and con- 
tains an account of his genealogy and his tri- 
umphs. It is in cuneiform characters, and tri- 
lingual, being written in Babylonian, in Persian, 
and in Susian. Accompanying the text there 
is an elaborate series of sculptures, representing 
Darius receiving nine pretondors to the throne, 
who stand before him witli chains about their 
necks. The inscription was cut into the rock 
with the utmost care and was preserved by a 
varnish harder than the rock itsolf. After copy- 
ing the inscription, Rawlinson spent many yours 
in the task of decipherment. He published the 
Persian text in 1846, in the publications of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, and this publication, with 
Rawlinson's translation of the inscription, was 
a most important contribution to the solution 
of the mystery of Persian cuneiform. This ac- 
complished, he and others, notably Wester^aard 
and Norris, set themselves to work on tbe Baby- 
lonian text, and by 1852 the foundations were 
laid for the reading of the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions meanwhile found in Assyria. (See AS- 
SYRIA.) Jn an inscription also found on the 
mountain wall at Behistun, but written only in 
the Susian language, Darius refers to the fact 
that he has ordered other inscriptions to be 
made on bricks and leather; cf. Jensen in Zcit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morpenlundischcn Gcscll- 
schaft, p. 237 (1901); King and Thompson, 
The Sculptures and Inscription of Darius the 
Great on the Rock of Behistun, p. 157 (London, 
1907). That official copies were taken is shown 
from a fragment of the Babylonian text pub- 
lished by Weissbach, Babyloniache Miscellen, 
VOL. III. 6 

pp. 24 ff. (Leipzig, 1903). An official Aramaic 
version also existed, as we now know from the 
papyri fragments discovered on the island of 
Elephantine and published by Sachau, Ara- 
maische Papyrus und Ostraka, pp. 186 ff. (Leip- 
zig, 1911). The Susian text was first published 
by Edwin Norris (London, 1853), and later by 
Oppert, Le peuple et la langue des Medes (Paris, 
1879). For the best publication and translation 
of the Persian text consult: Spiegel, Die per- 
sischen Keilinschriften (2d ed., Leipzig, 1881); 
Weissbach and Bang, Die altpersisohen Keilins- 
criffen (Leipzig, 1893) ; of the Babylonian text, 
Bezold, Achameniden Inschriften (Leipzig, 1882) ; 
and of the Susian text, Weissbach, Die Ach&- 
menideninschriften zweiter Art (Leipzig, 1890). 

BEHM, bflm, ERNST (1830-84). A German 
geographer and statistician. In 1856 he became 
assistant editor of the geographical periodical 
Petermanns Mitteilungen, and on the death of 
Petermann, in 1878, succeeded him as chief 
editor. In 1866 he founded the Gcographisches 
Jahrbuch, from which was detached in 1872 the 
Bevolkerung der Erde as a statistical supple- 
ment to the Mitteilungen. From 1876 he took 
charge of the statistical department of the Al- 
manafh de Gotha. His writings are marked by 
fullness, accuracy, and lucidity of arrangoment. 

BEHN, bSn, AFRA, or APIIRA (1640-89). 
An English novelist and playwright. She was 
born at Wye, in Kent, the daughter of John 
Johnson, a barber. When a child she sailed to 
Surinam, South America, with the Lieutenant 
Governor, wbom she was accustomed to speak 
of as her father. Here the young girl made the 
acquaintance of the celebrated slave Oroonoko, 
who afterward became the subject of one of her 
novels, and of a tragedy by Southerne. Return- 
ing to England, she married a merchant of Dutch 
extraction named Behn, was presented at court, 
where her personal appearance and vivacious 
freedom of manners pleased King Charles II, 
\vho deputed her to watch events in Flanders. 
She accordingly went to Antwerp, where she 
succeeded in discovering the intention of the 
Dutch to sail up the Thames and Mod way, and 
communicated the secret to the English court, 
which, however, took no notice of the informa- 
tion a slight that caused Mrs. Behn to throw 
up state politics in disgust On her return to 
England she was associated with all the profli- 
gate wits, as well as the more staid scholars and 
poets of the time, and devoted herself to litera- 
ture. Her numerous plays, poems, tales, and 
letters are disfigured by general impurity of 
tone and indecency of language; and, in point 
of intellectual ability, none of her works deserve 
the high praise lavished on them by Dryden, 
Cotton, Southerne, and others. Of them all, 
Oroonoko is worth perusal. It is interesting by 
reason of its tendency toward realism. Mrs. 
Behn was buried in Westminster Abbey. Con- 
sult her Works (London, 1871) and Anglia for 
January, 1902. 


BEHB, bflr, WILHELM JOSEPH (1776-1861). 
A Gorman publicist, born at Sulzheim. He stud- 
ied at Wiirzburg and Gttttingen, and from 1799 
to 1821 was professor of constitutional law at 
the University of Wtirzburg. He subsequently 
was chosen mayor of Wttrzburg; but when 
elected deputy to the Diet, in 1831, the royal 
sanction of his election was refused. On account 
of his freely expressed political opinions he was 
convicted of lese-majestt and participation in 


political machinations and only with the am- 
nesty of 1848 regained his complete freedom. In 
the same year lie was elected to the German 
National Assembly. He published: System der 
Staatskitnst (3 vols., 1810) ; Verfassung und 
Verwaltung des Staats (2 vols., 1811-12) ; Dar- 
stellung der Bedurfnisse, Wilnsche und Hoff- 
nungen deutscher Nation (1816) ; Von den rech- 
Uohen Qrenzen der Einwirkung dcs Deutschen 
Bundes (2d ed., 1820) ; Allgemeine Polizei- 
Wissenschaftslehrc ( 1848 ) . 

BEHRAM, be'rllm, or BEKHBAM, b6K'- 
r2lm. See Assus. 

An American consulting engineer, born in Pom- 
erania, Germany. He was educated by private 
tutors and at the University and Polytechnic 
Institute of Berlin. After acting for some time 
as chief engineer of the Bullock Electric Mfg. 
Co. of Cincinnati, he became chief consulting en- 
gineer of the Allis-Chalmers Co., and advisory 
engineer of the WestinghouHO Co. His service's 
as non-resident lecturer were employed at vari- 
ous times by McGill and Leland Stanford, Jr., 
universities and the University of Wisconsin. 
He invented and designed numerous electrical 
devices and machines and was awarded a gold 
medal at the St. Louis Exposition in 1004. Be- 
sides monographs in American and foreign jour- 
nals on the theory of alternating currents, mo- 
tors, and generator*, his writings include: The 
Induction Motor: Its Theory and Design 
(1900); The Debt of Electrical Engineering 
to C. E. L. Brown ( 1901 ) ; Engineering Educa- 
tion (1907). 

FREDERICK (1839-1900). An American Congre- 
gational clergyman. He was born at Nimeguon, 
Holland, emigrated to New Orleans with his 
parents in 1845, taught school and learned the 
trade of cabinetmaker, and studied at Denison 
University and the Rochester Theological Semi- 
nary, win-re lie was graduated in 186o. Tie was 
pastor of Baptist churches at Yonkers, N. Y., 
and Cleveland, Ohio, but joined the Congrega- 
tionalists in 1876, and spent seven years as pas- 
tor of the Union Congregational Church of 
Providence, R. I. In 1883 he became pastor of 
the Central Congregational Church in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., where he remained until his death. A for- 
cible thinker and a careful scholar, and of pleas- 
ing yet impressive personality, he stood in the 
foremost rank of American pulpit orators. 
Among his published works are to be found: 
Socialism and Christianity (1880); Tlie Phi- 
losophy of Preaching (1890); The World for 
Christ (1896); The Old Testament under Fire 

BEHBENS, ba'rens, BERTA (1850-1912). A 
German novelist, who used the pen name W. 
Heinburg. She completed Das Eulenhaus, a post- 
humous novel by Marlitt in the GartenJaube, in 
which periodical most of her novels appeared. 
Among them may be mentioned : A us dem Leben 
meiner alien Freundin (1879; 12th ed., 1908); 
Lumpenmullers Lieschen (1879); Ihr einziger 
Bruder (1882; 15th ed., 1909); Waldblumcn 
(1882; 6th ed., 1894) ; Trudchens Heirat (1884) ; 
Dazumal t eight stories (1887); Urn fremde 
Schuld (1895); Antons Erbcn (1898): Rette, 
Oldenroths Liebe (1902) ; Gesammelte Romane 
und Novellen (10 vols., Leipzig, 1894-97); Dr. 
Danz und seine Frau ( 1 903 ) ; Wie auch wir 
vergeben (1907); Ueber steinige Wege (1908); 
Der Starkere (1909); Familie Lorenz (1910). 

BEHBING, ba'rlng or bg'ring. See BERING. 

BEHRING, baling, EMIL ADOLF (1854-1917). 
A German physician. He was born at Hansdorf, 
Prussia, studied medicine in Berlin, in 1880 be- 
came an army surgeon, and in 1894 was ap- 
pointed a professor at the University of Halle. 
In 1895 he was called to become director of the 
Hygienic Institute at Marburg. He was the dis- 
coverer of diphtheria antitoxin and attained a 
great reputation by that means and by his con- 
tributions to the study of immunity. At the 
International Tuberculosis Congress in 1905 he 
announced that lie had discovered "a substance 
proceeding from the virus of tuberculosis." This 
substance, which he designated "T C," plays the 
important part in the immunizing action of Pro- 
fessor Behring's "bovivaccine," which prevents 
bovine tuberculosis. Among his publications arc 
Die Blutserumthcrapie (1892); Bckampfung 
der Jnfektionskrankhcitcn (1894); Beitragcn 
zur experiment ell en Therapie (1900). He re- 
ceived the Nobel prize in medicine in 1901 for 
his discovery of a diphtheria serum, arid in 1913 
he announced the discovery of a new diphtheria 

BEHBISCH, bii'rlsh, ERNST WOLFGANG ( 1 738- 
1809). A teacher and author. He was born near 
Dresden, and while acting as a private tutor 
at Leipzig became a friend and boon companion 
of young Goethe, upon whose early literary nm- 
bition he had a restraining influence. Upon his 
departure from Leipzig in 17(57 he was made the 
subject of three odes by Goethe, who also subse- 
quently referred to him in most friendly terms in 
Dichtunff und Wahrheit and in his talks with 
Kckerniann. A number of Goethe's letters to 
him are to be found in vol. vii of the Goethe- 
Jahrbueh (Frankfort, 1880) . For his biography, 
consult ITosiius (Dessau, 1883). 


BEIJERLAND, bi'ycr-lUnt. An island of the 
province of South Holland, Netherlands, at the 
mouth of the Maas or Meuse, 5 miles south of 
Rotterdam (Map: Netherlands, (! 3). It is 15.5 
mi IPS long and 8.7 miles wide. It is very fertile 
and produces large quantities of flax. 

BEILAN, ba-liin'. A small town of Syria, 
situated a few miles from Alexandretta (q.v.), 
near the Beilan Pass, which separates the moun- 
tain ranges of Ainnnus and Rhesus and is sup- 
posed to be the Pylw Syricr (Syrian Gates) of 
antiquity, probably used by Alexander and the 
Crusaders (Map: "Turkey 'in Asia, G 4). The 
town is 1330 feet above sea level, has a good 
climate and an excellent water supply, and is 
used as a summer resort by the European colony 
of Alexandretta. Its population is about 5000. 

(1838-1905). A Russian chemist, born in St. 
Petersburg. He studied chemistry in Heidel- 
berg, Gttttingen, Munich, and Paris, and in 1800 
became Wohler's assistant at GOttingen. In 1866 
he was made professor of chemistry at the Insti- 
tute of Technology in St. Petersburg. He car- 
ried out a number of original investigations in 
organic and analytical chemistry, and wrote 
Anleitung zur quaJitativen chemisehen Analyse 
(Leipzig, 1867: several German editions of this 
work and translations into other European lan- 
guages have been published ) ; and Die chemisette 
Grossindustrie auf der Weltausstellung in Wien 
7873 (Leipzig, 1873). Beilstein's Handbiich der 
organischen Chemie (Isted., Hamburg, 1880-83) 
is indispensable to the chemical investigator 


and is well known to every student of organic 
chemistry. A third edition of this voluminous 
work was begun in 1893, and between 1901 and 
1906 a set of five supplementary volumes were 
published by the German Chemical Society. 

BEIBA, bft'ra (Port, shore, strand, bank, 
from Gael, fcior, water). A province of Portu- 
gal, bounded by Spain and the Atlantic on the 
east and west, respectively, the river Douro on 
the north, and the provinces of Alemtejo and Es- 
tremadura on the south (Map: Portugal, B 2). 
Area, 9208 square miles. The coast land is flat, 
but the elevation gradually rises from the north- 
ern frontier, the interior being traversed by a 
number of mountain chains, not exceeding 7000 
feet in their highest summits. The province is 
drained by a number of small rivers, mostly trib- 
utaries of the Douro, and contains many mineral 
springs. The soil is mostly stony with the ex- 
ception of the coast land. Agriculture, stock 
raising, and fishing are the chief industries. 
The country produces grain, chestnuts, wine, 
and oil; iron, coal, and salt are mined; and 
marble is quarried. Manufacturing has been 
little developed, thread making being the princi- 
pal industry. Transportation facilities are in- 
adequate, and commerce is insignificant. For 
administrative purposes Beira is divided into five 
districts: Aveiro, Viscu, Coimbra, Guarda, and 
Castello Branco. The city of Ooimbra (q.v.) is 
the capital. Pop., 1800, 1,450,441 : lf)00, 1,515,- 
834; 15)11, 1,020,484. 

BEIBA. A seaport of Portuguese East Africa, 
about 35 miles northeast of Sofala and 500 
miles north of Delagoa Bay (Map: Africa, II 
6). The harbor is excellent and was visited in 
11)11 by over 500 vessels of 935,000 tons. Im- 
ports in that year were valued at nearly $3,000,- 
000 and exports at about $2,625,000. The 
leading articles of trade are sugar, rubber, wax, 
tropical fruits, and mining products, which are 
exported, and iron and cotton manufactured 
goods, wine, and spirits, which are imported. 
The importance of Beira is due mainly to the 
fact that it is the terminus of a railway from 
the Pungwe River to Urntali on the frontier, 
thence continuing to Salisbury in southern Rho- 
desia, a total distance of nearly 400 miles. The 
present port dates from 1891, although the site 
is of considerable antiquity. There are no note- 
worthy features in the town besides the govern- 
ment 'buildings and the public gardens. Pop., 
1911, 3420, of which about 750 are Europeans. 

BEIRAM, bji'ram. A Turkish word designat- 
ing the two great Mohammedan festivals: (1) 
the lesser Beiram, held for from one to three 
days at the end of the fasting month, Ramadan; 
(2) the Greater Beiram, held for four days, 70 
days later. 

BEIRUT, ba-rSot', or BEYBOTJT (anciently, 
Berytua, Gk. 0i7pvr6s, B&rytos, the city of wells, 
from Heb., Ar. fcrer, 6t>, well). Capital of 
the vilayet of the same name in Syria, 
Asiatic Turkey, and the chief seaport of Syria 
(Map: Turkey in Asia, F 6). It is situated on 
the coast, on the slopes of the Ras Beirut and 
St. Dimitri, about 90 miles by rail northwest 
of Damascus. It consists of the old town, ill 
built and unattractive, and a number of sub- 
urbs, with fine streets and houses and many 
features of a modern city. With its moderate 
climate and its excellent water supply Beirut 
is regarded as one of the most healthful cities 
in Asiatic Turkey. European influence is shown 
in the numerous business houses, schools and 

churches. There are 23 mosques and 38 Chris- 
tian churches of different denominations, the 
chief mosque being a former church built by 
the Crusaders; also numerous educational insti- 
tutions, maintained chiefly by missions, among 
which the French are the most influential their 
language being almost exclusively that of the 
Christian population. The, city contains also 
the Syrian Protestant College, an undenomina- 
tional American institution independent of any 
missionary society, with faculties of arts and 
medicine, pharmacy and commerce, and about 
1000 students. 

The industrial and commercial growth of Bei- 
rut has been more rapid than that of any other 
city of Asiatic Turkey. Silk and cotton fabrics, 
as well as gold and silver articles, are the chief 
manufactures. The surrounding region yields 
large quantities of silk, cotton, and tobacco for 
export, while the chief imports are food stuffs 
and articles of apparel. The total value of the 
imports, in 1910, aggregated $10,750,000. The 
harbor is deficient both in size and in depth, and 
heavier vessels are compelled to anchor outside. 
Regular steam communication is maintained 
with Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, and a few 
other European countries, while the coastwise 
transportation is effected chiefly by Turkish 
sailing vessels. Beirut is connected by rail with 
Damascus, Aleppo, and Tripoli. It is the seat 
of a pasha, a Greek bishop, a Maronite arch- 
bishop, and a papal delegate. The United States 
has a consular representative. The population 
is estimated at 120,000, of whom 36,000 are 
Mohammedans, 77,000 Christians, 2500 Jews, 
400 Druses. There are about 4300 Europeans. 

Beirut, mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna tab- 
lets (q.v.) as early as the fifteenth century 
B.C., is the Berytus of the classical writers. 
Under the Roman emperors it was the seat of 
a celebrated school of law. In 635 it was con- 
quered by the Arabs, and was besieged and cap- 
tured by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, in 1110. 
In 1187 it was retaken by Saladin. It soon 
passed under the power of the Druses (q.v.), 
who maintained their control of it until the 
nineteenth century. In 1840 it was bombarded 
and taken by the English fleet. 

BEISA, bl'sa. A large antelope of Abyssinia 
(Oryx bcisa], allied to the gemsbok, but lacking 
the tuft of hair on the throat. See GEMSBOK; 
OUYX ; and Plate of ANTELOPES. 

BEISSEL, bi'sel, JOKANN CONRAD (1690- 
1768). A German mystic, prominent as the 
founder of the sect of "Seventh-Day Dunkers" 
and of the Ephrata Community. He was born 
at Ebcrbach in the Palatinate and learned the 
trade of a baker. He also studied music and 
became a competent violinist. After he had 
taken a course in theology at Halle he was ban- 
ished (in 1720) for holding Pietistic and In- 
spirational views, emigrated to America, and 
with a few friends settled in Germantown, Pa. 
In the following year he became a hermit at Mill 
Creek, Lancaster Co., Pa., where he remained until 

1724, when he returned to Germantown and 
was there baptized as a Dunker. He soon began 
to preach doctrines distasteful to the Dunkers, 
especially with regard to celibacy and the ob- 
servance of Saturday as Sabbath, and in May, 

1725, founded the sect of Seventh-Day Dunkers. 
He again became a hermit in 1732, this time 
on the river Cocalico; but his adherents fol- 
lowed him to his retreat, and in 1735 he founded 
the "Order of the Solitary," and established 

the celebrated fettlement at Ephrata, Pa. (q.v.), 
at whose head he remained until hU death. 
Here he put into practice many of his socialistic, 
communistic, and religious theories. 

He published various collections of hymns, 
including The Voice of the Lonely and Forsaken 
Turtle Dove that is, of the Christian Church; 
by a Peaceable Pilgrim Traveling to Tranquil 
Eternity (1747) ; and Paradisiacal Wonder- Play 
(1766), which contains the sect's quaint 
"Brother Song" of 215 stanzas, and its "Sister 
Song" of 250 stanzas. He was also the author 
of the first volume of German poetry published 
in America, Gottliche Liebes- und Lobestone 
(Philadelphia, 1730). By his fellow religionists 
he was known as "Friedsam," and the inscription 
on his tombstone at Ephrata reads: "Here rests 
an outgrowtn of the love of God, 'Friedsam/ a 
Solitary Brother, afterwards a leader, ruler, 
teacher of the Solitary and the Congregation 
of Christ in and around Ephrata." For a par- 
tial account of his life, consult the curious 
Chronicon Ephratense (Ephrata, 1786). 

BEIT, bat. An Arabic word signifying 
'house,' 'abode/ or 'place/ the equivalent of 
which in Hebrew is beth. Tims, in Arabic we 
have beit-al-hardm, 'the house of the sanctuary/ 
or 'the sacred house/ the name of the central 
sanctuary at Mecca; and in Hebrew Bcth-el, 
'house of God/ Beth-abara, 'place of fords/ etc. 

BEITALLAH, bflt'alla (Ar. beit, house + 
Allah, God). The house of Allah, or the Kaaba, 
at Mecca, also called "the old house" and "the 
holy house." See MECCA; KAABA. 

BEIT-EL-FAKIH, bfitVl-fii'kfe (Ar. bcit, 
house + el, the + faqlh, teacher, schoolmaster). 
A fortified town of Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet 
of Hodeida, formerly Yemen, situated about* 19 
miles from the Red Sea (Map: Turkey in Asia, 
Q 13). It was formerly the chief centre of the 
coffee trade in Asia and still exports about 12,- 
000,000 pounds annually. Pop., about 8000. 

BEITZKE, blts^ke, HEINBICH (1798-1867). 
A German politician and historian, born at 
Muttrin ( Pomerania ) . He served aw a volunteer 
in the campaign of 1815, studied at the military 
schools of Coblenz and Mainz, entered the army 
as an officer in 1817, and retired in 1845 with 
the rank of major. In 1858 he was elected to 
the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. He pub- 
lished Geschichte der deutschen Freiheitskrirge 
in den Jahren 1813 und 181 } (3 vols., 1855) 
an accurate and unprejudiced narrative, widely 
read; Geschichte des russischcn Krirgs im Jahrr 
1812 (1856); Geschichte des Jahr'es 1815 (2 
vols., 1865) ; Das preussische Heer vor und 
nach der Reorganisation ( 1 867 ) . 

BEJA, ba'zha (the Pax Julia of the ancients). 
A town and seat of a bishopric in the province 
of Alemtejo, Portugal, 36 miles south of Evnra 
(Map : Portugal, B 3 ) . It contains an interesting 
mediaeval castle, a cathedral, the notable Church 
of Our Lady of the Conception, and a Roman 
aqueduct. Two fairs are held here annually. 
The city has a considerable trade in the cattle 
and agricultural products of the fertile re- 
gion adjacent, and there are also tanneries, 
potteries, and oil refineries. Pop., 1890, 8394; 
1900, 8895. 

BE' JAN, or BA'JAN (ML. bejanus, Fr. 
bejaune, bee jaune, yellow beak, i.e., unfledged 
bird, sometimes beanus; cf. Ger. Gelbschnabcl) . 
A name applied to freshmen in mediaeval uni- 
versities and still surviving in Scotland. Be- 
jaunia, or payment for "first footing" by stu- 

dents on entering the university, was general in 
the Middle Ages, and was part of a kind of in- 
itiative ceremony which included much horse- 
play and terminated with a banquet. Often 
there was elected a mock "abbot" of the Bejauni. 
These practices led to so much abuse that they 
were frequently a subject of university statutes, 
which, however, tended rather to regulation 
than to suppression of this form of hazing. 
For an account of these ceremonies consult 
Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle 
Ages (Oxford, 1895). 


BfiJAB, bft'HRr. An old town of Spain, in 
the province of Salamanca, about 45 miles south 
of the capital of the province (Map: Spain, C 
2). It is situated on the river Cuerpo do 
Hombre, on a plateau 3165 feet above sea level. 
Its industrial growth has been very rapid, and 
the principal manufactures are bread, yarn, 
thread, cotton and woolen fabrics, ribbons, soap, 
and bisque. There is considerable trade in 
wool. The surrounding country is fertile and 
produces grain, wine, vegetables, and chestnuts. 
Be" jar gives its title to a ducal family, whose 
ancestral palace within its walls and the 
churches of San Juan, Santa Maria, and Kl 
Salvador are the most pretentious buildings. 
There are warm sulphur springs in the vicinity. 
Pop., 1900, 9488; 1910, 9209. 

BEJABT, ba'zhttr'. A family of French 
comedians of the end of the seventeenth century. 
They formed part of Moliere's troupe. One of 
them, Armande, was married to Moliere in 1002 
and imbittered his last years by her coquetries. 
See MoLifeBE. 

BEJAS, ba'jaz. Hamitie peoples between the 
Nile, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, arid Upper Egypt. 
They arc tall (1.708 m.) and muscular, with 
black, almost woolly hair. Keane subdivides 
them into Ababdeh, Bishari, and Taga. Sec 

BEKAA, b6k'a-il, El (Heb., Ar. large valley). 
The Ccrlc-Syria of the ancients, the "plain of 
Lebanon" of the Old Testament. A beautiful 
and fertile elevated valley of Syria, situated l>e- 
tween the nearly parallel ranges of the Lebanon 
and the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and watered by 
the Leontes (Litany). It occupies an area about 
90 miles long with a greatest width of 20 miles, 
and is much used for a grazing ground by the 
Arabs, the banks of the watercourses being very 
fertile. The name of Cnplc-Syria was once ap- 
plied to the entire southern portion of Syria, 
embracing Phoenicia and Palestine. 

BEKE, bek, CHARLES TILSTONE (1800-74). An 
English traveler, born at Stepney, Middlesex. 
Tie first studied law at Lincoln's Inn and de- 
voted much attention to ancient history, phi- 
lology, and ethnography. The results of these 
studies first appeared in his works, Origines 
Biblicce, Researches in Primeral History (1834). 
Supported only by private individuals, he joined 
in Abyssinia the party led by Major Harris 
and distinguished himself by the exploration of 
Go jam and the countries lying to the ^ south, 
which were previously almost unknown in Eu- 
rope. The results of these researches appeared 
partly in several journals and in Abyssinia: A. 
(Statement of Facts, etc. (2d ed., London, 1846). 
After returning to Europe, he published the 
Essay on the Nile and its Tributaries (London, 
1847); On the Sources of the Kile (1849); 
Memoire justiftcatif en rehabilitation des pere* 
Paez et Lobo (1848) ; and On the Geographical 


Distribution of the Languages of Abyarinia 
(1840). In 1861 be made a journey to Harrar 
and undertook in 1865 a fruitless mission to 
Abyssinia to obtain the release of British cap- 
tives. In 1874 Dr. Beke started for the region 
at the head of the Red Sea, where he claimed 
(though his views are disputed) to have dis- 
covered Mount Sinai east of the Gulf of Akabah, 
and not west, as generally supposed . Other 
works of his are: British Captives in Abyssinia 
(1865) ; King Theodore (1860) ; Idol in Horcb 
(1871) ; Jesus, the Messiah (1872) ; Discoveries 
of Sinai in Arabia (published posthumously, 

BKS, ba'kash. See CSABA. 

BEKHKAM. See Assus. 

BEKKEB, beVker, ELISABETH (1738-1804). 
A Dutch author, born at Vliessingen. During 
the Revolutionary period she lived in France, 
where she narrowly escaped death by the guil- 
lotine. Her chief work is Hitttorie van Kara 
Burgerhart (2 vols., 1782; 7th ed., 1886). She 
wrote some poems and a number of stories, 
marked by elegance of style and by skillful 
character delineation. These latter include His- 
toric van Willem Levend (8 vols., 1784-85) ; 
Abraham Blankaart (3 vols., 1787-80); Cor- 
nelia Wildschut (6 voK, 1703-06). 

BEKKEB, IMMANFEL (1785-1871). A Ger- 
man classical scholar, born in Berlin. He 
studied at Halle under F. A. Wolf (q.v.), taking 
his degree in 1807; in 1811 he was appointed 
professor of philology at Berlin, where he con- 
tinued until his death. Bekker's great service 
to classical philology consisted in his recensions 
of texts on the basis of new collations of manu- 
scripts, independent of printed editions. TTis 
industry was enormous, and he carried on his 
researches in Germany, France, Italy, and Eng- 
land, examining in all over 400 manuscripts. 
Among the authors included in his recensions 
were Plato (for whose text he collated over 30 
manuscripts), Aristotle, the Attic orators, Aris- 
tophanes, Thucydides, Theognis, Scxtus Em- 
piricus, Livy, Tacitus, and others. He was also 
engaged on the Corpus Insert ptionum Gra'ca- 
rum, edited 25 volumes of the Corpus Scriptorum 
Byzantinorum, and published Anccdota (trocca 
(3 vols., Berlin, 1814-21), as well as Studies in 
Old French. Consult Sandys, A History of Clas- 
sical Scholarship, vol. ni '(Cambridge, 1008). 


BEL. One of the chief gods of the Babylonian 
pantheon. The name, meaning 'lord,' is the title 
employed by the Akkadians, or Semitic Baby- 
lonians, for the great Sumerian deity Enlil or 
Ellil, whose seat was at Nippur. It is not 
known what the Sumerian name signified, ex- 
cept that *En' means 'lord/ His temple in 
Nippur was called E-kur, or 'mountain house/ 
and the Akkadians referred to him as shadu 
rabu t or 'great mountain/ Bel was the 'lord 
of the lands' in distinction from Anu and 
Ea, whose realms were the sky and the sea. 
The god of Babylon, Marduk, whose home 
as the son of Ea originally seems to have 
been Eridu, was identified with Bel, as Am- 
mon was with Re in Thebes. Both the He- 
brews and the Greeks, therefore, speak of Mar- 
duk as Bel. Bel was also worshiped by the 
Assyrians. The wife of Enlil-Bel was Nin-har- 
sag-Belit: the Sumerian name means 'mistress 
of the mountain/ the Semitic only 'mistress/ 
Etymologically Bel is closely related to Baal, 
but in transliterating Syrian names compounded 


with Baal the Assyrian scribes wrote Ba'lu or 
Baalu. Consult Zimmern, Die Keilinsohriften 
und das Alte Testament, pp. 354 ff. (1902); 
Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte dee 
Alten Orients, p. 95 (1906) ; Jastrow, Die Re- 
ligion Babyloniens und Assyriena (1902-12, 
passim ) . 

B^L, bfil, KABL ANDREAS ( 1717-82). A Hun- 
garian historian, son of Matthias Be*l. He was 
born at i'ressburg, und studied at Altdorf, Jena, 
and Strassburg. In 1843 he became instructor 
and in 1757 professor of poetry at Leipzig, 
where he edited the Acta Eruditorum 
and the Leipziger Gelehrte Zcitung. He was 
subject to melancholia and committed suicide 
during one of his periods of depression. He 
wrote: De Vcra Origine et Epovha IJunnorum, 
Am rum, Uungarorum in Pannonia (1757); De 
Maria Hungarian non Rege scd Rcgina (1744). 

BfiL, MATTHIAS (1684-1749). A Hungarian 
historian and savant, born at Ocsova. He 
studied at Halle, was pastor at Neusohl and 
rector of the Evangelical Lyceum at Pressburg 
from 1719. He wrote Hungarian Antiques et 
Now Prodromes (1723); Notitia Hungarian 
Novce Historico-Oeographica (4 vols., 1735-42) ; 
Adparatiis ad historian, Hungarice (1735-46). 
His works have proved rich sources of material 
for subsequent historical workers. 

BLA, halo. The name of four Hungarian 
kings of the dynasty of Arpfid. B6LA I (1061- 
63) suppressed the laat attempts to restore 
heathenism. By fixing a standard of weights, 
measures, and coinage he gave a permanent 
stimulus to the commerce of Hungary. BLA 
II (1131-41), surnamed "The Blind," was greatly 
influenced by his bloodthirsty wife. At the time 
of his marriage there was a general slaughter 
of the advisers in the preceding reign. He man- 
aged, however, to live on good terms with the 
Creek and the German emperors. His death 
was due to intemperance. BLA III (1173- 
06), grandson of Bela II, was educated at Con- 
stantinople and showed a predilection for By- 
zantine customs and culture, which he introduced 
into Hungary. He greatly increased the number 
of religious houses. His second wife was the 
sister of Philip Augustus of France. BfiLA 
IV (1235-70), born 1206, was the son of An- 
drew II, who granted the Golden Bull (q.v.). 
His great object was the restriction of the nobles 
and the restoration of the royal power. He 
had constant trouble with Frederick II, Duke of 
Austria. But the greatest danger was from the 
Tatars, who in 1241 defeated him on the Saj6. 
Frederick promised aid but gave none, and Bela 
had to nee. He remained in Dalmatia until the 
Mongols withdrew, and then returned, making it 
his especial care to rebuild the ruined vil- 
lages and to encourage colonization in the devas- 
tated parts. lie was successful in recruiting his 
strength, vanquished Frederick at Vienna, and 
repelled a second Mongolian invasion. He was 
unsuccessful in war against Ottocar II of Bo- 
hemia, who defeated him in 1260. Consult Leger, 
History of A ustro- Hungary (Eng. trans., New 
York, 1889). 

BEL AND THE DBJU3KON. The title of 
a section found in the Greek version of the 
Book of Daniel ( see DEUTEBO-CANONICAL BOOKS), 
but not in the Hebrew or Aramaic text. It con- 
tains two stories, which in general are these, 
though there are variations: (1) That Daniel 
convinced the King of Babylon of the fraud 


practiced upon him by the priests of Bel, who 
pretended that the god ate at night the feasts 
regularly set in his temple, by having the floor 
of the temple covered with fine ashes, unknown 
to the priests. These came at night as usual, 
through a secret door, and removed the food, 
but by morning light their footprints were dis- 
covered on the floor. The King in his rage 
drove away the priests and destroyed the idol 
of Bel. (2) Daniel killed -a dragon that was 
worshiped by the Babylonians by forcing it to 
swallow a mixture of pitch, fat, and hair, with 
the result that it burst. The people in their 
rage compelled the King to cast Daniel into the 
lions' den. Thither Habakkuk, the prophet, was 
carried from his home in Judaea with food for 
Daniel. The King, on finding Daniel still alive 
on the sixth day, ordered his release and the 
punishment of his accusers. The original lan- 
guage of these additions to the Book of Daniel 
is supposed by many scholars to have been 
Aramaic. Consult Davics, in Charles, Apocrypha 
and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Ox- 
ford, 1913). 

BELA'RITTS. In Shakespeare's Cymbeline, 
an exiled nobleman, wbo in revenge steals the 
sons of Cymbelme. Having rescued Cymbeline 
when he was taken prisoner, Bclarius becomes 
reconciled, and the two young princes are re- 
stored to their father. 

BELAS'CO, DAVTD (1859- ). An Ameri- 
can playwright and manager. He was born in 
San Francisco, where he spent most of his boy- 
hood, and be#an in 1874 as an actor at the 
Metropolitan Theatre. Showing talent, however, 
in the adaptation of plays for the local stage, 
he soon found a wider field. One of his early 
successes was Hearts of Oak (1880), in which he 
toured with James A. Ilearne. He was for a 
time sta<je manager of the Madison Square 
Theatre, New York City, and afterward was 
connected with the Lyceum Theatre. While 
there lie wrote, in collaboration with Henry C. 
de Mille, The Wife (1887) and The Charity Ball 
(1880), and also, for E. IT. Sothern, Lord Chum- 
ley (1888). In January, 1803, The Girl I Left 
Behind Me, which he wrote with Franklin 
Fyles, was produced at the Empire Theatre 
and had great success. In 1805 came The 
Heart of Maryland, a melodrama of the Civil 
War. Among his other plays are Zaza (1808), 
May Bloiftom (1884), Men *and Women (1800), 
La Belle Ru*e (1882), Valerie (1880), Du 
Barry ( 1001 ) , the last su^e.sted at least by 
Jean Richepin's play of the name name; Naughty 
Anthony (1800), 'The Darling of the Gods 
(1002) ; a dramatization of John Luther Long's 
story, Madame Butterfly (1000) ; The Girl of 
the Golden West (1905), Adrea (1004), The 
Roue of the Raneho, in collaboration with R. 
Walton Tully (1006), A Grand Army Man, in 
collaboration with Pauline Phelps and Marion 
Short (1907), The Return of Peter Grimm 
(1911). Of late, through his extraordinary 
skill in training his actors and his minute at- 
tention to the mechanical details of lighting and 
stage setting, he has become better known as a 
successful producing manager than as a play- 

BELAY' (probably from Dutch beleggen, nau- 
tical term of same meaning). A term which 
signifies to stop. A rope is belayed by winding 
it around a cleat, cavil, bitt, or belaying pin. 
To prevent the turns from unwinding they are 
usually put on in figure-of-eight fashion, one 

loop around one end of the cleat or pin, the other 
around the other end. 

BELAYING CAVILS are large wooden belaying 
pins, of rectangular section, but with rounded 
corners, built permanently into pin rails or fife 
rails. They are intended for ropes too large to 
be conveniently belayed on pins of the ordinary 
type, or as friction pins around which large 
ropes are taken when lowering heavy weights. 
BELAYING CLEAT. A piece of wood or metal 
bolted to some part of the structure of a ship 
for the purpose of belaying ropes. The cleat has 
two horns around which rope is belayed as about 
a belaying pin; the section of an ordinary cleat 
is not unlike a letter H, one side of which is 
bolted to the ship's structure, leaving the other 
free for belaying purposes. 

BELAYING PIN. A short bar of iron, brass, or 
wood used for the belaying of ropes. The pin 
varies in length from 10 to 18 inches, and in . 
diameter from three-quarters of an inch to an 
inch and a half. The pins are put through holes 
in wooden rails, called pin rails, or fife rails, 
according as they are out at the side of the ship, 
or inboard, and partly surrounding a mast; and 
they are prevented from falling out of the rail 
bv a shoulder a little above the middle of their 

BELBEIS, bel-bfts'. An Egyptian town situ- 
ated about 35 miles north-northeast of Cairo 
(Map: Egypt* E 2). It is on the old caravan 
route from Cairo to Syria and on the railway 
line connecting Suez with Cairo. Pop., 1807, 
11,267. In the vicinity of Belbeis are the ruins 
of Bubastis (q.v.). 

BELCH, STB TOBY. A rollicking character in 
Shakespeare's comedy, Twelfth Night, who, with 
Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the clown, and Maria, 
lead Malvolio, the steward, to believe that the 
Lady Olivia is in love with him. 

BELCH'ER, SIB EDWARD (1790-1877). An 
English admiral. He entered the navy in 1812 
and in 1816 took part in the bombardment of 
Algiers. In 1825 he accompanied Captain 
Boi'chy on his expedition to Bering Strait. In 
1836 he was appointed to the command of the 
Sulphur and for three years was employed in 
surveying the west coast of America. Return- 
ing by the western route, he rendered important 
services in the Canton River to Lord Gough, 
whose successes over the Chinese were greatly 
due to Belcher's soundings and reconnaissances. 
On his return he published a narrative of the 
voyage and in 1843 was made a post captain 
and knighted. In 1852 he was appointed to 
the command of an expedition sent out by the 
government to search for Sir John Franklin. 
He became an admiral in 1872. He published: 
"Narrative of a Voyage round the World in the 
"Sulplttur" in 1R86-W (1843) ; Narrative of the 
Voyage of the "Samarang" in 18' t S~46 (1848) ; 
The Last of the Aretiv Voyage* (2 vols., 1855). 
BELCHER, JONATHAN (1681-1757). A Colo- 
nial Governor of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire, and afterward of New Jersey. He wa 
born in Cambridge, Mass., graduated at Harvard 
in 1699, and afterward spent six years in Eu- 
rope. In 1730 he was appointed Governor of 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire; but he soon 
became embroiled in disputes with the Colonial 
Legislatures concerning the payments of the 
Governor's salary, questions of Colonial cur- 
rency, and the protracted boundary dispute be- 
tween Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and 
in 1741 was removed, in deference to the popu- 


lar outcry against him. He has passed into 
history as perhaps the most unpopular of all 
the royal governors of Massachusetts. Some 
time after his removal he again visited England, 
where he succeeded in restoring himself to favor, 
and in 1747 he was appointed to succeed Morris 
as Governor of New Jersey. His administration 
of affairs in this province was for the most part 
wise and satisfactory to the people, and he re- 
niained in office until his death. As a Governor, 
especially in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
he was arbitrary and opinionative, reckless in 
invective against his opponents, not above the 
arts of cajolery and flattery, inordinately fond of 
display, and ostentatiously pious. On the other 
hand, "he was a good administrator and rigidly 
enforced the laws. In 17f>6 he gave his library 
of 400 volumes to the College of New Jersey 
(now Princeton). Many of Belcher's letters, 
written between 1730 and 1741, were published 
in the New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register for 186ft, and The Belcher, with 
a biographical preface, were published by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society in 1803. Con- 
sult Collections of the Massachusetts Historical 
Socictit, vol. vi (Boston, 181)3). 

BELCHITE, bl-che'tft. A town in the prov- 
ince of Saragossa, Spain, on the Agu.ns, a tr'lni- 
tary of the Ebro, 25 miles southeast of Sara- 
gossa (Map: Spain, E 2). It in celebrated as 
the scene of the battle of June 18, ISO?), in 
which the French under Suchet completely 
routed the Spaniards under General Blake, cap- 
turing all their guns, with a loss of only 40 men 
to themselves. Pop., 1000, 33X3. 

BELCIKOWSKI, bel'tse-kov'ske, ADAM (1830- 
1000). A Polish writer, born at Cra o\v. lie 
graduated in 1805 at the university there, and 
having taken his Ph.D., was appointed in 1808 
instructor in Polish literature at the University 
of Cracow. He has written much, chiefly drama 
and literary criticism, his publications including 
Adam Tnrlo (1800) , Ilunija di ( 1870) , Francr'tca 
da Rimini (1873), King Bolcslav the Bold 
(1882), and several essays in Zc Studt/nir nad 
Litcratura I*olska, edited by Chmielowski 

BELCK, WALDEMAR (1802- ). A German 
traveler and archaeologist, born in Danzig. He 
studied chemistry, in 1884 accompanied the ex- 
pedition which founded the German West Afri- 
can possessions, and after 1888 became con- 
nected as an electro-chemist with various com- 
mercial establishments. In 1801, and again with 
Friedrich Lchmann, in 1808-00, he traveled 
throughout Armenia, studying the remains of 
the primitive Turanian civ'ili/ation, collecting a 
large number of new inscriptions, and making 
geographical observations. 

BEL'DING. A city in Tonia Co., Mich., 25 
miles (direct) northeast of Grand Rapids, on 
the Pere Marquette Railroad (Map: Michigan, 
D 5). It manufactures silk, refrigerators, shoes, 
baskets, etc. The water works are owned and 
operated by the city. Pop., 1000, 3282; 1910, 

BELED-EL-JEBID, beTed-el-je-rSd'. A gen- 
eral term for a region of North Africa, between 
Algeria and the Great Desert, east of Morocco. 
It contains a number of oases, noted for their 
extensive production of dates. 

BELEM, bft-iex'. A city of Brazil. See PARA\ 

BELEM. A suburb of Lisbon (q.v.). 

BELEMNITES, bel'em-nlts (Gk. plXcprop, 
lelemnon, dart, javelin ) . A genus of dibranchiate 

Sx BELEff 

cephalopoda of the extinct order Belemnoidea, 
allied to the modern squid. That portion of the 
shell usually found is the "rostrum/* or "guard," 
a solid, cigar-shaped organ, more or less pointed 
at one end, and pierced at the other extremity by 
a conical cavity called the "alveolus." In perfect 
specimens there fits into this alveolus a conical 
chambered shell, the "phragmocone," which 
scorns to be homologous with the similarly cham- 
bered shell of the Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea. 
This pliragrnocone, which is provided with a 
Biphuncle, has an initial chamber which closely 
resembles that of the primitive Ammonoidea, 
notably the genera Bactrites and Mimoceras, 
and even more closely the modern dibranchiate 
genus tfpirula. Above the phragmocone, and de- 
veloped as an anterior extension of its dorsal 
wall, is the "proostracum," a more or less cal- 
cined plate that becomes the "pen'' in the mod- 
ern squid and cuttlefish, and which probably 
served to protect the vital organs and to give 
rigidity to the forward portion of the body. 
The entire shell was internal. 

Some traces of the soft parts of the animal 
have been found, so that it has been possible to 
restore the outline of the body and the form of 
the fins. The general structure seems to have 
been quite like that of the modern squid, with 
its long posteriorly pointed body, provided with 
fin-like marginal expansions *of the mantle. 
There were 10 arms, and these were furnished 
with strong horny hooks that assisted the crea- 
ture to seize its prey. Mandibles, and, most 
interesting of all, the hardened contents of the 
ink bag have also been, in a few rare cases, pre- 
served. The belemnites are, together with the 
Ammonoidea, the most characteristic of Meao- 
zoic fossils, and they are found commonly in 
rocks of Lower Lias (Jurassic) to Upper Cre- 
taceous age, in Europe, North America, and Asia. 
A single slab of Liassic rock from Whitby, 
England, now in the geological collection of 
the museum in Paris, has about 900 specimens 
on a surface 20 inches square. Some 350 species 
are known, and they range in form and size 
from elongated delicate kinds to short, stout 

Belemnites is one of the earliest-known fossils. 
It has received many names that have expressed 
various ideas regarding its form, nature, and 
origin. The shell is supposed to have been known 
to Pliny, but the name "belemnites" was first 
applied * to it by George Agricola in 1546. Pre- 
vious to that time it had been called "lingurium" 
and was supposed to be the urine of a lynx petri- 
fied into amber. Popular names were "deviPs- 
finger" and "thunder-stone," and they were used 
in early times as remedies for nightmare and 
other maladies. Later naturalists classed them 
as forms of amber, stalactites, sea-urchin spines, 
crocodile and fish teeth, and as chambers in 
which dwelt small marine animals. In 1724 
Ehrhardt first recognized their affinity to Nau- 
tilus and Spirula. For illustration, see 

BELEN. A town in Valencia Co., N. Mex., 
on the Rio Grande and at the junction of the 
El Paso -Albuquerque branch of the Santa Fe 
system and the New Mexico Eastern Railroad, 
30 miles by rail south of Albuquerque (Map: 
New Mexico, C 4). It has a State orphans' 
home. The Felipe Chaves Mausoleum is one of 
the most artistic architectural monuments in 
New Mexico. Belen is the centre of an agricul- 
tural community, especially noted for its vine- 

yards, and has a large flour mill and railroad 
shops. Pop., 1013 (est.), 2500. 

BELE'BITJM. An ancient name for Land's 
End, the southwestern extremity of Cornwall, 
England, sometimes written BOLERTDM. The 
name is of doubtful origin, though sometimes 
derived from Bellerus, fet legendary Cornish 

BELFAST, bel-fast' or bel'fast. The capital 
of the province of Ulster, Ireland, a city and a 
county borough of four parliamentary ^divisions, 
within the geographical limits of Antrim and 
Down counties (Map: Ireland, F 2). Belfast is 
situated on alluvial deposit and reclaimed marsh 
land at the entrance of the river Lagan into Bel- 
fast Lough, 12 miles from the Irish Sea and 113 
miles by rail north of Dublin. Architecturally 
the city has hardly kept up with its commercial 
development, but many squalid districts have 
been built over with handsome structures and 
new streets, of which one, the Royal Avenue, is 
the finest in Belfast. Some of the principal 
streets are traversed by tramways. The Lagan, 
on the north side of which, in county Antrim, 
the city is mainly situated, is crossed by four 
bridges, of which the most notable is the Queen's 
Bridge, widened in 1886. The public buildings 
include the city hall, which, opened in 1906, 
was built at a cost of some 300,000 in Donegall 
Square on the site, of the old Linen Hall; the 
custom house and inland revenue office on Done- 
gall Quay; the post office and the public library 
(40,000 volumes), art gallery, and museum of 
antiquities in the Royal Avenue; and the com- 
mercial buildings in Waring Street. There are 
several fine banks, especially the Ulster Bank. 
There are five public parks, and the fine botani- 
cal gardens of the Natural History Society oc- 
cupy 17 acres. Of the churches the most notable 
is the Protestant cathedral in Donegall Street, 
which occupies the site of the old St. Anne's 
parish church and whose foundation stone was 
laid in 1899. The plan is a Latin cross, with 
a west front of 105 feet and a central tower of 
175 feet. The educational institutions of Bel- 
fast include Campbell College (1892), in the 
Belmont suburb; Queen's University, succeed- 
ing under Act of 1908 the old Queen's College 
(1849) ; the Municipal Technical Institute; and 
the Royal Academical Institution. The chief 
newspaper is the Belfast News-Letter, estab- 
lished 1737. 

With a safe and commodious harbor, Belfast 
is one of the first-class ports of the United 
Kingdom. There are several great docks and 
basins and a graving dock; notable are the Al- 
exandra Dock (852 feet long and 31 feet deep) 
and the York Dock. In 1911 the net tonnage 
of vessels arriving at the port was 3,105,624, 
and departing 3,248,643. The imports include 
grain and other raw produce, cotton, flax, and 
linen yarn, timber, coal, iron and steel, petro- 
leum, sugar, etc. As compared with the actual 
exports, the direct exports to foreign countries 
are unimportant, as most of the exports go 
through Liverpool or Glasgow. In 1911 imports 
were valued at 6,141,488, and direct exports 
427,761 for domestic goods and 856,792 for 
foreign and colonial. The chief exports are 
linen, whisky, iron ore, aerated waters, and 
cattle. The inland trade is carried on by the 
Lagan, the Ulster Canal, and several railways. 
The staple manufacture is linen, dating from 
J637; the industry rapidly increased after 
1830, when machinery was introduced. Im- 

Ka B1L90BT 

portant also are flax spinning, weaving, distill- 
ing, and the manufacture of rope, tobacco, and 
aerated waters. The shipbuilding industry, pro- 
ducing some of the largest vessels in the world, 
shows an extraordinary development. 

Belfast became a city in 1888 and a county 
borough in 1899. In 1896 the boundaries were 
extended (to a total area of 16,594 acres, or 
14,937 acres exclusive of water), the number of 
wards was increased from 5 to 15, and the 
municipal corporation, which since 1840 had 
consisted of 10 aldermen (one being mayor) 
and 30 councilors, was increased to 15 alder- 
men and 45 councilors. The city owns the 
docks, ferries, abattoirs, and the gas and elec- 
tric plants, maintains a fire department, li- 
braries, museums, and workingmen's dwellings, 
and controls the elementary schools. Pop., 
1821, 37,000; 1851, 103,000; 1891, 273,000; 
1901, 349,180; 1911, 386,947 (the gain over 1901 
"being 10.8 per cent, as compared with a de- 
crease of 0.1 for the county of Ulster and a 
decrease of 1.5 per cent for Ireland). 

There is some reason to believe that a castle 
was built here about 1177 and destroyed by 
Edward Bruce in 1316. By the beginning of the 
fifteenth century Belfast was only a fishing 
village with a fortress in control of the house 
of O'Neill. The town was secured by the Eng- 
lish by grant in 1571 and in 1613 received a 
charter from James I. During the seventeenth 
century it suffered rather loss than other Irish 
towns from civil strife and developed notably 
in population and trade.. Cotton manufacture 
was introduced in 1771, and shipbuilding on 
a large scale bopan in 1791. The overwhelming 
numerical strength of the Protestants and the 
vigor of the Roman Catholic minority have on 
several occasions made Belfast the scene of riot 
and bloodshed. 

Consult Benn, History of Belfast (Belfast, 
1877); Young, Historical Notices of Old Bel- 
fast (Belfast, 1896) ; Munce, Workmen's Dwell- 
ings in Belfast (1898) ; Fisher, Trading Centres 
of the Empire: Belfast (London, 1901). 

BELFAST, bel'fast. A city, port of entry, 
and the county seat of Waldo Co., Me., 30 miles 
southwest of Bangor, on Penobscot Bay, at the 
terminus of the Belfast division of the Maine 
Central Railroad (Map: Maine, E 7). There is 
a good harbor, and the principal industries are 
the manufacture of shoes, doors, sashes, cigars, 
fertilizers, clothing, blinds, leather, boards, and 
sardine and corn canning. There are also foun- 
dries and machine shops. The city has a public 
library, a theatre and opera house, and several 
fine lodge and bank buildings. Settled by 
Scotch-Irish in 1770, Belfast was incorporated 
as a town and named (from Belfast, Ireland) in 
1773. It was chartered as a city in 1850. The 
charter now in force was adopted in 1853 and 
provides for a mayor, elected annually, and a 
bicameral city council. Pop., 1900, 4615; 1910, 
4618. Consult Williamson, History of the City 
of Belfast (Portland, 1877). 


BEL'FOBD. A character in Samuel Richard- 
son's novel Clarissa ticwrlowe. 

BELFOBT, bfil'fdr' (Fr. beau, OF. lei, beauti- 
ful + fort, fort, citadel). The capital of the 
territory of Belfort, France, a town of great 
strategical importance on the Savoureuse, com- 
manding the Trouee-de-Belfort, a pass between 
the Vosges and Jura Mountains (Map: France, 


N., M 6). It is dominated by a lofty citadel, on 
a rock 200 feet high. In front of the citadel is 
carved the "Lion of Belfort," a colossal figure, 
36 feet in height and 72 feet long, the work of 
Bartholdi, commemorating the defense of 1870- 
71. Belfort has manufactories of machinery 
and cotton, breweries, and tanyards. There is 
considerable trade in grain and wines with 
Switzerland and Germany. The town was ceded 
to France by Austria in 1648, and was fortified 
by Vauban. During the war between Franco 
and Germany the town maintained a gallant de- 
fense against the German troops from Nov. 3, 
1870, until Feb. 16, 1871. It then capitulated 
with all the honors of war. Belfort has been 
converted, by the construction of a vast sys- 
tem of new works, into one of the most impreg- 
nable fortresses in Europe. Pop., 1801, 25,445; 
1901 (commune), 32,567; 1006, 34,640; 1011, 
39,371. Consult Bardy, Etude historique aur 
Belfort (Belfort, 1808-1000). 

BELFOBT, TERRITORY OF. A department on 
the eastern frontier of France (Map: France, 
N., M 5). Area, 235 square miles. Pop., 1806, 
88,169; 1901,01,765; 1011,- 101,386. It is named 
after its capital, and is the remnant of the for- 
mer department of Haut-Rhin ('Upper Rhine'), 
the major portion of which WIIH ceded to Ger- 
many by the Treaty of Frankfort in 1871. The 
climate is variable, and the chief industries are 
agriculture, pasturing, mining, and the manu- 
facture of iron, cotton, and woolen goods. There 
is considerable commerce in raw materials, and 
the products of local industries. Capital, Belfort. 

BEI/FRY (ME. berfrey, berfrcit, ML. 
ber \e~\fr edits, MHO!, berefrit, a watrlitower, from 
fterc, protection, Gor. her gen, to cover, hide -f- 
frit, fridj place of security, tower, Ger. Friede, 
peace). Originally a wooden movable tower for 
protecting a besieging force in an attack on a 
fortification, such as Caesar more than once 
mentions. Froissart describes one that was em- 
ployed at the si"ge of the castle of Breteuil 
in 1356; and at the siege of .Jerusalem, by the 
Crusaders, one was carried in pieces, put to- 
gether just beyond bowshot, and then pushed on 
wheels to a proper position. Such towers some- 
times rested on six or eight wheels, and had as 
many as 15 stories or stages; but the height 
was usually limited to three or four. They were 
often covered with rawhides to protect them 
from boiling oil or grease thrown upon them by 
the besieged, and there was a hinged drawbridge 
at the top, which was let down upon the parapet 
of the wall to assist in landing. The lower 
stage frequently had a battering-ram, while the 
others were crowded with archers and slingers. 

From this use the word came to be applied to 
a watch tower, beacon, or bell tower used for 
alarm and refuge in towns and monasteries, and 
particularly to the wooden framework from 
which the bell was hung. In mediaeval towns the 
bell was used not only on special occasions, but 
regularly, to announce work hours, sunrise and 
sunset, town gatherings, as well as fire alarms 
and calls to arms. The bell and belfry thus be- 
came the emblems of communal freedom; the 
most conspicuous belfries were those of the town 
halls, such as those of Florence and Siena; 
others were isolated square towers, as at Venice, 
and Bruges, and this was the primitive form; 
others were connected with city gates, as in 
ome of the Hanpe towns, Bordeaux, etc. In the 
fourteenth century clocks as well as sundials 


were for the first time placed on belfries. The 
term "belfry" is even more commonlv used of the 
wooden frame for the bell in any bell tower, even 
any church tower, and it was extended to in- 
clude that part of the structure containing it, 
i.e., the upper part of the tower, the bell 
chamber or bell cage. But it is an error to use 
belfry and bell tower or campanile as synony- 
mous. The extension of the term "belfry" from 
civil structures to include religious ones is late 
and incorrect. See BELL TOWER; CAMPANILE. 

BELFBY OP BRTT'GES, Fr. pron. bruzh, 

BEI/GJE (Lat. nom. pi. of Belga). The 
northernmost of the three great groups into 
which the Celtic tribes of ancient Gaul were 
divided. They occupied the territory between the 
Sequana ('Seine/), Matrona ('Marne'), MoseUa 
('Moselle'), Rhenus ('Rhine'), and the ocean, 
comprising the modern Belgium, with parts of 
Holland and northeastern France. To their 
south lay the Celtae, or Gauls proper, and to 
their east the Germans. The chief of their many 
tribes were the Remi, Bellovaci, Suesaiones, and 
Atrebates. The Belgse had also crossed the 
Channel and settled in southern Britain, in Kent 
and Sussex. Csesar came in conflict with the 
Gallic Belgcp in 57 B.C., and crushed them after 
a long campaign (Goes. B. G. ii, 1-33) ; but sev- 
eral of the tribes revolted later. In the reor- 
ganization of the Empire under Augustus, the 
Belga? were included in the province of Gallia 
Belgira on the west of the Rhine from the North 
Sea to the Lake of Constance. Consult T. Rice 
Holmes, Ccrsar's Conquest of Gaul (Oxford, 
1911); J. Jung, "Geographie von Italien und 
dem Orbis Romanus," in Mtiller's Handbuch 
der KJaftsisehcn Altertumswissenschaft (Mu- 
nich, 1807). 

BELGAUM, bel-goum'. The chief city of a 
district of the same name in the presidency of 
Bombay, British India, situated east of the di- 
viding 'ridge of the West Ghats, nearly 2500 feet 
above sea level, in lat. 15 50' N., ana long. 74 
36' E., 42 miles northwest of Dharwar (Map: 
India, B 5). Belgaum possesses a fort, which 
in 1818 was taken from the Peishwa by the 
British. The town lies between the fort on the 
east and the military cantonment. Under its 
new masters the place has made considerable 
progress. In 1848 the citizens spontaneously 
subscribed a considerable sum for the recon- 
struction of their roads and lanes a liberality 
which, besides drawing forth a supplementary 
grant of public money, roused the emulation of 
adjacent towns and villages. It has two high 
schools for the education of native youths, 
which are supported by the neighboring princes, 
the British government, and private individuals. 
The town has manufactures of cotton cloth and 
a trade in cotton, salt, fish, coir, dates, and coco- 
nuts. The average annual rainfall at Belgaum 
is about 3ft inches. Belgaum is one of the prin- 
cipal military stations of the presidency, rop. 
of town, military cantonment, and suburbs, 
1891,40,700; 1901,36,878; 1911,42,623. Area 
of Belgaum district, 4656 square miles; pop., 
1891, 1,013,000; 1901, 994,200; 1911, 943,820. 


BEL'GIC CONFES'SION. A statement of 
faith based on Calvinistic principles, written 
in French, formed by Guido de Bres, of Brabant, 
and others in 1561, and sent to Philip II of 
Spain to induce him to tolerate the Reformed 
Faith. It was published in the vernacular in 


1562, afterward translated into Dutch and Ger- 
man, and was received as a symbolical book by 
the synods of Antwerp (1566) and Dort (1619). 
It is reprinted in French with English transla- 
tion, in SchafPs Creeds, vol. iii, pp. 383-436. 

CESS (1808-71). An Italian patriot and author, 
born at Milan. She did much to assist the 
Italian patriots in their struggles against Aus- 
tria. In 1830 she removed to Paris, where she 
edited the Gazetta Italiana and the Ausonia in 
behalf of Italian liberation. In 1848 she re- 
turned to Italy, spoke in the cause of freedom, 
and equipped at her own expense a volunteer 
corps. Exiled upon the capture of Rome by 
the French ( 1849) , she again returned to Italy in 
1861 to found the periodicals Italia and Perse- 
veranza. Her works include Souvenirs d'exil 
(1850); Scenes de la vie turque (1858); His- 
toire de la Maison de Savoie (I860) ; Reflexions 
sur Vetat actuel de V Italic et sur son avcnir 

BELGIUM. A constitutional monarchy; one 
of the smaller European states, situated be- 
tween lat. 49 30' and 51 30' N., and long. 
2 33' and 6 6' E. It is bounded by 
Prussia on the east, France on the south and 
southwest, the North Sea on the northwest, 
and the Netherlands on the north. The area 
and population by provinces, according to the 
census of Dec. 31, 1010, comparative population 
figures for 10(10, and the density per square mile 
in 1910 are sho\\n in the following table: 


Sq. unless 






81 9,1 SO 





1,203 ./ft.) 



West Flamlcin 





East Flanders 

1,1 ,">8 



















Luxemburg . 





Nanmr . . 





Total Belgium 





The increase during the decade was 10.91 per 
cent. The excess of births over deaths during 
that period was 717,563; of immigrants over emi- 
grants, 12,073. Number of inhabitants speak- 
ing only French (1910), 2,833,334; Flemish, 
3,220,662; German, 31,415; French and Flemish, 
871,288; French and German, 74,993; Flemish 
and German, 8652; the three languages, 52,547; 
leaving 330,893 speaking none of the three lan- 
guages, and including children under two years 
of age. and foreigners of other nationalities. 

The population was estimated, Dec. 31, 1911, 
upon the annual official returns at 7,490,411; 
Dec. 31, 1920, 7,458,903. 

Topography. The country can be divided 
into four natural regions. A western strip of 
coastal lowland spreads inland at its northern 
extremity so as to occupy the zone between the 
northern frontier and a broken line connecting 
the cities of Gand, Brussels, and Maestricht. 
The marshes of La Campinc and the low plains 
of Flanders are included in this westernmost 
region. In the last-named province the land 
becomes so low that in many places dikes must 
be raised to check the encroachments of the sea. 
An area of low and broken relief between the 
valleys of the Meuse and the western basin of 
the Scheldt, constitutes a second natural region 


which comprises nearly all of southern Bel- 
gium. The third is formed by the plateau of 
the Ardennes Mountains in the southeastern 
section of the country. It is delimitated by 
the Sambre and Meuse rivers. The altitude 
here rarely exceeds 2000 feet, although a peak 
2214 feet in elevation has been determined at 
Baraque Michel. The heavily exploited Bel- 
gian coal tlelds are found in this district. The 
elevated plains of Hesbaye belong to a fourth re- 
gion which includes all of northeastern Belgium. 
Climate. Three climatic zones can be dis- 
tinguished in the country. It is generally mild 
and rainy along the Atlantic coast. Away from 
the influence of the ocean, along the German 
frontier, the humidity is less excessive and the 
temperature exhibits no great unevenness. Some- 
what drier and more rigorous weather prevails 
in the higher areas. The average temperature 
in the low districts is about 50 F. The indige- 
nous flora and fauna differ in no important way 
from that of the rest of north central Europe. 
See Flora and Fauna, under EUROPE. 

The country is exceedingly well watered, even 
though its two great rivers, the Meuse and the 
Scheldt, rise in France and reach the sea in 
Holland. The navigability of these two water 
courses and that of their affluents, added 
to the existence of a well-developed network 
of canals, has created a large inland waterway 

Geology. The oldest geological formations oc- 
cur in the southern provinces, particularly along 
the Ardennes, which are an outlier of the Rhen- 
ish Highlands of Germany. Archiran and Sil'i- 
rian rocks occupy very small areas in this 
region, but the Devonian system is important. 
On the northern slopes of the Ardennes, from 
Liege on the east to Mons on the west, Carbon- 
iferous strata (carrying valuable deposits of 
coal) outcrop in considerable extent. The low- 
lying northern pro\mces of Belgium are under- 
laid by Mosozoic and Cenozoic sediment, which 
were deposited in successive ordei upon the 
former shore lines and still retain a neaily 
horizontal position. Cretaceous and Tertiary 
strata are most widespread in occurrence. 

Agriculture. The cultivation of the soil 
occupies a rather subordinate place in industrial 
JVlfjium, owing partly to unfavorable condi- 
tions, but mainly to the greater inducements 
offered to capital and labor by mining and rrfanu- 
factures. There were engaid in agricultural 
pursuits, in 1846, 24.98 per cent of the popula- 
tion; in 1880, 21.77: in 1895, 18.79 a constantly 
diminishing number. 

As carried on in Belgium, however, agricul- 
ture has attained a high degree of perfection. 
There is a government agricultural board in 
each province, and the Department of Agricul- 
ture has special services devoted to forestry, 
irrigation, clearing and planting, cultivation, 
veterinary affairs, and agricultural laboratories. 
The nature of the surface in the various prov- 
inces determines the character of their agricul- 
ture. Thus, viniculture is practiced mostly 
along the valley of the Meuse River; cereal cul- 
tivation in the provinces of Antwerp, Brabant, 
East Flanders, Luxemburg, Namur, and Hai- 
naut; cattle raising on the fertile slopes of the 
Ardennes and in the rich valleys. 

The total area of the country, expressed in 
hectares (one hectare contains 2.47 acres), is 
2,945,104. In the table below will be found 
the number of hectares in each of the great 


divisions of the agricultural domain, accord- 
ing to census returns for three years: 




Under crops 


1,083 570 

1 916 690 

Uncultivated . 






2 704 957 

2 607 514 

The area under main classes of crops is de- 
tailed below (in hectares), according to the 
annual agricultural census, first taken in 1001, 
and exclusive of enterprises comprehending less 
than one hectare: 






740 193 

744 782 

LcRumcB . . 
Industrial plants . 
Forage plants . 
Second ciops* . . 




* Short-season crops, sown uftor a principal crop has been 
harvested and on the same lurid. 

The area under cereals greatly declined dur- 
ing! the last 20 years of the nineteenth century, 
having been 934,003 in 1880 and 809.691 in 
181)5. Industrial plants, with a decline from 
64,150 hectares in 1880 to 51,642 in 1805, show 
an average improvement in the last decade. 
The cultivation of sugar beets has increased from 
32,627 hectares in 1880 and 54,099 in 1895, to 
over 00,000 hectares in 1911. 

Beet growing is chiefly carried on in the prov- 
inces of Brabant and Liege. Potatoes are a 
leading crop, the acreage devoted to them being 
slightly greater than that under wheat (160,.V26 
hectares in 1912). Hops and tobacco are exten- 
sively grown, and the production of chicory is 

A glance at the annual agricultural returns 
will show the yield from areas quoted above, the 
cereal and root classes in detail, expressed in 
quintals (1 quintal = 220.46 Ibs.) : 
















Barley . 








Indust. plants 




Sugar beeta 



1. "1,067,332 

Forage beets 








Forage plants 




Under "industrial plants" above, flax is not 
included. The products of sown meadows aie 
included with "forage plants." 

Land Distribution. The concentration of land- 
ownership, the relative advantages and chances 
of survival of small and large farms, and the 
possibilities in the way of application of capi- 
tal in agriculture in connection with intensive 
cultivation, have nowhere perhaps been studied 
with greater care than in Belgium. As the 
conditions do not differ much from those in 
the neighboring countries of western Europe, 
the agricultural statistics of Belgium are of 
more than ordinary vaJue. The following table 


shows the number of farms at each of the cen- 
suses taken during the nineteenth century, and 
the percentage of increase or decrease from 1880 
to 1895: 

(in acres) 






Less than IK 
From IK to 2 V$ 
" 2Htol2H 
44 25 to 50 
" 50 to 125 
More than 125 













(+) Increase. 

(-) Decrease. 

The above table discloses the interesting phe- 
nomenon that while the small farms (those with 
an acreage of less than 12 ] /> acres each) had 
been increasing in number previous to 1880, and 
those with a larger acreage decreasing, the ten- 
dency lias since been reversed, and since 1880 
the small farms have been giving place to 
the larger ones. (The word "large" is applied 
to a farm in Belgium that would be considered 
very small indeed in the United States; but 
in Belgium the intensive system of cultivation 
makes it possible to apply a comparatively large 
amount of capital to a small area.) Within the 
group of small farms the smallest, those of less 
than 1 14 acres in extent, mostly gardens or or- 
chards attached to houses, have decreased only 
3 per cent since 1880, while those from 1*4 to 
2 1 ,!' acres have decreased nearly 30 per cent, 
and from 2'/ 3 to 12 y 2 acres 15%' per cent. The 
largest increase took place in the two groups 
from 25 to 125 acres, viz., 8 per cent. At the 
same time there has been an increase in the num- 
ber of tenants cultivating land. In 1846, 54.7 
per cent of the total area under farms was 
cultivated directly by thn owners; in I860 only 
50.3 per cent; in 1880 the proportion increased 
again to 53 per cent to fall in 1895 below one- 
half of the total, viz., 40.4 per cent. The 
changes in agriculture which accompanied this 
concentration of land and increase of tenantry 
have been partly, as stated above, a gradual 
abandonment of grain growing (caused to a 
great extent by the competition of the cheaper 
American gram) and the substitution of the 
cultivation of industrial plants, or of stock 
raising, or of activities partaking more of the 
industrial than the agricultural character. 

Stock Raising. This industry is extensively 
carried on, and the animals and animal prod- 
ucts not only supply the domestic demand but 
furnish an 'important article of export. The 
dairy industry is especially important Belgian 
cheese, and particularly that of Limburg, hav- 
ing a world-wide reputation. The number of 
stock animals in Belgium is shown as follows: 

Live Stock 















Sheep . . 




As will be seen from the above table, in which 
the 1911 figures are taken from the report of the 
Minister of Agriculture, the number of horses has 
declined and that of cattle and hogs has increased. 


The forests are mostly to be found in the 
south, especially in the provinces of Liege, Na- 
mur, and Luxemburg. They furnish but a small 
part of the wood required for the Belgian in- 
dustries. The fisheries furnish employment to 
a few thousand persons, and the value of the 
deep-sea fish caught annually is not far from 
$1,000,000. In 1903 the value of the catch was 

Milling. The coal mines of Belgium consti- 
tute one of the chief sources of its national 
prosperity. The coal deposits extend through 
nearly the entire breadth of the country, from 
west to east, underlying about one-twentieth 
of its total area, chiefly along the valleys of tlie 
Meuse and Sarabre. The development of the 
coal-mining industry is shown in the following 
table, which gives the number of mines in opera- 
tion, the area covered (in hectares), the pro- 
duction (in metric tons), and the output vnluc 
(in thousands of francs) : 




1000 fr. 






Among the minerals found in Belgium are 
iron, lead, copper, zinc, calami ne, alum, peat, 
marble, limestone, and slate. The value of the 
products of the metallic mines is not large, and 
since 1880 the output has constantly declined. 
The abundance of cheap fuel has led to the es- 
tablishment of an extensive metallurgical in- 
dustry, the ores being imported. 

Manufactures. The manufacturing indus- 
tries occupy the majority of the population and 
are the chief source of the country's wealth. 
While the development of great enterprises has 
kept pace with the introduction of modern 
machinery, the house industries and small 
private enterprises have not lost ground. The 
census of Oct. 31, 1890, returns a total of 
320,089 separate establishments in active 
operation. Of these, 305,045 (93 per cent) 
were individual enterprises; 18,678 (5 per 
cent) were operated by firms or companies; 
1802 (0.5 per cent) by great corporations. 
The total number of persons engaged in these 
enterprises (which include mines, furnaces, 
etc.) was 1,102,244 (837,223 men and 205,021 
women). Employed for all purposes in 1880, 
there were 14,000 steam engines, with a total 
of 007,142 horse power; in 1900, 22,991 (1,408,- 
941 h.p.); 1910, 27,810 (2,071,418); 1911, 27,- 
990 (2,708,727). Private enterprise employed 
(census of 1890) 028,253% horse power. 

The house industries are largely carried on by 
members of the family as a mere subsidiary em- 
ployment. That does not represent, however, 
the entire extent of the small industry, as a 
large number of workshops employ two, three, or 
a few more persons, with little or no machinery. 

The textile industry comprehends the manu- 
facture of linen, woolens, and cottons. Carpets 
are produced for export, as well as fine laces, 
lawns, and damasks. 

Although the output from the metallic mines 
is small, the metal industry is highly impor- 
tant, ranking third in the* number of people 
employed, and being next to the textile industry 


in the value of its products, the manufacture 
of iron and steel especially being on a vast 

The first half of the following table presents 
the output in pig iron, manufactured iron, steel 
(ingots, nails, etc.), zinc ingots, lead, and sil- 
ver from lead, in metric tons; the second half, 
the value, in thousands of francs: 





Pig iron. . 
MTd. " 
Steel ... 
Zinc . . . 
Lead .. 


1 6,305 



1000 fr. 

1000 fr. 

1000 fr. 

1000 fr. 

Pi K iron .. 
Mfd. " . 
Steel. . . 
Zinc . . . 
Silver. . . 






* In kilograms. 

From and including 1900, the output of the 
iron works includes the half-worked and the 
finished products; the value relates to the fin- 
ished products only. 

There are large ordnance foundries at Lie'ge 
and Mechlin, and celebrated makers of fire- 
arms and machinery in Liege. Among other 
branches of Belgian industry arc nail making at 
Charloroy; and the manufacture of tinware, 
etc., at Liege and in Hainaut; wire and brass at 
Namur; zinc at Lie'ge; lead and shot at Ghent; 
and gold and silver wares at Brussels and Ghent. 
The glass factories are world-renowned ; the 
value of their output in 1900 was 65,912.000 
francs. The chief works are in Hainaut, Bra- 
bant, and Namur and at Val-Saint-Lambcrt. 
Porcelain ware is manufactured at Tournai, 
Brussels, Ghent, and Mons. Other manufactured 
products are building material, food products, 
lumber and woodwork, hides and leather, chemi- 
cals, paper, beer, and tobacco. The sugar fac- 
tories numbered 121 in 1900 (output, 306,070 
metric tons), 92 in 1910 (271,282 tons), 89 in 
1911 (234,704 tons) ; the refineries numbered 25 
in 1900 (73,883 tons), 22 in 1910 (114,538 tons, 
including by-products), 21 in 1911 (121,220 
tons, including by-products). 

Hallways. Belgium has a greater railway 
mileage in proportion to its area than any other 
country. The first railway was opened for 
traffic in May, 1835, from Mechlin to Brussels, 
a distance of 13 miles. During the first few 
years all railway construction was done by 
the government, but in 1842 private companies 
were permitted to enter the field. Most of the 
private lines, however, wore bought out subse- 
quently by the government, that policy being 
pursued with especial energy since 1897. 

The total length of all lines (exclusive of 
light railways) in operation Dec. 31, 1911, was 
2907 miles; of which 2090 were operated by the 
state and 217 by private companies. The state 
lines carried during the year 180,840,189 pas- 
sengers (private lines, 18.049,557). The reve- 
nue for the year amounted to 313,292,497 francs 
(private, 33,909,920 francs) and the expendi- 
ture to 210,645,039 (14,151,403). The acci- 


dents on all lines resulted in 164 fatalities 
and 1131 persons injured; from 1836 to Dec. 
31, 1911, out of a total of 4,198,815,572 passen- 
gers carried, 44,284 were killed (0.11 per mil- 
lion), or injured (1.93 per million). 

Shipping and Navigation. Belgium has a 
flourishing merchant marine, which is, however, 
unable to carry more than a fourth of the 
country's goods. The number of vessels in- 
creased from 67, with a tonnage of 30,149 (12 
steam, 30,149 tons), in 1870, to 73 of 113,259 
tons (steam, 69, of 112,518) in 1900; 104. of 
191,132 tons (steam, 99, of 187,730) in 1910. 
In 1911 the steam vessels numbered 93, of 
160,515 tons, and sailing vessels 8, of 5905. In 
1911 the vessels entered at the ports of Bel- 
gium numbered 11,100, of 15,907,359 aggregate 
tons; cleared, 11,122, of 15,890,915; in 1910, 
10,943, of 15,101,171, and 10,929, of 15,074,061; 
in 1900, 8619, of 8,500,772, and 8620, of 8,500,- 
772; in 1870, 5868, of 1,575,293, and 5406, of 
1,534,013. Over one-half of the entire shipping 
is carried in British vessels; over one-third IB 
carried in German vessels, and over one-sixth in 
Belgian vessels. There were, in Belgium, in 
1911, 1348 miles of navigable waters (rivers 
and canals), which float a large commerce 1 , and 
uhnut one-half of this mileage is contributed by 
the canals. Practically all the leading towns 
are connected in this wise. The Scheldt and the 
Mouse are navigable from France to the sea, 
and there are 15 other navigable rivers. 

Commerce. As a manufacturing country, 
Belgium requires mainly food products ami raw 
materials from abroad in exchange for its manu- 
factures. The chief articles of import include 
cereals, cotton, wool, flax, metals, chemicals, 
drugs and resins, mineral substances, lumber, 
textiles, oilseeds, hides, animals und animal 
products, coffee, caoutchouc, and machinery; 
while the chief exports include iron and steel 
(with manufactured wares), raw textile materi- 
als, yarn and thread, coal and coke, glassware, 
railway cars, machinery, chemicals and dyestuffs, 
minerals, zinc, cereals, and sugar. The trade 
development is shown in the following table, in 
which import and export figures are given for 
both the general and the special trade, in thou- 
sands of francs: 












the special trade are included, from and includ- 
ing 1900, imports and exports of bullion and 
specie, amounting in 1900 to 46,543,830 and 
15,429,015 francs, respectively; in 1910, to 
199,841,769 and 76,139,441; in 1911, to 197,- 
009,667 and 44,548,100. 

An interesting feature of Belgium's commerce 
is the excess of its imports over its exports 
a condition which has not changed since 1840. 
Far from being a drawback to the country, this 
adverse balance of trade has been one result 
of Belgium ' commercial and financial expan- 
sion. The inventtnents of Belgian capital 
abroad, especially in Russia and in Asia, are un- 
usually large, and the surplus imports represent 
the materialized profits of foreign investments 
accruing to Belgian capitalists. 

A table follows showing some of the principal 
articles imported for home consumption and 
exports of domestic produce in the 1911 trade, 
values in thousands of francs: 


1000 fr. 


1000 fr. 

Cereals* . 
Hides . 


Iron and steel .... 
1^ nch inory 

221 700 

Seeds . . 











112 000 

Chemical prods. 
Rubber . 
Iron and steel 
Resins, etc 


Linen thread 


Diamondsf . . 
Flax. . . . 


Cottons . 


* Including flour, f Cut. J Including vehicles. Uncut. 

The principal countries of origin and des- 
tination in the order of greatest import values 
are as follows; year, 1911; values in millions 
of francs: 





Germany* . . 
Great Britain 
U. States . . 
Netherlands . . 



Brit. India 
Rumania . 
Australia . 
Belg. Congo . 



* The German Customs Union. 

The following table shows the course of the 
Belgian-American trade, from American returns, 
the value of the exports from the United 
States into Belgium and the imports into the 
"United States from Belgium being expressed in 
thousands of dollars: 

In the general trade, since and including 
1900, is included the value of uncut diamonds 
imported (40,000,000 francs in 11)00, 97,809,000 
francs in 1910, 98,356,000 in 1911), and of cut 
(hut unmounted) diamonds exported (43,000,- 
000 francs in 1900, 98,450,000 francs in 1910, 
99,049,000 francs in 1911). In 1911 imports 
and exports (general trade) hy sea were valued 
at 3,261,700,000 and 2,551,500,000 francs, re- 
spectively; by land and railways, 2,918,000,000, 
and 2,552,300,000; by rivers and canals, 626,- 
700,000, and 775,500,000. In the totals for 


Imp.toU.S. U.S. 




































































Banking. The banking system of Belgium 
centres in the National Bank, established in 
1850 with a capital of $5,000,000, increased to 
$10,000,000 in 1872, when its charter was re- 
newed until 1903. In 1900 its charter was ex- 
tended to January, 1929. It is the sole bank of 
issue in the country and in addition to doing 
a general deposit and discount business with 
private individuals, serves as a repository of 
state moneys and has general charge of all the 
operations of the state treasury. The services 
to the state are performed free of charge, and 
in addition a certain amount is paid to the 
state annually for the privilege of handling its 
moneys. The bank has numerous branches 
throughout the country. It also conducts, free 
of charge, all the financial operations of the 
State Savings and Pension Institution, estab- 
lished in 1865. There are, in addition, several 
private banks and banking institutions, the 
oldest of which is the Booitte generate pour 
favoriser rindustrie nntionnlc. 

Finance. The franc (1 franc = 19.3 cents) 
is the unit of value. The following table shows 
ordinary (A) and extraordinary (B) revenue 
and expenditure for comparative years, in thou- 
sands of francs: 







Rev. A.... 
" B .... 

Total. . 

Expend. A 
B . 

Total . . 





















The deficit is really much larger than it ap- 
pears, owing to the fact that the revenues in- 
clude the amounts raised by loans in order 
to meet or reduce the deficits from year to year. 
The estimated revenue for 1912 was 703,882,594: 
francs, and the estimated expenditure was 708,- 
080,509 francs. 

Belgium has a system of taxation which is 
burdensome to the masses of the population. In 
1854 the direct taxes constituted 25 per cent 
of the revenue of the state, and the indirect, 28 
per cent. In 1901 the proportion of direct taxes 
fell to about 10 per cent, while that of the 
indirect taxes rose to about 35 per cent. The 
chief sources of direct taxation are property 
taxes, personal taxes, taxes on trades, etc.; 
the most important indirect taxes are import 
duties, and excise duties on whisky, beer, vine- 
gar, tobacco, and sugar. 

In addition to taxation, revenues are derived 
from state domains and forests, state railways, 
telegraph, post office, and other government in- 
stitutions conducted on a business basis. The 
largest item of expenditure, next to that on 
railways, posts, telegraphs, and telephones 
which need not be considered here, as they are 
more in the nature of a profitable investment 
than a source of expense to the state is the ser- 
vice of the public debt. Of the ministries, that 
of War draws most heavily on the treasury. 

Public Deft*. Most of Belgium's debt has 
been incurred for profitable undertakings, espe- 
cially in connection with her railway enterprises. 
The national debt has grown as follows, in 










682,880 914 



1 ,422,814,049 





The debt charge amounted to 186,588.127 
francs in 1910. 

Population. Belgium is the most densely 
peopled country in Europe, the average popula- 
tion in 1910 about 653 per square mile. The 
density of population for each province has been 
shown in the first table of this article. 

The increase of the population may be seen 
from the following figures obtained by succes- 
sive general censuses, with per cent of increase 
during the periods cited: 




Increase p. c. 































* Estimate. 

As in all well -settled countries, there is a sur- 
plus of women over men, the Belgian figures for 
1910 being 3,680,790 men and 3,742,994 women. 
Of the total population, 2,833.334 were returned 
by the 1910 census as speaking French only, 
3,220,662 Flemish only, and 31,415 German only; 
871,228 French and Flemish, 74,99.'} French and 
German, 8Gf>2 Flemish and German, 52,547 the 
three languages; 330,893 persons spoke none of 
these languages. There are four cities with a 
population exceeding 100,000: Brussels, Ant- 
werp, Liege, and Ghent. 

Immigraliim and Emigration. Belgium pre- 
sents an exception among the countries of west- 
ern Europe in that it has a greater immigration 
than emigration. The following table shows the 
annual average of the two movements for four 
decades and the number of immigrants and emi- 
grants in 1911: 





1 871-1 880 
1891 1000 
1901 1910 



1 ,509 

Immigration is greatest from France, Ger- 
many, and the Netherlands, the three countries 
averaging together about 90 per cent of the 
total. Curiously enough, emigration is distrib- 
uted in about the same proportions among the 
same countries, only an insignificant proportion 
(about 2 per cent) going to the United States; 
all of which shows that the character of the 
emigration movement in Belgium is quite dif- 
ferent from that in the countries of Ger- 


many, Austria, Italy, and the United King- 
dom. The emigration from Belgium is evi- 
dently of a temporary nature, the people going 
to and coming from the three neighboring coun- 
tries mentioned as their interests require, but 
evidently not changing permanently their place 
of abode. 

Beliglon. With the exception of some 30,000 
Protestants and about 13,000 Jews, the people 
of Belgium are Roman Catholics. Religious lib- 
erty is untrammeled. The church must derive 
most of its material support from the people. 
The state, howovcr, grants some subventions 
to the ecclesiastical orders. The country is 
dnided into the six. Roman Catholic dioceses 
of Mechlin, Bruges, Ghent, Tournai, Namur, and 

Education. The percentage of persons 8 
years old and over who could read and write 
wns 69.04 in 1880, 73.1)5 in 1890, 80.88 in 1900, 
and 80.90 in 1910. The educational system in- 
cludes secular institutions supported by the state 
or the local governments, and schools maintained 
and managed by the Roman Catholic priesthood. 
The effort 8 of the clergy to obtain control of 
popular education have been a principal fea- 
ture of Belgian politics for a number of decades. 
The constitution of IH.'U totally separated church 
from state, but conceded to the Catholic clergy 
as representatives of what was practically the 
only faith in Belgium the right of imparting re- 
ligious instruction in the public schools; the 
Liberal party, abetted by the growing Socialist 
party, has made repeated efforts to do away with 
religious teachings in the schools and to substi- 
tute purely secular education. Higher education 
is provided for by the state unhersities at 
Ghent and Liege, and the free universities of 
Brussels and Louvain, all of which give courses 
in law, medicine, philosophy, and science; and 
at Louvain instruction is given in Catholic 
theology. Annexed to the universities arc 
schools of engineering, manufactures, arts, and 
mines. In addition there aie a large number 
of normal, commercial, and industrial schools, 
the Ro\al Academy of Fine Arts at Antwerp, 
and schools of design and music. The secondary 
schools include the royal athemeuius and the 
high schools, which are supported and eon- 
trolled by the government; the number of insti- 
tutions of secondary learning which are under 
the independent control of the clergy is probably 
equal to the number of state schools. Primary 
education is left to the care of the communes, 
in every one of which there mubt be at least 
one elementary school; the state and the prov- 
inces, however, subsidize the communal schools 
and exercise the right of inspection. At the end 
of 1911 the primary schools for children were 
attended Iiy 934,830 pupils, infant schools by 
275,911, and priman schools for adults by 246,- 

Government. The government of 'Belgium is 
a "constitutional, representative, and hereditary 
monarchy," based on the constitution of 1831, 
which guarantees to the citizen equality before 
the law, personal liberty and security, the right 
of association and petition, and the freedom of 
worship, instruction, and the press. The ciown 
is hereditary in the direct male line, and on 
the failure of male issue the monarch, with the 
consent of the chambers, appoints his successor. 
The king is commander in chief of the army, 
concludes treaties of war and peace, nominates 
officials, and issues decrees, but has no povcr 


to suspend the execution of the laws. He rulei 
through a council of ministers responsible to the 
chambers, and every royal act must be counter- 
signed by a minister. The departments of state 
are 11 in number, under the control of the Min- 
ister of Finance of the Interior, of Science and 
Art, of Agriculture and Public Works, of Foreign 
Affairs, of Industry and Labor, of War, of Justice, 
of Railways, of the Colonies, and of Marine, and 
Posts and Telegraphs. The Ministry of Marine 
was created in November, 1912. The legislative 
power is vested in the king and the chambers, 
consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of 
Deputies. The Senate was composed, in 1911, of 
120 members, of whom 93 were chosen by the 
direct suffrage of citizens over the age of 30, 
and 27 by the provincial councils. The Chamber 
of Deputies, which numbered 186 in 1911, is 
elected by the direct suffrage of every citizen 
over the age of 25. The chambers meet annually 
for a session of at least 40 days, but the power 
of prorogation and dissolution rests with the 
king. Bills dealing with the revenue and the 
annual contingent for the army must originate 
in the lower house. Superimposed on man- 
hood suffrage, which makes every male Belgian 
not legally disqualified an elector, there is the 
system of plural suffrage, which gives an ad- 
ditional vote to citizens over 35 years of age 
possessing legitimate issue and paying at least 
five francs a year in house tax, as well as to 
citi/ens owning real estate to the value of 2000 
francs, and two additional votes to professional 
men and the holders of diplomas from institu- 
tions of higher learning. In 1911-12 the num- 
ber of electors for the Senate was 1,460,230, of 
\\liom 755,453 had each one vote, 394,123 two 
votes, and 310,660 three 'votes; the number of 
electors for the Chamber of Deputies was 1,721,- 
755, of whom 998,483 had one vote, 404,786 two 
votes, and 318,486 three votes. By the law of 
Dec. 29, 1899, the method of proportional repre- 
sentation was initiated. See Uistory, below. 
For arms of the country, see Plate accompanying 

Local Government. Belgium is divided into 
r.ine provinces, each under a governor appointed 
by the crown. The provincial council, which is 
chosen by direct suffrage for a period of eight 
years, deliberates on matters of local finance and 
administration, sanitation, roads, and police, and 
assesses direct contributions towards the state 
among the communes. Half "the council is re- 
newed every four years. Its acts are subject to 
the approval of the king. A permanent deputa- 
tion, consisting of the governor and six men 
chosen from the council, serves as an executive 
committee and directs public affairs when the 
council is not in session. In 1911-12 there were 
1,460,236 provincial electors. The provinces are 
subdivided into 41 arrondissements for adminis- 
trative purposes and into 26 judicial arrondisse- 
incnts, which are the seats of high courts of 
original jurisdiction; and these are again por- 
tioned out into 222 cantons, each under a justice 
of the peace. The ultimate unit of local govern- 
ment is the commune. In 1911 there were 2632 
communes. The affairs of the commune are 
debated and decided in the communal council, 
varying in membership from 7 to 51, and 
elected directly for a period of eight years by 
all resident citizens above the age of 25. In 
1911-12 there were 1,320,074 communal electors. 
In communes of more than 2000 inhabitants, 
supplementary councilors are elected by em- 


ployees and working men. The communal coun- 
cil exercises independent jurisdiction over local 
affairs, but deliberates also on matters dele- 
gated to it by the general or provincial gov- 
ernment. The executive work of the commune 
is carried on by an aldermanic college, consist- 
ing of a burgomaster appointed by the king, 
and two or four aldermen elected by the com- 
munal college. 

Justice in the case of petty civil disputes 
and minor offenses is administered by the justice 
of the peace, from whose decision there is no 
appeal in judgments involving less than 100 
francs ( $20 ) , or a penalty of not more than five 
days' imprisonment. For the trial of important 
civil cases there are 26 courts of first instance, 
while misdemeanors are brought before the 
tribunals of correction, and serious crimes and 
press offenses before jury courts of assizes sit- 
ting four times a year in every province. From 
the civil courts and the coura d'assise appeals 
lie to the cours d'appel at Brussels, Ghent, and 
Lige. The court of cassation, or supreme court, 
does not examine the facts of any case, but 
will reverse a decision of the lower courts where 
legal formalities have been violated. There are 
in addition special military and commercial 
courts and councils of prud'hommes for the ar- 
bitration of labor disputes, composed of work- 
men and employees. 

Army. The army of Belgium is intended 
only for the purpose of national defense and the 
preservation of neutrality, wars of aggression 
being forbidden by the constitution. The army 
was recruited mainly by voluntary enlistment, 
until December, 1909, when a law was passed 
substituting "personal service" for conscription 
with substitution, thus considerably reducing 
the exemptions. In addition to the regular army 
of 41,000 men in 1910, there is the civil guard, 
consisting of 46,563 officers and men in 1910. 
The war strength is about 180,000 men. The 
terms of military service are eight years in the 
active forces (of which time two-thirds are 
spent on furlough) and five years in the re- 
serve. Belgium has no navy. See ARMIES; 

History. Belgium takes its names from the 
ancient Celtic people called the Belgae (q.v.). 
The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica embraced 
a much greater area than modern Belgium, ex- 
tending from the mouth of the Scheldt nearly to 
the Seine, and from the Strait of Dover to the 
range of the Vosges. In the fourth century the 
Germanic people of the Franks pressed forward 
into this region, and in the fifth century they 
became masters of it. After the disruption of 
the Frankish realm in the ninth century, the 
bulk of what is now Belgium was included in 
the Duchy of Lorraine (Lotharingia), which 
formed part of the realm of the eastern Franks 
(Kingdom of Germany), while in the extreme 
west arose the county 'of Flanders, a fief of the 
kings of France. In the tenth century the 
northern half of Lorraine became the Duchy of 
Lower Lorraine, the name of which was sup- 
planted bv that of Brabant in the thirteenth 
century. Brabant was one of several states that 
were formed out of the Lotharingian territories, 
the group including Limburg (annexed to Bra- 
bant in 1288), Hainaut, Namur, Mechlin, Lux- 
emburg, and the ecclesiastical principality of 
Lige. In the latter part of the Middle Ages 
Flanders (which successfully withstood t)ie en- 
croachments of France) and Brabant attained 


an almost unexampled degree of prosperity. 
Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels, and other 
cities became the seats of a vast industry and 
commerce, and the arts flourished as nowhere 
else outside of Italy. In 1384 Flanders was 
united with Burgundy, whose dukes by the mid- 
dle of the fifteenth century had come into pos 
session of the greater part of the Belgian and 
Dutch Netherlands. The rulers of Burgundy 
aimed at founding a powerful state between 
France and Germany, and therefore endeavored 
to repress the free republican spirit which 
manifested itself in the rapidly rising towns; 
but the work of establishing an absolute mon- 
archy was interrupted by the fall of Charles 
the Bold. By the marriage of Mary, daughter 
of diaries the Bold with Maximilian in 1477, 
the Burgundian reulm, the most opulent in 
Europe, passed (with the exception of the 
Duchy of Burgundy itself) to the house of 
Hapsburg. On the accession of Charles (the 
future Emperor Charles V), grandson of Mary 
and Maximilian, to the throne of Spain in 1516, 
the Netherlands were united with that kingdom, 
and in 1549 their formal union with the Span- 
ish crown was decreed. The despotic measures 
of Philip II, the son and successor of Charles, 
excited in the Netherlands a long and bloody 
wur for civil and religious freedom, which 
ended in the independence of the northern or 
Dutch Netherland, while in the southern prov- 
inces (modern Belgium) both the sovereignty 
of Spain and the rule of the; Roman Catholic 
church continued. In 1598 the Belgian Nether- 
lands were ceded by Philip II to the Archduke 
Albert, who married Isabella, daughter of the 
King, and for a brief time the country became 
a distinct and independent kingdom. Severn 1 
measures for the better regulation of internal 
affairs, especially in the administration of jus- 
tice, and for the revival of industry, which had 
been injured by the unenlightened policy of 
Philip, were projected. Unfortunately Albert 
died childless in 1621, and Belgium fell back 
into the hands of Spain and became involved 
in the wars attending the decline of the Spanish 
monarchy. Peace generally was concluded at 
the cost of Belgium. By the Treaty of the 
Pyrenees (1659), the county of Artois, Thion- 
ville, and other districts, were given to France. 
Subsequent conquests by the same powerful 
neighbor secured to it, at the Peace of Ai\-la- 
Chapclle (1668), the possession of Lille, Char- 
leroi, Oudenarde, Courtrai, and other places. 
These were partly restored at the Peace of 
Nimeguen (1678); but as a compensation, 
Valenciennes, Nieuport, Cambrai, Saint-Omer, 
Charlemont, and other places, were given up, 
and only partially regained at the Peace of 
Ryswick in 1697. After the conclusion of this 
treaty, at the close of the reign of Charles II 
of Spain, some endeavors were made to create 
prosperity in Belgium by a new system of taxa- 
tion and customs and by the construction of 
canals to counteract the injury done to its com- 
merce by the closing of the navigation of the 
Scheldt. But these projected improvements 
were interrupted by the War of the Spanish 
Succession, concluded by the Peace of Utrecht 
in 1713. By this treaty Belgium was given to 
Austria, Holland retaining the privilege of gar- 
risoning the most important fortresses on the 
French frontier and also of exercising a monop- 
oly of the navigation of the Scheldt. The Bel- 
gian Commercial Company at Ostend, founded 


by Charles VI in 1722, fell in 1731 another 
sacrifice to the cupidity of Holland. Dur- 
ing the War of the Austrian Succession (1744) 
almost the whole country fell into the hands 
of the French, but was peaceably restored 
to Austria by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 

Belgium remained undisturbed by the Seven 
Years' War, and during tlie long peace follow- 
ing the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle prosperity 
was restored, and especially was this the case 
during the mild reign of* Maria Theresa of 
Austria. Joseph IT, son and successor of Maria 
Theresa, sought to obliterate the lino which 
William of Orange and Marlborough had drawn 
with so much pains between the Dutch Nether- 
lands and the Austrian Provinces. He com- 
pelled Holland to consent to tlie abolition of 
the barrier contract, and in consequence the 
Dutch garrisons were removed. The Dutch 
strenuously resisted his attempt to restore the 
free navigation of the Scheldt, and as France 
supported them in their resistance the Emperor 
had to yield. Meanwhile his administrative re- 
forms offended the people of his own provinces. 
In a short time discontent openly manifested 
itself. The Austrian authorities were attacked; 
Brabant refused to pay taxes, while the more 
violent fled into Holland and organized an 
armed expedition. In 1787 a Belgian republic 
was proclaimed; but Leopold II, who succeeded 
Joseph II in 1700, suppressed this insurrection, 
agreeing, however, to a restoration of the old 
constitution and privileges. The peace that 
followed was interrupted by the outbreak of the 
French Revolution. The Belgian Netherlands 
were conquered by Pichegru in the campaign of 
1794 and ceded to Franco by the Treaty of 
Campo Formio. The country shared the for- 
tunes of France during the. Consulate and the 
Empire ; received the Code Napolt'nn and in all 
political relations was a part of France. After 
tlie fall of Napoleon it was united with Holland, 
and its boundaries denned by the Congress of 
Vienna (1815). 

The union brought into sharp relief the differ- 
ence between the Dutch Protestant population, 
with their commercial habits, and the Catholic 
population of agricultural and manufacturing 
Belgium. Furthermore, the important provi- 
sions of the constitution hud regard chiefly to 
the interests of Holland. Attempts \\erp made 
to make Dutch the official language, the privi- 
leges of the Belgian clergy were abridged, and 
the poorer classes were severely taxed, while 
tlie government was almost exclusively com- 
posed of Dutchmen. Tlie Liberals and the 
Catholics both strongly resented the encroach- 
ments of Holland the Liberals, from a desire 
to preserve the national secular institutions; 
the Catholics, from a desire to preserve the 
national church. When these parties showed 
signs of coalescing, the government attempted 
concessions, which came too late to check the 
outburst of dissatisfaction; then followed re- 
actionary attempts at coercion and intimida- 
tion, which fanned the flame of discontent. 

Inspired by the French Revolution of 1830, 
the Belgians revolted against the Dutch. The 
rising took place in Brussels, Aug. 25, 1830, and 
soon spread over all Belgium. Finding that 
the revolt was spreading in spite of force. King 
William offered a separate government for the 
Belgians and a personal union with Holland. 
The Belgians rejected this, declared their inde- 
VOL. III. 7 


pendence, October 4, organized a provisional 
government, and called a congress, which met in 
November and adopted three principles: (1) 
Belgian independence; (2) hereditary mon- 
archy, with representative institutions; (3) 
exclusion of the House of Orange. They then 
proceeded to frame a constitution. The citadel 
of Antwerp was still held by a Dutch garrison 
under the intrepid General Chasse. Meanwhile 
the London Conference of the Powers had assem- 
bled to consider this breach of the treaties of 
1815, and after mature deliberation recognized 
the independence of Belgium as a fait accompli 
(December 10). During 1831 the Conference 
arranged the terms of the separation, and in 
1832 Belgium was neutralized and its neutrality 
was guaranteed by the Concert. Meanwhile the 
Belgian Congress had elected as King a son of 
Louis Philippe; but he declined under pressure 
from England, and after the brief regency of 
Baron Surlet de Chokier, Prince Leopold (q.v.) 
of Saxe-Coburg was elected King, June 4, 1831, 
and subscribed to the constitution. This prince 
proved himself a wise monarch. Holland re- 
fused to acknowledge the validity of the decision 
of the London Conference and sent an army 
against the Belgians, who were defeated in 
August, 1831. A French army under Marshal 
Gerard advanced to arrest the progress of the 
Dutch. England gave a note of warning, and 
the Dutch forces were withdrawn. Holland, 
however, still refused to abide by the decrees of 
the London Conference, and England and France 
proceeded to renewed coercion. The coast of the 
Netherlands was blockaded, and Marshal Gerard 
laid siege to the citadel of Antwerp. On Dec. 
23, 1832, General Chasse surrendered, and the 
liberation of Belgium was completed. Holland 
made peace with England and France at Lon- 
don, on May 21, 1833. A definite settlement 
between Holland and Belgium was not effected 
until 1830, when it was agreed that Luxemburg 
and Limburg should be divided between the two 

The government of Belgium was of the par- 
liamentary type, the people, as represented by 
the electorate, being regarded as the source of 
power. As soon as independence was achieved 
and recognized by Europe, the Liberal and 
Clerical parties, which had united against out- 
side influence, fell into their natural opposi- 
tion. The Liberals declared the encroachments 
of the Catholic religion to be "dangerous and 
continually hostile to civil society." The King 
studiously avoided organizing a party ministry, 
and the minister of justice declared that "the 
division into Catholics and Liberals is without 
meaning in the presence of the great principles 
of liberty consecrated by the constitution." 
The Education Act of 1842 made moral and 
religious instruction compulsory in the public 
schools, and intrusted it to the Church, under 
government supervision. This brought the 
school question permanently into Belgian poli- 
tics, where, with the suffrage, it has since neld 
the leading place. The elections of 1847 at 
last brought to a close the system of government 
in subservience to the church. A new Liberal 
ministry was formed by Rogier and others, 
whose programme promised the maintenance of 
the independent civil authority. The institu- 
tion of numerous agricultural and commercial 
schools, normal ateliers, popular libraries, and 
other means used for raising the working class, 
were followed by most beneficial results. The 


revolutionary movement which swept over Eu- 
rope in 1848 menaced the tranquillity of the 
country, but the King declared himself ready 
to retain or to surrender the crown of Belgium 
according to the decision of the people. This 
declaration strengthened the party of order, 
while it disarmed even those most disaffected to 
the crown. Leopold I died in 1865, and was 
succeeded by his son, Leopold II. Leopold II 
(q.v.), a shrewd business man, is chiefly re- 
membered in history for the support given by 
him to the International African Association, 
resulting in the establishment of the Congo 
Free State (q.v.), of which he was chosen 
sovereign. By a will executed in 1889, King 
Leopold bequeathed his new dominions to the 
Belgian State. In 1890 a convention was 
entered into by Belgium and the Congo Free 
State, by which Belgium, in consideration of n 
subsidy of 25,000,000 francs to the Congo Free 
State, received the right to annex that country 
at the end of 10 years. This right is still con- 
tinued under an Act of Aug. 10, 1001. 'Ihe 
outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 
threatened the neutrality of Belgian soil, caus- 
ing something of a panic, which was intensified 
on the publication, by the Prussian Foreign 
Office, of a secret proposal made some time pre- 
viously by Napoleon 111 to Prussia, imolving 
the annexation of Belgium to France. But the 
written assurance of both the French Kmpcror 
and the Prussian King, to the effect that Bel- 
gian neutrality would be scrupulously respected, 
served to restore tranquillity; and these per- 
sonal assurances were formally embodied in a 
treaty between England, France, and Prussia 
in the same year. 

During the first decade of the twentieth cen- 
tury the Congo question was paramount in Bel- 
gium. Investigation proved true many accusa- 
tions of cruelty practiced there by government 
officials. Jjeopold had treated the Congo region 
more as a personal source of private revenue 
than a ward of Belgium, and as a result his 
personal overlordship of the territory was abol- 
ished and in 1908 the Congo Free* State was 
annexed to Belgium. The following year Leo- 
pold died, and was succeeded by his nephew who 
\VOB crowned Albert I. Within Belgium, po- 
litical strife has centred mainly about the suf- 
frage; in 1890 the agitation for universal suf- 
frage culminated in a monster popular demon- 
stration, which led the ministry to promise in 
November of the same year an* immediate con- 
sideration of the question. The constitution as 
revised in 1893 embodies the results of this 
struggle. The suffrage was conferred on all 
male Belgian citizens above the age of 25: but 
to counterbalance this sudden increase in the 
power of the lower classes, one or two supple- 
mentary votes were allowed in certain cases. 
Under this provision, 1,452,232 voters disposed 
of 2,239,621 votes in the year 1900. Its adop- 
tion gave the Catholic party a very large ma- 
jority. The old Liberal party practically dis- 
appeared, the opposition being represented by a 
radical Socialist party. To regain something 
of its former power, the Liberal party, aided by 
the Socialists, instituted an agitation for the 
establishment of the principle of proportional 
representation, in accordance with which repre- 
sentation in the chambers is apportioned among 
the different political parties in proportion to 
the number of votes oast by each at the election 
for deputies. Such a measure was adopted in 


1899, and the immediate result was the rise of 
the Liberal party. Down to the Great War 
(1914), the efforts of Socialists and Liberals to 
extend the suffrage were unsuccessful. After 
the war, however, progress was made in that 
respect. The general elections of Nov. 16, 1919, 
were held on the principle of universal suffrage 
and by the law of April 15, 1920, it was intro- 
duced in the communal elections which were 
also subject to proportional representation. 
Considerable advance in social legislation had 
been made before the war. After the war atten- 
tion was largely concentrated on reconstruction, 
foreign affairs, the language question, and the 
revision of the constitution (1021) in respect to 
the organization of the legislative power. 

Throughout the entire war (August, 1914, to 
November, 1018), Belgium was under German 
occupation. The German forces crossed the 
frontier, -\ug 4, I!n4, captured Liege, August 
17, and entered Brussels, August 20. Thence- 
forth Belgium xuis admmistcml us a conquered 
country under a Gentian military governor. 
Many atrocities "were charged against the Ger- 
mans during this period. The German retreat 
from Belgian soil began in September 1918, and 

the evacuation of the country was completed i 


Bibliography. Moke, Hisloirc de la Bel- 
gique, \\ii\i n continuation by K. Hubert (Brus- 
sels, 1881 ) ; Tlionissen, La Bclgique sous le 
rcgitc <Je Leopold J (4 voK, Lou\ain, 1855-58) ; 
Hymans, Uistoirc purlcrncntawe de Bclgique de 
1830 a 18X0 (Brusbolb, 1878-80); Laveleye, Le 
parti clerical at Bclgique (Leipzig, 1874), writ- 
ten from the Liberal point of view; Woeste, 
Vingt ana de poltmique (Brussels, 1885), which 
ip Catholic in its sympathies; Boulger, The 
History of Belgium (London, 1902-09) ; Whit- 
lock, Belgium (New York, 1919) ; Cammaerta, 
History of Belgium (New York, 1021). 

Among geographical and statistical works 
may be mentioned: Leroy, (ifograplne generate 
dc In Bclgique (Namur, 1880) ; Genonseaux, 
La Bclgique physique, politique t etc. (Brusnels, 
1878) ; Garcia de la Vega, Koyaunic de la Bel- 
gique (ib., 1883) ; Wautert., La Bclgique an- 
ciciinc ct modern r (ib., 1882 et seq.); HymaiiK, 
La Bclgique cmttemporaine (Alons, 1884); 
Penck, "Das Konigreich Belgien," in Kirchhoff, 
Landerkundf row Europa, vol. ii. (Leipzig. 
1889) ; Prost, La Belgique agricole, indux- 
trielle, ct commercialc (Paris, 1904) ; Julin. 
"Le recensement general des industries et des 
metiers en Belgique au 31 Octobre, 1896," in La 
Reforme fiociale, vol. ix (Paris, 1900) ; Essara, 
"Banking in Belgium," in A History of Banking 
in All the Leading Rations, vol. iii (New York, 
1896) ; LCK induslrien a domicile en Belgique, 
Tols. i-vi (Brussels, 1800-1004) ; Mollaert et al, 
La Belgique (Brussels, 1020). 

(Kuss. byely, white -f- gorod, city). The capi- 
tal of a district and an archiepiscopal see in the 
RiiRHian government of Kurbk, situated on the 
light bank of the Donctz, 87 miles south of 
Kursk and 43 miles from Kharkov (Map: Rus- 
sia, E 4). Belgorod, which derives its name 
from a neighboring chalk hill, is divided into 
two the old and the new towns. It has manu- 
factures of leather and soap, and agriculture is 
fairly well developed. There is a considerable 
trade in wax, apples, tallow candles, and es- 
pecially of chalk, of which about 1300 tons are 


produced annually within the city limits. Pop., 

BELGRADE, bel-grad' (Serv. Beograd, from 
bel, white + grad, city, fortress; in Ger. Weia- 
senburg, same meaning, anciently Singidunum). 
The capital of Servia, situated at the confluence 
of the rivers Save and Danube opposite the 
Slavonian town of Semlin (Map: Balkan Pen- 
insula, C 2). It contains half a dozen dis- 
tinct quarters. The famous old fortress occu- 
pies in part the level ground at the junction of 
the two rivers and in part is built on a hill 
about 150 feet high. Belgrade, with its wide 
streets and its electric lighting and transit sys- 
tems, presents an entirely modern appearance. 
One section, known as the English quarter, has 
handsome villas and gardens. There are large 
business houses and hotels and a number of 
banks. The King's palace, the metropolitan 
cathedral and residence, the national theatre, 
and the public offices are among the principal 
buildings. One of the old mosques is in a good 
state of preservation. The city contains fine 
parks, an old Turkish kiosk erected for Prince 
Milosh, and a monument to Prince Michael. At 
the head of the educational institutions is a 
university with faculties of philosophy, juris- 
prudence, and engineering. Belgrade is the seat 
of the Tloyal Servian Academy of Sciences, to 
which belongs the national library, with about 
60,000 volumes. It is the great entrepot of the 
trade between Austria-Hungary and Servia. The 
exports are largely raw Servian products: the 
imports, manufactured articles. The population 
has increased rapidly; in 1884 there were 20,600 
inhabitants; in 1890, 54,500; in 1895, 59,100; 
in 1900, 60,097: in 1905, 77,816: in 1910, 90,890. 
At the close of the Middle Ages Belgrade was 
a frontier fortress of Hungary and in the Turk- 
ish wars was a key to that kingdom. It was 
stormed in 1521 by the Turks, who had attempted 
to capture the town in 1456 and had been re- 
pulsed with great loss by John ITunyady and a 
crusading force. Thrice taken for Austria in 
1688 by the Elector of Bavaria, in 1717 by 
Prince 'Eugene (after a brilliant victory over 
the Turks), and in 1789 by General von Laudon 
it was restored each time, by treaty, to the 
Turks. Though Servia became practically inde- 
jwndent in the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the Turkish garrison was not withdrawn 
till' 1867. 

ErtifcNE (1810-78). A French civil engineer, 
born at Ervy (Aubo). He studied at the Ecole 
Polytechnique and the Ecole des Ponts et Chaus- 
eees, became in 1852 a chief engineer, and in 
1875 an inspector general of the first class. He 
designed the water supply and sewerage systems 
of Paris, two mammoth works of engineering. 
His publications include Les travaux soutcrrains 
de /'aria, consisting of four parts, La Seine, 
ttudcs hydrologiques, regime de la pluic, des 
sources des eaux courantes (1873) : Lcs eaux ct 
Ics aqueduct romains (1875); Les eaux an- 
ciennes de Paris (1877) ; and Les eaux nouvelles 

BELGRA'VIA. The fashionable residence 
district in London, built up south and west of 
Belgrave Square. In the early part of the nine- 
teenth century it was a marshy farm, which was 
filled in and drained about 1825. Consult Hare, 
Walk* in London (London, 1883). 

BELHAVEN. A town in Beaufort Co., N. C., 
120 miles (direct) each by south of Raleigh; 

situated at the mouth of the Pungo River, 

Pamlico Sound, and on the Norfolk Southern 
Railroad (Map: North Carolina, F 2). The ir- 
rounding region is fertile, the principal products 
being cotton, corn, and potatoes. Fish and 
oysters are taken from the near-by waters. The 
town contains a largo cooperage and lumber 
mills. Pop., 1910, 2800; 1913 (est.), 3200. 

BELIAL, beai-ol or bel'yal. A Hebrew term 
occurring 27 times in the Old Testament, and 
generally taken to mean 'wicked' or 'worthless/ 
both in the moral and the material sense. It 
occurs very frequently in the Bible in the phrase 
"sons of Belial' 5 (1 Kings xxi. 10, 13; 2 Chron. 
xiii. 7; Deut. xiii. 13), and however we may 
account for it, Belial was personified and be- 
came a designation of the arch-demon Satan 
(2 Cor. vi. 16). The etymology which until 
recently was current, dividing the word into 
two parts, beli, 'without/ and yaal, 'worth,' ia 
to be rejected. It has been satisfactorily shown 
by Cheyne (Expositor, 1895, pp. 435-439) that 
the word behal is used in the Old Testament in 
three senses: (1) great wickedness; (2) hope- 
less ruin; and (3) subterranean watery abyss 
(Ps. xviii. 4). In view of this third meaning 
Cheyne proposes to connect Belial with Belili, 
a goddess of the underworld in Babylonian 
mythology. There is much to be said in favor 
of this view, though of course we must assume 
that the term, after coming to the Hebrews, was 
developed ( as were the other mythological terms 
of foreign origin) in a manner that in the course 
of time separated it from its Babylonian proto- 

BELIANiS (bft'le-a-nes') OF GREECE. A 
continuation of Amadis of Gaul, by Jerdnimo 
Fernflndez (1547). It was translated from the 
Spanish into Italian in 1586, into English in 
1598, and into French in 1625. It was one of 
the books in Don Quixote's library, and was cen- 
sured there by the "cure" for its masses of ex- 
trinsic detail. Another English version appeared 
in 1673. 

(c.1698-1761 ). A French military engineer, 
born in Catalonia. He was the inventor of mili- 
tary mining and continues an authority on sub- 
jects connected with hydraulic architecture and 
artillery. lie published Sommaire d'un cours 
d 'architects re militaire, civile, et hydraulique 
(1720) ; Traitt des fortifications (1735). 

BELIEF' (the verb believe, AS. geltffan, 
Goth, galaubjan, Ger. glauben, literally means 
'to esteem dear, to value* ; cf. E. lief, Goth. Hubs, 
dear, Lat. libet, lubet, it pleases, Ger. Liebe, love) . 
In discussing the subject of belief, the psycholo- 
gist lias to distinguish sharply between two re- 
lated questions: that of the composition of the 
believing or assenting consciousness, and that of 
the nature of belief as an attitude or function 
of mind at large. Under the former head (1) 
we find the most diverse views prevailing in the 
different psychological systems. Locke (1632- 
1704), James Mill (1773-1836), and Spencer 
(1820-1903) offer a purely intellectualistic anal- 
ysis. For Locke belief is an association of ideas 
on the ground of probability. If the association 
corresponds to a natural connection among the 
objects of idea, the belief is right; otherwise it 
is wrong. The reasons for erroneous assent are 
to be found in want of proofs; want of ability 
or will to use them; and wrong measures of 
probability (reliance on authority, yielding to 
passion ) . * Mill declares, in similar vein, that in 


instance of belief there is an indissoluble 
association of ideas. "I never have a sensation, 
nor the idea of that sensation, without associat- 
ing with it the idea of myself. ... In the case 
of a present sensation, and that of a present 
idea, the sensation and the belief in the sen- 
sation, the idea and the belief in the idea, are 
not two things; they are, in each case, one and 
the same thing." Those psychologists who deem 
these analyses defective have pointed out that 
while belief always implies the presence in con- 
sciousness of ideational material, the object of 
belief, it is rather a feature of the emotional 
and volitional than of the purely intellectual 
life. This fact is recognized by Bagchot, when 
he speaks of the "emotion of conviction"; by 
James, when he defines belief as "a sort of 
feeling more allied to the emotions than to any- 
thing else"; and by Bain, who, postulating a 
primitive tendency to credulity as he postulates 
a primitive tendency to spontaneous movement, 
describes belief as "in its essential character a 
phase of our active nature, otherwise called the 

Recent experiments show, in fact, that belief 
may have either an affective or an ideational 
course. Moreover, belief may appear as an overt 
train of mental processes, or it may be implicit 
in the course and arrangement of a given con- 
sciousness. These results need confirmation ; but 
they serve, so far as they go, to account for the 
great variety of analysis offered in the p re-ex - 
periinental period. 

(2) The nature of belief as an attitude or 
function cf the mind at large. That belief can 
be envisaged, not as a complex of conscious proc- 
esses, but as a state of consciousness (see AT- 
TENTION), appears in Hume's (1711-70) account 
of it. "Belief is nothing but a more vivid, lively, 
forcible, firm, steady conception of an object 
than the imagination alone IB ever able to at- 
tain. It consists ... in the manner of the con- 
ception [of the ideas] and in their feeling to the 
mind. ... It gives them more weight and in- 
fluence; makes them appear of greater impor- 
tance; enforces them in the mind." Hume does 
not profess "perfectly to explain" this mode of 
conception. He is followed by J. S. Mill, who 
asserts that the difference between "thinking of 
a reality and representing to ourselves an im- 
aginary picture" is "ultimate and primordial"; 
and bv Brcntano, who makes "judgment" one of 
the elementary conscious functions. Without 
questioning the functional uniqueness of the 
state of assent, we may bay, in general, that 
belief is a state of attention, with extreme liabil- 
ity of suggestion in a given direction. 

Bibliography. James, Psychology (New 
York, 1800) ; Mill, Analysis of the Phenomena 
of the Human Mind (London, 1860) ; Bain, The 
Emotion* and the Will (London, 1880) ; Spen- 
cer, Psychology (New York, 1881); Locke, Es- 
say (London, 1894) ; Hume, Inquiry (Oxford, 
1894); Brentano, Psychologic (Leipzig, 1874). 


VITCH (1810-48). A Russian literary critic, a 
contemporary of Gogol, Turgenev, and Dosto- 
yevsky. He was born in southern Russia, the 
son 01 a district physician in the government of 
Penza. He attended the gymnasium at Penza 
and studied philology at the University of 
ifoscow, where he became intimate with the 
."idealist" circle of Stankevitch, Herzen, and 
Others. In 1832, on account of a tragedy (in 


the style of Schiller's Robbers] directed against 
serfdom, he was expelled from the university, os- 
tensibly on the ground of "incapacity." In 1834 
he made his debut with the famous "Literary 
Reveries" a brilliant survey of the historical de- 
velopment of Russian literature in Rumor, and 
contributed to it and the Moscow Telescope until 
their suppression in 1836. Two years later, with 
several friends, he undertook to edit the Moscow 
Observer. Under the influence of Bakunin and 
a one-sided interpretation of Hegel's proposition, 
"Whatever is, is right," he preached complete 
acceptance of and conciliation with reality. At 
the same time he expounded the theory of art 
for art's sake, which aimed at an artistic em- 
bodiment of "eternal ideas" and not at a repro- 
duction of life. In 1839 he went to the capital 
and became principal contributor of the Memoirs 
of the Fatherland. "Reality" soon frightened him 
here, and all the fiery striving for truth and 
right now turned into deep grief over this real- 
ity. .From 1840 to 1848 he wrote a series of 
long essays on Uerzhavin, Lcrmontov, Gogol, 
Koltsov, Pushkin (the last a, volume of over 
000 pages ) , and other popular writers, the whole 
forming practically a history of Russian litera- 
ture from LoinonoHnv down to his own day. 
Belinsky's critiques now acquired a social char- 
acter, and he appeared not only as a keen 
aesthetic judge, but as a passionate literary propa- 
gandist tis well, lighting for personal rights, un- 
masking social and literary hypocrisy, scouiging 
conservatism, conventionalism, arid lack of hu- 
maneness in society. In 1840 he began to con- 
tribute to the Contemporary, rejuvenated under 
the editorship of the poet Xekfasov. His last 
great effort was his Literary Tfrrtnr for the 
Year /N)7, in which lie saw the hope of Russian 
literature in the "naturalistic" works of Tur- 
genev, Contcharov, Dostoyevsky, and others. His 
health was undermined by the hardships he had 
endured and his incessant literary labors, and 
the trip abroad could not check the progiess of 
consumption, which brought him to his early 
grave on the e>e of his arrest by the police on 
account of his radical views. 

A perfect master of style, passionate and en- 
dowed with a brilliant fancy, with a natural 
bitterness greatly increased by physical ailing 
and the hardships of life, ho poured all his heart 
and soul into his work. Greeting with ardent 
delight the appearance of promising new writers, 
he unerringly foretold their future development, 
basing his opinions upon a careful analysis 
of their work. Besides giving correct estimates 
of all the chief Russian writers and bringing 
down the history of Russian literature to cer- 
tain \\ ell-defined periods, he was the first Rus- 
sian to establish right conceptions of art and 
literature and to point out the direction which 
literature must take to become a social force. 
Jn 1910 Russia celebrated the centenary of Ue- 
linsky's birth with an enthusiasm and apprecia- 
tion worthy of one of her greatest literary critics, 
the founder of higher journalism, and a hu- 
manitarian unsurpassed in Russian history. 

His works, in 12 volumes, were first published 
in 1859-02. In 1898, after the expiration of 
copyright, several new editions appeared. The 
best is that supplied with profuse notes by S. 
Vengerov. Consult A. Pypin, Belinsky: His 
Life and Correspondence (Saint Petersburg, 

BEL'ISA'RIUS (Slav, lyelu, white -f tsar, 
prince, czar) (c.505-505). An heroic and loyal 




Byzantine general, to whom the Emperor Jus- 
tinian was indebted for many of his victories. 
He was born in Thrace, and first attained ce- 
lebrity as the commander of the Eastern army 
of the Empire, stationed on the confines of 
Persia, where in 630 A.D. he gained a victory 
over a Persian army nearly twice as large as 
his own. The historian Procopius was at this 
time secretary of Belisarius. In tho following 
year Belisarius was compelled by the impatience 
of his troops to offer battle at Callinicum, a 
town at the junction of the rivers Bilecha and 
Euphrates; some authorities state that he was 
defeated, and in consequence recalled; this is 
probably not true. At all events, he remained 
faithful to his sovereign, and rendered him great 
service in Constantinople, where the strife of 
"the Greens" and "the Blues" (two of the fac- 
tions into which the keen interest in the chariot 
races in the circus long had split the people) 
had endangered the authority and even the life 
of Justinian. Already a new Emperor, ITvpatius, 
had been elected, when Belisarius, at the head 
of the Life Guarus, attacked and slew in the 
race course 30,000 of the rioters and restored 
tranquillity (532) . Previous to this he had mar- 
ri(d a wealthy but profligat lady, Antnnina, who 
accompanied him on his military expeditions. 
In 533 A.D. Belisarius was sent, with an army 
of 15,000 men, to let-over the province of Africa 
held by the vandal King, Gelimer. Belisarius 
gained two victories, made the King a piisnner, 
seized his treasures, and brought linn to Constan- 
tinople, conquering on the \\.iy Sardinia and the 
Balearic Isles. Medals wcie struck in JJclisa- 
rius' honor, and in March, .~>34. he was in\ested 
with the dignity of Consul, having previously 
enjoyed the distinction of a double triumph, ac- 
cording to the old Republican custom. 

Belisarius was not idle long. The divisions 
existing in the royal family of the Ostrogoths 
induced Justinian to attempt to wrest Italy 
from their hands. In 535 Belisarius conquered 
Sicily, and in the autumn of 53G he ciossed 
over to lower Italy, where all the cities sub- 
mitted to him except Naples, uhich he carried 
by storm. On December 10 he entered Koine, 
and held it for a year against the Goths, until 
the enemy raised the siege. In 5,'M Narscs was 
dispatched with reinforcements for the army in 
Italy; but some misunderstanding occurred be- 
tween the two generals, and they failed to re- 
lieve Milan, which in 539 was sacked by Uraias, 
nephew of the Gothic King, Vitiges. Narscs 
was recalled from Italy, and Belisarius was 
placed at the head of both armies. Refusing his 
assent to a treaty proposed to King Vitiges by 
Justinian's ambassadors, he drove the Goths 
back to Ravenna, which he captured, together 
with Vitiges himself. But before he could com- 
plete his conquest of the Goths, he was recalled 
by Justinian to Constantinople. In 541-542 he 
was engaged in a campaign against the Persians, 
who had captured Antioch; but he was again 
superseded, if Procopius is worthy of belief, on 
account of the slanderous representations made 
to the Emperor by his own wife, Antonina. His 
second great struggle with the Ostrogoths now 
began. The barbarians, under Totila, had again 
invaded and conquered Italy. In 544 Belisarius 
was sent against them, but with an insuflicient 
armv. He, however, maintained his ground for 
aboiit four years, harassing the enemy by his 
skillful movements, and succeeded in regaining 
possession of Rome for a time; but m spite of 

his repeated entreaties no reinforcements were 
sent to him and in September, 548, he was re- 
called. His rival, Narses, was appointed in hU 

After 10 years of retirement Belisarius once 
more came forward, at the head of an army 
hastily collected, and overthrew the Bulgarians, 
who threatened Constantinople. Towards the end 
of his life this faithful servant, who at Ravenna 
had refused the crown of Italy offered to him by 
the Goths, was accused of a conspiracy against 
Justinian, and imprisoned, December, 503 ; but, 
according to Malala and Theophanes, Justinian 
became convinced of his innocence, and restored 
him, after seven months, to all his honors. He 
died March, 505. 

The life of Belisarius has been treated with 
great license by writers of fiction, especially by 
Harmon to! , who represented the hero as cruelly 
deprived of sight and reduced to begging for 
his bread in the streets of Constantinople. 
Tzetzes, a writer of the twelfth century, states 
that during his half-year's imprisonment Bel- 
isarius suspended a bag from the window of his 
cell and exclaimed to those who passed by: 
"(Jive an obolus to Belisarius, who rose by merit 
and was cast down by envy"; but no writer 
contemporary with Belisarius mentions this cir- 
cumstance. Lord Mahon, in his life of Belisarius 
(London, 1820), endeavors, but without success, 
to confirm the tradition, or rather the fiction, 
of Belisarius' having been deprived of sight 
and reduced to mendicancy. This fiction sup- 
plies the subject of a fine picture by the French 
painter Gerard. The works of Procopius are 
the most important original sources for the life 
of Belisarius. For secondary works, consult: 
Bury, Later Roman Empire (London, 1893) ; 
Ilod'gkin, Italy and Her Invaders (Oxford, 1880- 
85) ; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, edited by Bury, 
vol. iv (London, 1898) ; The Cambridge Media-- 
ral History, vol. i (New York, 1911). 

BELIZE, bc-lez', or BALIZE. The capital 
and chief seaport of the colony of British Hon- 
duras (q.v.), in Central America (Map: Central 
America, C 2). It is situated at the mouth of 
the Belize River. Coral reefs along the coast 
form a natural breakwater through which a 
passage admits vessels into the harbor. Ocean- 
going vessels are obliged to load and unload by 
means of lighters. The town has considerable 
trade in logwood and mahogany. It has been 
the centre of this trade for over 300 years. Pop., 
ll>03, 9113; 1911, 10,478. 

BELKINE, bygl'kto, IVAN. The pseudonym 
of the Russian poet Pushkin. 

1903). An American naval officer, retired in 
1894. He was born in New Hampshire. In 1847 
he entered the navy aw a midshipman. From 
1856 to 1858 he served in the East Indies. In 
the Civil War he commanded the New Ironsides 
during the bombardment of the forts and bat- 
teries in Charleston harbor and led the attack 
at the capture of Fort Fisher, N. C. In 1874, 
as commander of the Tuscarora, he was engaged 
in making deep-sea soundings between the 
United States and Japan, to determine the pos- 
sibility of laying a submarine cable across the 
Pacific, and invented an apparatus for securing 
specimens of soil from the ocean bed which is 
now used in both the naval service and the coast 
survey. He was appointed superintendent of the 
United States Naval Observatory in 1885 and 
became a rear admiral in 1889. 

BXLXNAP, JBBEMT (1744-98). An Ameri- 
can Congregational minister, born in Boston, 
and pastor at Dover, N. H., and at Boston. He 
was a graduate of Harvard (1762) and in 1791 
founded the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
Among his works are a painstaking and readable 
History of New Hampshire (3 vols., 1784-1792) ; 
American Biography (2 vols., 1792-98); The 
Foresters: An American Tale (1796); and a 
Collection of Psalms and Hymns (1795). He 
devoted much of his life to historical and bio- 
graphical research. His Life, with parts of his 
correspondence, appeared in New York, 1847. 

American soldier. He was born at Newburgh, 
N. Y., graduated at Princeton in 1848, and set- 
tled as a lawyer in Keokuk, Iowa. He entered 
the Union army as major of volunteers, 1861; 
distinguished himself in Sherman's Atlanta cam- 
paign, and was brevetted major general in 1865. 
He was Secretary of War under President Grant 
from 1869 to 1876 and in the latter year was 
impeached on charges of corruption," but re- 
signed before the proceedings could be formally 
begun, so that this charge was dropped on the 
ground of lack of jurisdiction. He committed 

BELL (perhaps connected in origin with bell, 
"bellow, to roar). A hollow, cup-shaped, metal- 
lic percussion instrument, suspended by a neck 
and sounded by a swinging clapper, or*a hollow 
metallic sphere sounded by a loose ball in its 
interior. From a remote antiquity cymbals and 
hand bells were used in religious ceremonies. In 
Egypt it is certain that the feast of Osiris was 
announced by ringing bells; the Jewish high 
priests wore golden bells attached to their vest- 
ments, and in Athens the priests of Cybele used 
bells in their rites. The Greeks employed them 
(koda) in camps and garrison; and the Romans 
announced the hour of bathing and of business 
by the tintinnabulum. The introduction of bells 
into Christian churches is usually ascribed to 
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, in Campania (333- 
431) ; but there is no evidence of their existence 
for a century later. That they were first made 
in Campania is inferred from the name given to 
them campancp; hence, campanile, the bell 
tower. Their use in churches and monasteries 
soon spread through Christendom. They were 
introduced into Gaul about 500; and Benedict, 
Abbot of Wearmouth, brought one from Italy 
for his church about 680. Pope Sabinian (600) 
ordained that every hour should be announced 
by sound of bell, that the people might be warned 
of the approach of the canonical hours (q.v.). 
Bells came into use in the East in the ninth 
century, and in Switzerland and Germany in the 
eleventh century. Most of the bells first used 
in western Christendom seem to have been hand 
bells. Several examples, some of them, it is 
believed, as old as the sixth century, are still 
preserved in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. They 
are made of thin plates of hammered iron, bent 
into a four-sided form, fastened with rivets, and 
brazed or bronzed. Perhaps the most remark- 
able is that which is still preserved at Belfast, 
and said to have belonged to St. Patrick, called 
the Cloff-an-eadhachta Phatraic, or 'the bell of 
Patrick's Will.' It is 6 inches high, 5 inches 
broad, and 4 inches deep, and is kept in a case 
or shrine of brass, enriched with gems and with 
gold and silver filigree, and made (as an inscrip- 
tion in Irish shows) between the years 1091 and 
1105. The bell itself is believed to be mentioned 


in Ulster annals as early as the year 552. The 
four-sided bell of St. Gall, an Irish missionary, 
who died about 646, is still shown in the mon- 
astery of the city which bears his name in Switz- 
erland. Church bells were suspended either in 
the steeples or church towers, or in special bell 
towers. They were long of comparatively small 
size; the bell which a king presented to the 
church of Orleans in the eleventh century, and 
which was remarkable in its age, weighed only 
2600 pounds. In the thirteenth century much 
larger bells began to be cast, but it was not 
until the fifteenth century that they readied 
really considerable dimensions. The bell "Jac- 
queline," of Paris, cast in 1400, weighed 15,000 
pounds; the famous bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, 
weighed 30,364 pounds. The largest bell in the 
world is the great bell of Moscow, cast in 1733, 
it being 21 feet high, 21 feet in diameter, and 
weighing 432,000 pounds. This bell, in 1737, 
was injured by a fire and remained partly buried 
in the earth until 1837, when it was raised, and 
now forms the dome of a chapel formed by exca- 
vating the earth beneath it. Among other large 
bells are: the great bell of Burma, 12 feet high, 
16% feet in diameter, weighing 260,000 pounds; 
the great bell at Peking, 14 feet high, 13 feet in 
diameter, and weighing 130,000 pounds; those 
at houses of Parliament, London, 30,000 pounds; 
Montreal Cathedral, 28,560 pounds; Notre Dame, 
Paris, 28,672 pounds; St. Peter's, Rome, 18,600 
pounds; St. Paul's, London, 11,470 pounds. 

An interesting installation of bells are the 
four forming the Westminster peal of the tower 
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance building in 
New York City, which ring at twice the height 
of any other peal in the world. The four bells 
weigh seven tons and are not suspended but are 
mounted on upright supports and used with 
automatic clappers to strike the quarter hours. 
The largest bell weighs 7000 pounds and is 70 
inches across the mouth, being tuned to B flat. 
It strikes the hours as well as takes part in the 
general choir. The second bell wc'ighs 3000 
pounds and is tuned to E flat, while the third, 
weighing 2000 pounds, is tuned to F natural, 
and the fourth, of 1500 pounds, is tuned to G. 

The art of casting bells seems to have made 
little advance as the result of modern inventions, 
it being impossible to make better bells to-day 
than were made 300 or 400 years ago. The ma- 
terial used in making bells is a kind of bronze 
known as bell metal (see ALLOYS), which is 
an alloy of copper and tin. Authorities differ 
as to the best proportions of the copper and tin. 
Some give 80 parts of copper to 20 of tin, or 4 
to 1: others increase the tin to 16 to 5, and 
again others state the proportions as being 3 
to 1. In the reign of Henry III of England it 
\s ould scom to have been 2 to 1 ; and the small 
bronze bells discovered by Layard in the palace 
of Nimrud are found to contain 10 of copper to 
1 of tin. Hand bells are often made of brass, 
antimony alloyed with tin, German silver, real 
silver, and gold. The notion that in old times 
silver was mixed with bell metal to sweeten the 
tone is a mistake. Silver, in any quantity, would 
injure the tone. The quality of a bell depends 
not only on the composition of the metal it is 
made of, but very much also on its shape, and 
on the proportions between its height, width, 
and thickness, for which the bell founder has 
rules derived from experience and confirmed by 
science. The pitch of a bell is higher the smaller 
it is. For a peal of four bells to give the pure 


chord of ground tone (keynote), third, fifth, 
and octave, the diameters require to be as 30, 
24, 20, 15, and the weights as 80, 41, 24, 10. A 
smaller quantity of metal than is duo to the 
calibre of the bell, though giving the same note, 
produces a meagre, harsh sound; and the real 
or fancied superiority in dignity of tone of 
Koine old bells is ascribed to a greater weight of 
metal having been allowed for the same note 
than modem economy would dictate. Bells 
have been cast of steel, some of which have had 
a tone nearly equal in fineness to that of the 
best bell metal, but deficient in duration, having 
less vibration. Some have also been cast of 
glass, with a considerable thickness of the mn- 
terial; and these give an extremely fine sound, 
but are too brittle to stand the continued use of 
the clapper. 

The manufacture of bells is simply a process 
of founding. A core is first constructed of brick- 
work, which is covered with layers of clay which, 
by means of a template, is formed to the exact 
form and dimensions of the interior of the bell 
to be cast. On this mold is laid a "model" of 
oarth and hair, which is the exact counterpart 
of the future bell. A third and heavy shell is 
then built over the model, which, when com- 
pleted, is lifted, and the "model" is broken away 
from the core, and the outside shell is then re- 
placed, leaving a Hpaoe botwoon it arid the core 
the exact size and shape of the "model." Into 
this space the molten bell metal in run and 
allowed to cool. 

After the casting is trimmed the bell is tuned 
by paring off metal from its interior. This proc- 
ess of tuning has been reduced to a highly sci- 
entific basis, and it is now realized that a boll 
to be properly in tune with others must bo in 
tune with itself. It must havo at loast fi\o 
tones at correct intervals to one another so that 
they form a perfect musical chord. These tonos 
or harmonics are called the hum noto, funda- 
mental, and nominal, and the third and fifth io 
the fundamental or strike note. In the case of 
a C bell the first three* would give throe C's 
in octaves. 

In recent years, particularly in the United 
States, so-called tubular bolls, consisting of cy- 
lindrical tubes of bell metal suspended vertically 
from hooks, have been employed for sets of 
chimes both in and out of doors. These tubes, 
which are suspended, by loops of leather, cat- 
gut, silk, or other cords passed through holes 
drilled in the walls of the tube, are struck from 
above by hammers, usually through the agency 
of nn appropriate mechanism connected with a 
clock or other movement, and the different tones 
of a combination are obtained by adjusting the 
length and weight of the tubes, the shorter tho 
tube the higher the pitch. The largest tubes 
for out-of-door use probably run to 8 or 9 foot 
in length with a weight of 200 pounds or there- 
abouts, but difficulties have boon encountered in 
tubes of large size due to atmospheric changes 
and other causes affecting the tuning. Tho ad- 
vantages are the light weight and the facility 
with which the striking mechanism can be ar- 
ranged for controlling the various changes and 
tunes. Tubular chimes 'are found at their best 
in hall clocks where the tubes are usually nickel- 
plated and are particularly suitable for electric 
control mechanism. 

From old usage bells are intimately connected 
with the services of the Christian Church and 
thus have acquired a kind of sacred character. 

07 BELL 

They were founded with religious ceremonies 
and consecrated by a complete baptismal ser- 
vice; received names, had sponsors, were 
sprinkled with water, anointed, and finally, cov- 
ered with the white garment of chrisoni, like 
infants. This usage is as old as the time of Al- 
ouin (735-804) and is still practiced in Roman 
Catholic countries. Bells had mostly pious in- 
scriptions, often indicative of the widespread 
belief in the mysterious virtue of their sound. 
They were believed to disperse storms and pes- 
tilence, drive away enemies, extinguish fire, etc. 

Church bells were at one time tolled for those 
passing out of the world. The custom of ring- 
ing what wns called the passing bell "grew 
(Quarterly Hcrieir, Septembor, 1854) out of the 
belief that devils troubled the expiring patient 
and lay in wait to afflict the soul the moment 
when it escaped from the body. . . . The tolling 
of the passing boll was retained at the Refor- 
mation ; and the people were instructed that its 
use was to admonish the living and excite them 
to pray for the dying." The practice of slowly 
and solemnly tolling church bolls at deaths, or 
uhilo funerals are being conducted, is still main- 
tained as a mark of respect for the deceased. 
Tho pardon bell of pro-Reformation England was 
tolled before and aftor divine service, to call the 
worshipers io a preparatory prayer to the 
Virgin Mary before engaging in the solemnity, 
and an invocation for pardon at its close. 

The ringing of the curfcir bell, supposed to 
Lave been introduced into England by William 
the Conqueror, was a custom of a civil or 
political nature and only strictly observed till 
the end of the reign of William Rufus. Its 
object was to warn the public to extinguish their 
fires and lights at eight o'clock in the evening. 
The eight-o'clock ringing is still continued in 
parts of England and Scotland. An article in 
the ficrlrfiiatttical Rcricir, 1J)11, uivos a survey 
of the historic uses of bolls in church worship. 

The hanging of bells in dwelling houses, and 
i inging them by means of wires, either mechani- 
cally or electrically, from the different apart- 
ments, is a comparatively modern invention; 
for it was not known in England in the reign 
of Queen Anne. The form of boll now most com- 
monly used for houses and for call bells in 
hotels, business houses, etc., is the electric bell. 
The arrangement required to ring a bell or sys- 
tem of bells by electricity is simple. Some form 
of galvanic battery requiring little attention is 
placed in any convenient corner, and from it an 
insulated wire, with the necessary branches, is 
conducted to the various rooms; thence to, per- 
haps, as many bells, and finally back to the bat- 
tory to complete the circuit. Each single bell 
is provided with a clapper, to which is fixed a 
piece of Koft iron. Near this is an electro-mag- 
net, wound with a quantity of insulated wire, to 
which the main wire is connected, so that upon 
the passage of the signal current the magnet 
attracts the piece of iron fastened to the clapper, 
and the clappor strikes the bell. In this way 
any number of bolls may be rung at once by 
sending a powerful current through the wire to 
which they are all connected. Such arrange- 
ments of hell are used very extensively for 
giving signals simultaneously in a number of 
rooms or buildings for example, for striking 
the hours in all of the rooms of ft school build- 
ing; for sounding alarms of fire throughout 
hotels or large buildings, etc. 

Bells for continuous vibratory ringing are of 


the same construction as those just described, 
excepting that they are provided with a device 
for continuously vibrating the clapper while the 
bell is being rung. The wire, instead of being 
connected directly to the coil around the mac- 
net, is connected to a post, against which the 
clapper rests after striking the bell. The coil 
is connected to the clapper, and the current 
passes through the post, and the clapper to the 
coil. When a signal on the wire causes the mag- 
net to attract the clapper and strike the bell, the 
connection is immediately severed by the clap- 
per leaving the post, and no more current can 
pass until the clapper has returned after strik- 
ing the bell. Instantly when this occurs the 
connection is reestablished, the clapper reat- 
tracted, and the bell again struck. Thus a con- 
tinuous ringing is produced as long as the per- 
son presses the calling button. This push button 
is simply an ornamental cap covering the ter- 
minals of the wires leading to the bells. A slight 
pressure of the hand upon the button in the 
centre forces the spring-shaped terminals of the 
wires into contact with each other and allows 
the current to pass from the battery to the bell. 

Consult: Briscoe, Curiosities of the Belfry 
(London, 1883); Tyack, A Book about Bells 
(London, 1899) ; Walters, Church Bell* of Eng- 
land [with bibliography] (London, 1912) ; Beck- 
ett, Clocks, Watches, and Bells for Public Pur- 
poses (London, 1903) ; Pease, \otcs on the Uses 
of Bells among the Greeks and Romans (Cam- 
bridge, 1904) ; Berthelt, Enquctcs eampanaires 
(Montpellier, 1904). See BELL RINGING. 

BELL, SONG OF THE (Lied von der Glocke). 
The best-known poem of Schiller, published in 
the Musenalmanach for 1800. In thin pooni the 
operations of casting the bell are correlated 
with the most important events in the whole 
course of human life. It is the highest develop- 
ment of Schiller's non-dramatic poetry, perfect 
in form, and embodying a very broad range of 
sentiment and conceptions. 

BELL, ACTON. The pen name of Anne Bronte. 

BELL, ALEXANDER GRAHAM ( 1847-1922) . An 
American inventor and scientist, distinguished 
for his invention of the telephone (q.v.),. He 
was born 'in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of 
Alexander Melville Bell. Tie received his educa- 
tion in Edinburgh and at London University, and 
in 1870, with his father, removed to Canada. He 
was greatly interested in his father's system of 
instruction of the deaf and dumb, and' in 172 
he became professor of vocal physiology in gos- 
ton University. Soon thereafter he began ex- 
periments which led to the invention of the 
speaking telephone, and for this, on Feb. 14, 
1876, he received a patent. Though his claims 
were opposed by other inventors, his rights to 
the invention were sustained by the United 
States Supreme Court, and he is now considered 
entitled to the credit of being the first to con- 
struct the instrument in a practical shape. In 
an imperfect form the telephone was exhibited 
at the Centennial Exposition of 1876 and was 
carefully studied by scientists from abroad. Fur- 
ther experiments led to the improvement of the 
apparatus, and a company was organized for its 
development. From this company, which has 
enjoyed an almost absolute monopoly of the tele- 
phone business in the United States, Professor 
Bell received large royalties and dividends. 
He was also the inventor of the r/hotophone, used 
for the transmission and reproduction of sounds 
by waves Of light, and ot the graphophone, an 


instrument which mechanically reproduces hu- 
man speech. He has been active in scientific 
investigation, contributing liberally to geo- 
graphical and aeronautical research. Several 
important aeroplanes were constructed through 
his interest, which also made possible much ex- 
perimentation. Professor Bell has always main- 
tained his interest in the instruction of deaf- 
mutes and has carried on and published impor- 
tant researches in this field, many of which have 
been published by the Volta Bureau, of which he 
was the founder. He was elected a member of 
the National Academy o^ Sciences in 1883, and 
in 1881 he received 'the Volta prize from the 
French government. He has served as president 
of the American Association to Promote Teach- 
ing of Speech to the Deaf as president of the 
National Geographic Society, and as a regent of 
the Smithsonian Institution. In 1913 Dart- 
mouth College conferred upon him the degree 

Scottish-American educator, born in Edinburgh. 
From 1843 to 1865 he was n lecturer at Edin- 
burgh University and in the latter year became 
lecturer at the University of London. In 1870 
he became instructor in Queen's College, Kings- 
ton, Canada, whence, in 1881, he removed to 
Washington, D. C. Tie was the father of Alex- 
ander CJralmm Bell, and ie best known as 
the inventor of so-called ''visible epeech" (q.v.), 
a system of instruction very successfully used in 
teaching deaf-mutes to speak. His publications 
include Principles of Speech and Elocution 
(1849) ; Visible Speech: The Science of Univer- 
sal Alphabctics (1807); The Science of Speech 
(1897); Elocutionary Manual (7th ed., 1899); 
English Visible Npeech and its Topography 
( 1904) . See I)EAF-Mi T TK, Methods of Instruction. 

BELL, ANDREW (1753-18.32). A Scottish edu- 
cational reformer. He was born at St. Andrews 
and wus educated at its university. From 1774 
to 1781 he lived as a tutor in Virginia, but re- 
turned to Great Britam and took orders in the 
( hurch of England. Jn 1787 ho went to India, 
where, within two years, he obtained appoint- 
ments to no less than eight army chaplninHhips. 
While at Madras, in 1789, he was intrusted with 
the management of an institution founded by 
the East India Company for the education of 
the orphan children of the European inilitarv. 
As he found it impossible to secure properly 
qualified assistants, ne at last resorted to tbe ex- 
pedient of conducting the school with the aid 
of the pupils themselves. Hence originated the 
far-famed "Monitorial System" (q.v.). He 
superintended this institution for seven years, 
when the state of his health forced him to re- 
turn to Europe. In 1797 he published a pam- 
phlet entitled An Experiment in Education, 
Made at the Male Asylum of Madras, which at- 
tracted little attention until Joseph Lancaster 
published a tractate on education (1803) rec- 
ommending the monitorial system and admit- 
ting Bell to have been its originator, an admis- 
sion which he afterward retracted. In 1816 the 
Church founded the National Society for the 
Education of the Poor, and appointed Bell super- 
intendent. He afterward became a prebendary 
of Westminster, and Master of Sherburn Hos- 
pital, Durham. He left 120,000 for the pur- 
pose of founding various educational institu- 
tions in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, 
Inverness, Cupar, and St. Andrews. Consult: 
Meiklejohn, An Old Educational Reformer 

(Edinburgh, 1881); Fitch, Educational Aims 
and Methods (New York, 1900) ; Southey, Life 
of Rev. Andrew Bell (London, 1844). 

BELL, SIR CHARLES (1774-1842). A Scot- 
tish surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist, known 
for his discoveries in connection with the ner- 
vous system. He was born in Edinburgh, the 
son of the Rev. William Bell, of the Episco- 
pal church. In 1797 he became a member of the 
Edinburgh College of Surgeons and soon after 
was appointed surgeon to the Royal Infirmary. 
In 1804 he proceeded to London and lectured on 
anatomy and surgery at the academy in Great 
Windmill Street. He was admitted to the Royal 
College of Surgeons in 1812 and elected surgeon 
to the Middlesex Hospital. After the battle of 
Corunna in 1809 he visited the wounded who 
were landed on the southern coasts of England 
and housed in Haslar lloppital; and after the 
battle of Waterloo he had charge of a hospital 
at Brussels. In 1824 he was appointed senior 
professor of anatomy and surgery to the Royal 
College of Surgeons, London, and suhsequently 
a member of the Council. On the establishment 
of the London University, now University Col- 
lege, in 1826, Bell was 'placed at the head of 
the department of medicine. 

In 182 ( ) he received the Royal Society's medal 
for his discoveries m science. In 183*1 he was 
knighted by William IV. In 183G he was elected 
professor of surgery in the University of Edin- 
burgh. He was a fellow of the Royal Societies 
of London and Edinburgh and a member of other 
learned bodies. He wrote on surgery and the 
nervous system and edited jointly with Lord 
Brougham, Pa ley's Evidences of Natural Reli- 
gion. B''ll was one of the eight distinguished 
men selected to write the celebrated Bridnciratcr 
Treatises, his contribution being The Hand: 
Its Mechanism and 1 ital Endowments, as 
Erincinq J+etiqn (1834). Among his principal 
works an 1 : The Anatomy of the Brain Explained 
in a Series of Engra rings (1802); .1 *SYrirs i of 
Enqra rings Explaining the Course of the Kerrcs 
(1804); Essay? on the Anatomy of Expression 
in Painting (1800); posthumous edition, much 
enlarged, entitled The Anatomy and Philosophy 
of Ei'prcsKwn as Connected inth the Fine \rts 
(1844): A System of Operative Rurgery (1807 
-09; 2d ed.,' 1814); Anatomy of 'the lira in 
(1811); Dissertation on Gunshot Wounds 
(1814) ; Anatomy and Physiology of the Unman 
Itody (1810) : various papers on the nervous sys- 
tem, in the Philosophical Transactions; Expo- 
sition of the yatural Ply stem of the A crrr* of 
the Human Body (1824) ; Institutes of Nnrgcry 
(1838): Animal Mechanics, contributed to the 
Library for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 
(1828); \errous System of the Human Body 
(1830). Consult Correspondence of Kir Charles 
Bell (London, 1870). 

1911). An English writer and newspaper di- 
rector, born in Alexandria, Egypt. Educated 
at a private school in Lancashire, England, he- 
early returned to Egypt, where he became corre- 
spondent for the London Times. During this 
period he published three books: Khcdirc* and 
Pashas (1881); Egyptian Finance (1887): 
From Pharaoh to Fellah, a series of historical 
and descriptive sketches (1888). As corre- 
spondent of The Times he made himself thor- 
oughly acquainted with the condition of Egyp- 
tian politics and was able through his letters 
to influence English public opinion. Ariion? 

other events he described the revolt of Arabi 
Pasha, the bombardment of Alexandria, and 
the campaign of Tel-el-Kebir. Presently, the af- 
fairs of The Times having fallen into a critical 
condition, Bell was recalled from Egypt to be- 
come manager of the paper. Due to his ef- 
forts, The Times was relieved of its embarrass- 
ments and put upon a basis of enlarged useful- 
ness. In a second crisis, occurring in 1908, 
he also took a prominent part. Of the Times 
Publishing Co., Limited, which was then formed, 
he became managing director. Through his deal- 
ings with the staff of permanent and special 
correspondents abroad. Bell kept in close touch 
with the handling of news and the editorial 
department, as well as with the business in- 
terests of The Times. He is largely responsible 
for the successful effort to establish the legality 
of newspaper copyright not only on editorial 
matter but also on news writing. Among en- 
terprises undertaken by him were the establish- 
ment of The Times Book Club, and the publi- 
cation of The Times Atlas and A History of the 
South A fncan War. 

BELL, CLARK (1832- ). An American 
lawyer and authority on medical jurisprudence, 
born at Whitesville*, N. Y. Admitted to the 
bar in 1853, In* became eight years later assist- 
ant district attorney of Steuberi County in his 
native State. Later, as attorney of the Union 
Pacific Railway, he drew up the act which 
Congress passed to aid its construction. In 
1883 he began a long service as editor and 
publisher of the Mcdico-Leqal Journal. For 16 
terms he was president of the Medico-Legal 
Society and was the founder of the American 
Congress on Tuberculosis, lie was a delegate 
of the United States to the International Medi- 
cal Congress at Paris in 1900 and to that held 
at Lisbon in 190ft and \\as made a member of 
niiiiiv foreign as well ns American learned so- 
cieties. He is the author of: Bell's Medico- 
Lcftal Studies (11 vols., 1S93 et seq.); Judicial 
History of Hie Supreme Court of the States and 
Prorinces of North America (1895 et seq.); 
Rpiritisw, Telepathy, and Hypnotism (1902; 
2d ed., 1904). 

BELL, CURRFR. The name under which Char- 
lotte Bronte first wrote. 

An American actor and comic-opera singer, born 
in Milwaukee, Wis. For a time be was engaged 
as a broker and as a steamship passenger agent; 
then he studied singing in Naples, where he took 
leading parts in operas. As an actor he made his 
first appearance at Malta in 1876. He returned 
to this country to sing in concert and in comic 
opera touring the United States and Canada 
with Augustin Daly, the McCaul Opera Company, 
and the Duff Opera Company, and having espe- 
cial success as the admiral in Pinafore, as Ko-Ko 
in The Mikado, and in the Pirates of Penzance 
and Patience. He starred in Tar and Tartar, 
was for a while with Lillian Russell's company, 
in 1903 played Sam Weller in Mr. Pickwick 
(with De Wolf Hopper), and in 1910-12 ap- 
peared in a notable revival of The Mikado. 

BELL, ELLIS. The pen name of Emily Bronte. 

BELL, GEOHOE JOSEPH (1770-1843). A Scot- 
tish lawyer, brother of Sir Charles Bell. He 
was born in Edinburgh and was admitted to the 
bar in 1791. Acknowledged one of the greatest 
masters of commercial jurisprudence of his time, 
and in particular of that department which re- 
in teq to the laws of bankruptcy, he was in 1822 

BELL 100 

appointed profetior of Scottish law in Edin- 
burgh University, and in 1823 a member of the 
commission for inquiring into Scottish judicial 
proceedings. Subsequently he was a member of 
a commission to examine into and simplify the 
mode of procedure in the Court of Session. On 
the report drawn up by Bell was founded tho 
Scottish Judicature Act. prepared by him, 
which effected many important changes in 
the forms of process in the superior courts 
of Scotland. Appointed in 1831 one of the 
clerks of the Court of Session, he was in 
1833 chairman of the royal commission to ex- 
amine into the state of the law in general. He 
also prepared a bill for tho establishment of a 
court of bankruptcy in Scotland. His Com- 
mentaries on the Lawn of Scotland and on the 
Principles of Mercantile Jurisprudence (1826, 
7th ed. 1870), attained the highest reputation, 
ranking with the Institutes of Lord Stair. He 
also published Principles of the Law of Scot- 
land (1839). 

BELL, HENRY (1767-1830). A Scottish en- 
gineer, who probably introduced steam naviga- 
tion into Europe. He was born at Torpbichen 
Mill, Linlithgow, and in 1783 was apprenticed 
to his uncle, a millwright. He was instructed 
in ship modeling at Borrowstounnesa and com- 
pleted his knowledge of mechanics at Bell's Hill. 
Removing to London, he was there employed by 
the celebrated Rennie. About 1770 he returned 
to Glasgow and in 1808 removed to Helensburgh, 
where he kept the principal inn and devoted 
himself to mechanical experiments, chiefly with 
the steam engine. In January, 1812, a small 
vessel, called the Comet, with an engine con- 
structed by Bell, was launched on the Clyde 
with success the first on European waters.' A 
monument lias been erected to his memory at 
Dunglass Point, on the Clyde. See STEAM 

Scottish lawyer and author. He was born in 
Glasgow and studied at Edinburgh. In 1828 lie 
founded the Edinburgh Literary Journal. He 
was admitted to tho bar in 1832, was appointed 
sheriff -substitute of Lanarkshire in 1838 and 
in 1867 sheriff-principal. He was a president 
of the Atheimun, a founder of the Royal Scotch 
Academy, and a lecturer before the Philosoph- 
ical Institution. He was considered the best 
Scottish mercantile lawyer of his time. His 
publications included a vindication of Mary, 
Queen of Sects (2 vols., 1828-31) ; Summer and 
Winter JJours H831 ) ; My Old Portfolio (1832) 
both collected by Bell from the Literary Jour- 
nal and Romances and Minor Poems (1866). 

BELL, HEXBT HAYWOOD (1807-68). An 
American naval officer, born in North Carolina. 
He entered the navy as midshipman in 1823; 
was for many years connected with the East 
India Squadron and in 1856 commanded a ves- 
sel of the squadron which destroyed the bar- 
rier forts, near Canton, China. In 1862 he was 
appointed fleet captain of the West Gulf Squad- 
ron and took a prominent part in the passage 
of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the cap- 
ture of New Orleans. He was, for a time in 
1863, in command of the West Gulf Squadron. 
In 1865 he was assigned to the command of the 
East India Squadron and in 1866 was promoted 
to be rear admiral. He was drowned at the 
mouth of the Osaka River, Japan. 
), An English poet and critic, born in 


Liverpool, March 2. He wrote several volumes 
of sincere verse: The Keeping of the TOLD 
(1879); Verses of Varied Life (1882); Old 
Year Leaves ( 1883 ) ; Spring's Immortality and 
Other Poems (1806); Pictures of Travel and 
Other Poems (1898). In 1000 appeared a col- 
lection of his poems, edited by .T. J. Ncsbitt. 
Bell contributed to many periodicals, to the 
Dictionary of National Biography, and did not- 
able critical and biographical work on Victorian 
authors, as in Charles Whitchead (1884; new 
ed., 1894); Christina ftossetti (4th ed., 1898); 
and later he published: Collected Poems (1001 ) ; 
John Clifford: God's Soldier (1908); For (lot, 
and for the Commonwealth (1909). In 1913 he 
edited the China Tear Bool:. 

BELL, JAMES FBANKLTN (1856-1919). An 
American soldier, born at Shelby ville, Ky. He 
graduated at West Point in 1878 and served on 
the plains with the Seventh Cavalry. He served 
in the Spanish-American campaign in the Philip- 
pines and against the natives. In 1003 ho be- 
came commandant of the Infantry and Cavalry 
School and Staff College at Fort Lea veil worth, 
lie succeeded General Bates as chief of staff 
in April, 1906. After the San Francisco earth- 
quake lie had charge of the distribution of 
supplies and of the garrisoning of the ruined 
city. He was made a major general in 1907 and 
appointed commander of the Philippines divi- 
sion in 1911. 

American soldier, born in Williamsburg, Pa. 
He graduated at Wittenberg College in 1862, 
entered the Federal army as first lieutenant of 
volunteers, and served throughout the Civil War. 
From 18(56 to 1898 he served against the In- 
dians on the frontier. In October, 18JM), he 
was sent to the Philippine Islands, where in 
March, 1900, he was placed in command of the 
Third District of the department of southern 
Luzon, and in April was appointed Military 
Governor of the same district. He retired in 
lf01. with the rank of brigadier general. 

BELL, JOHN (1691-1780). A Scottish trav- 
eler. He was born in Antcnnony and was 
educated for the medical profession. In 1714 
he went to St. Petersburg and soon afterward 
was appointed physician to an embassy from 
Russia to Persia.' In 1719 he was sent to 
Clnna through Siberia and in 1738 went on an 
embassy to Constantinople, where he settled for 
some years as a merchant. In 1747 he returned 
to Scotland. His Travels from St. Petersburg 
to Various Parts of Asia was published at Glas- 
gow in 1763. 

BELL, JOHN (1763-1820). Brother of Sir 
Charles Bell. A Scottish surgeon. He was 
born in Kdinburgh, studied under the cele- 
brated Black, Cullen, and Monro seeundus; and 
while attending the anatomy classes of Dr. 
Monro, lirst conceived the idea of teaching the 
application of the science of anatomy to prac- 
tical surgery. He commenced in 1786 lecturing 
in Edinburgh on surgery and anatomy, and in 
1793 published the first Volume of his Anatomy 
of the Human Body. In 1797 appeared the 
second volume, and in 1802 the third. A vol- 
ume of anatomical drawings, illustrative of the 
structure of the bones, muscles, and joints, was 
published in 1794; another volume on the ar- 
teries, illustrated by his brother Charles, ap- 
peared in 1801. In '1798 Bell attended the sea- 
men of Lord Duncan's fleet wounded at Camper - 
down, and in 1800 he published a Memorial, 



Conoerninff the Present State of Military Bur* 
gery. His System of the Anatomy of the Hu- 
man Body and his Discourses on the Nature 
and Cure of Wounds (1793-05) were translated 
into German. Early in 1816 he was thrown 
fiom his horse, and his health declining, he 
went to Paris and thence to Italy. He died 
in Rome of dropsy. Besides the works men- 
tioned, he was the author of The Principles of 
Surgery (1801-07; new ed. by his brother, Sir 
Charles Bell, 1826). A posthumous work, en- 
titled Observations on Italy, was published 
(1825) by his widow. 

BELL, JOHN (1797-1869). An American 
statesman. He was born near Nashville, Tenn., 
graduated at Cumberland College (now Nash- 
ville University) in 1814; studied and practiced 
law, and in 1817 was elected to the State Sen- 
ate. He served in Congress from 1827 to 1841, 
for 10 years as chairman of the Committee on 
Indian AlTairs. He supported General Jackson 
in the presidential campaign of 1832, but in 
1834 joined the newly established Whig party 
and was elected as its representative, over James 
K. Polk, to the Speakcrship of the House. In 
1841 he became a member of President Harri- 
son's cabinet, as Secretary of War; but, with 
the rest of the cabinet, excepting Webster, re- 
signed (September 11) on account of the rup- 
ture between President Tyler, who had suc- 
ceeded Harrison, and the Whig organization. 
From 1847 to 1859 he was a member of the 
United States Senate. In I860 he was nomi- 
nated for the presidency by the Constitutional 
Union party (q.v.) t and in the ensuing election 
received the electoral votes of Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Virginia. At first, though strongly 
opposed to the policy of "coercion," he depre- 
cated secession and seemed disposed to support 
President Lincoln; but he soon gave his ad- 
herence to the cause of the Confederacy and 
advised his State to withdraw from the Union. 

BELL, eloHN (1811-95). An English sculp- 
tor, born at Hopton, Suffolk, and educated 
ut the Royal Academy schools. His early 
work was vigorous and natural at a time when 
classical principles still held sway, but his 
power declined in later life. Among his statues 
are those of Lord Falkland and Sir Robert 
\Aalpole (1854) in St. Stephen's Hall at \Yest- 
m Mister. One of his best-known designs is a 
monument to the Guards who fell in the 
Crimea, in Waterloo Place. Another is the 
Wellington Monument at the Guildhall. In 
decorative art he also distinguished himself. 
He was one of the sculptors of the Albert Me- 
morial in Kensington Gardens, London, which 
was unveiled in 1873, his work being the group 
representing the United States directing progress 
of America. A large copy of this in terra cotta 
is in Washington. 

BELL, JOHN JOY (1871- ). A Scottish 
journalist and author, born in Glasgow. Edu- 
cated at the University of Glasgow, he became 
known soon after his graduation for activity in 
journalism and novel writing. His first book, 
The New Koah's Ark, was published in 1898. 
This was followed by several other books, until 
1902, when his llVr Mac Grccgor established his 
reputation as a new Scottish humorist in Great 
Britain and the United States. This book 
was followed by many others, among which 
may be mentioned Mistress \VLeer\e (1903); 
"Wee Mac Qreegor Again (1904); Joseph Red- 
horn (1908); OKI Christina! (1909); The 

Kingdom of Dreamt (1911); The Best Man 
(1911) ; Courtin' Christina (1913), and a dram- 
atization of Wee Mac Qreegor, in 1912. 

BELL, JOHN KEITLE (1875- ). An Eng- 
lish novelist and playwright, bom at Basing- 
stoke, Hampshire. He was educated at Wan- 
tage and at Worcester College, Oxford. Be- 
ginning newspaper work in London on the staff 
of the Press Association, he was editor of the 
Sketch in 1002-04, and dramatic critic of the 
Daily Mail in 1904-08. Under the pen name of 
"Keble Howard" he wrote the following plays: 
Compromising Martha (1006); The Dramatist 
at Home ( 1909 ) ; The Girl Who Couldn't Die 
(1911); The Embarrassed Butler (1912). His 
other publications and novels include: The Chi- 
cot Papers (1001) ; Love and a Cottage (1903) ; 
Ihe God in the Garden (1904) ; Love in June 
(1905); Bachelor Girls (1905); The Cheerful 
Knave (1910) ; One in the Family (1911). 

BELL, LILIAN (Mas. A. H. BOGUE) (1867- 
). An American author. She was born at 
Chicago, 111., and when only eight years of age 
began her literary career. As a constant con- 
tributor to magazines and a writer of many 
books, she became well known. Over 500 au- 
thor's readings, in all the principal cities of the 
United States, were given by her, and on a 
notable occasion, in 1907, she appeared with 
James Whitcomb Riley and John Fox, Jr. Dur- 
ing a four years' residence abroad she traveled 
extensively. Among her writings are: Love Af- 
fairs of an Old Maid (1893) ; A Little Sister to 
the Wilderness (1895); The Instinct of Step- 
fatherhood (1898); The Expatriates (1900); 
Abroad with tte Jimmies (1902); The Inter- 
ference of Patricia (1903); At Home with the 
Jardines (1904); "Why Men Remain Bachelors, 
and Other Luxuries (1906) ; Concentrations of 
Bee (1909); Angela's Quest (1910). Although 
popular, her work is marked by a certain cru- 
dity, which is, however, characteristic of a well- 
known type of Western writers, and is perhaps 
best exemplified in her novel The Expatriates. 

BELL, SIR LOWTHIAN (1810-1904). An Eng- 
lish manufacturer and politician, born at New- 
cast le-on-Tyne. He was mayor of Newcastle in 
1854 and in 1862 member of Parliament for 
Hartlepool from 1875 to 1880, and in 1885 was 
created a baronet. He was the founder of the 
Port Clarence Iron Works, on the Tees, and 
wrote: The Chemical Phenomena of Iron-Smelt- 
ing (1872), in which he demonstrated the prac- 
ticability of the hot-blast furnace, and showed 
how far furnace dimensions could be increased 
for the sake of fuel economy, and a Report on 
the Iron ^fanufacture of the United States, and 
a Comparison of it with that of Great Britain 

BELL, ROBERT (1800-67). An Irish writer, 
the. son of a magistrate. He was born in Cork, 
Jan. 16, 1800, and when very young obtained 
an appointment in a government department in 
Dublin. He was for a time editor of the gov- 
ernment journal, The Patriot. In 1828 he re- 
moved to London and was appointed editor of 
The Atlas newspaper. In 1838, in conjunction 
with Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton and Dr. Lard- 
ner, he started The Monthly Chronicle and 
afterward became editor of it. In 1841 he re- 
tired from The Atlas. For Lardner's Cyclopaedia 
Bell wrote "The History of Russia" (1836-38) 
and The Lives of the English Poets (1839), 
completed Southey's Naval ^History (1837), left 
unfinished by the author, and wrote a con- 


tinuation of Mackintosh's History of England 
(1853). At the London theatres three five-act 
comedies were produced by him. He was author, 
also, of a collection of tales, Hearts and Altars 
(1852); a novel, The Ladder of Gold (1856); 
Life of Canning (1840); Outlines of China 
(1845); Memorials of the Civil War, consist- 
ing of the Fairfax correspondence (1847) ; and 
Wayside Pictures through France, Belgium, and 
Holland (1858). But the work by which he is 
chiefly remembered is an annotated edition of 
the English poets (24 vols., 1854-57). He died 
April 12, 1807. 

BELL, ROBERT (1841- ). A Canadian 
geologist, born in Toronto, Ont. He studied at 
McGill University, and in 1857 was appointed to 
the staff of the Canadian Geological Survey, of 
which he became the senior member and assist- 
ant director. Throughout the Dominion he 
made very extensive topographical surveys and 
explorations. He was medical officer and geolo- 
gist on the Alert Expedition to Hudson Strait 
and Bay in 1885, in 1888-80 was a member of 
the commission appointed by the government of 
Ontario to report on the mineral resources of 
the province and in 1805 surveyed the Noddawai 
River (emptying into James Bay), the western 
and chief branch of which was named after him. 
In addition to this work he was also, in 1863- 
67, professor of chemistry and natural sciences 
in Queen's University (Kingston). He pub- 
lished upward of 180 papers and reports on 
topics connected with exploration, and the 
scientific and economic features of Canadian 

BELL, THOMAS (1792-1880). An English 
naturalist. He was born at Poole and died at 
Selborne. From 1816 to 1861 he lectured on 
dental surgery and comparative anatomy at 
Guy's Hospital, London. In 1836 he became 
professor of zoology in King's College, London, 
lie was the author of several works on British 
animals, especially History of British Quadru- 
peds (London, 1837; rev. ed., 1874), and similar 
works on Reptiles (1830) and Crustacea (1853). 
He played an important part in the develop- 
ment of scientific societies in London. At the 
age of 70 he retired to Selborne, where lie is- 
sued in 1877 a classical edition of White's Nat- 
ural History of Selborne. His original scien- 
tific writings relate chiefly to fossil Chelonia 
and Crustacea. Consult Nature, vol. xxi, pp. 
473, 499 (London, 1880). 

BKC/LA, STEFANO DELLA (1610-64). An 
Italian designer and etcher. He was born in 
Florence, studied there and at Rome, and went 
in 1639 to Paris, where he remained until 1650. 
Besides executing many other works, he was 
commissioned by Cardinal Richelieu to engrave 
a "Siege of Arras." The remainder of his life 
was spent at Florence. He executed upward of 
1400 different subjects battles, sea pieces, 
landscapes, and animals, all of which are char- 
acterized by freedom and delicacy and give evi- 
dence of high imagination and much careful ma- 
nipulation. They are also of great value for the 
knowledge of the history of civilization in the 
seventeenth century. One of his most admired 
works is a view of the Pont-Neuf, Paris (1646). 
His excellent drawings are often ascribed to 
Callot (q.v.), who exercised the greatest in- 
fluence upon his art. 


BEL'LACOO'LA. A detached Salishan tribe, 
living upon the Bellacoola River, which empties 

into Bentinck Arm, about lat. 52 X., British 
Columbia. Their name is of Kwakiutl origin. 
Epidemics and diseases introduced by the white 
men have now reduced the tribe to a few hun- 
dred souls. 

BEL'LADON'NA (for derivation see below), 
donna). A plant of the natural order Solana- 
cca?. It is an herbaceous perennial, growing up 
every year as a bush, from 2 to 6 feet high, with 
ovate entire leaves, and bell-shaped flowers of a 
lurid purple color, which are larger than those 
of the common harebell, stalked and solitary in 
the axils of the leaves. It produces berries of 
the size of a middle-sired cherry, which, when 
ripe, are of a shining black color and of a 
sweetish and riot nauseous taste, although the 
whole plant has a disagreeable, heavy smell. 
All parts of the plant are narcotic and poison- 
ous, and fa tnl consequences not unfrequeiitly 
follow from eating its berries. Its roots have 
sometimes been mistaken for parsnips. The 
name Belladonna, 'fair lady/ is supposed to hav 
originated in the employment of the juice for 
staining the skin or from its power of dilating 
the pupils and giving a glistening appearance 
to tlie eyes. The name "dwsilo" is thought to be 
derived from the same root with the French 
dcuil, 'mourning' nn allusion to the same 
qualities that have obtained for the plant the ap 
pellation of deadly nightshade. Others assert 
that it comes from the Anglo-Saxon and is con- 
nected with the word "dull," on account of its 
stupefying effects. Atropa is from Atrnp'M, one 
of the Fates. The other species of 1 trope are 
South American. Belladonna owes its powerful 
eflect on the animnl system to the alkaloid 
atropine (q.v.). Belladonna is imed in medi- 
cine in extracts both of the leaves and root. 
Externally as a plaster or liniment it relieves 
inflammatory pains and neuralgias. Internally 
it is of great value in relieving spasmodic af- 
fections of the respiratory passages, sucli as 
asthma, bronchitis, and whooping cough. On 
the intestines it acts as an ant {spasmodic, re- 
lieving colic and checking peristalsis. I,, is 
almost a specific in the nocturnal incontinence 
of children. 


BELLAGIO, bel-lil'jo (Tt. bcllo, beautiful + 
agio, rest, repose, comfort). A village of the 
province of Conio, north Italy, celebrated by 
historians, artists, and novelists. It is at the 
most beautiful point on Lake Conio, where a 
wooded promontory separates the two arms of 
the hike (Map: Italy, D 2). There is regular 
steamboat communication with Como and with 
Lecco, and the village contains excellent hotels, 
beautiful gardens, an English church, and many 
magnificent villas. Pop., 1901 (commune), 
3536; 1911. 3776. 

BELLAIBE, bM-ftr'. A city in Belmont Co., 
Ohio, on the Ohio River, and on the eastern 
boundary of the State, 4 miles south of Wheeling, 
W. Va. It is also on the Baltimore and Ohio, the 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh Division of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, the Cleveland, Lorain, and 
Wheeling, and the Ohio River and Western rail- 
roads (Map : Ohio, J 5 ) . Here the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad crosses the river on a fine iron 
bridge. The city has extensive manufactures 
of glass, steel, enamel ware, and iron. It is in 
a rich agricultut al district, producing vege- 
tables, fruit, coal, and clay. Bellaire adopted 
the Federal plan of government in 1910, and 




owns its water works. Pop., 1890, 9934; 1900, 
0912; 1910, 12,946; 1920, 15,061. 

BBLLAMIJ, bella-ml, or BELLAMY, JA- 
KOBUS (1757-86). A Dutch poet. He was born 
at Flushing (Vlissingen) and studied theology at 
Utrecht. He was a distinguished poet, and the 
revival of Netherlandic literature was due prob- 
ably to his influence and that of Van Alphen. 
His principal works include: Gczangcn mijncr 
Jeugd (published under the pseudonym of 
Zelandus, 1782; 2d enlarged ed. under the name 
of Bellamy, 1700) ; Vaderlandsehc Gczangen 
(1783-85) . His most celebrated poem, "Roosje," 
appeared in the collection entitled Proeven voor 
het vcrstand den sniaok en hct hart (1784). A 
complete edition of his poems was published by 
Loosjes (1842). 

BELLAMONT, beTla-mont, or BELLO- 
MONT, RICHARD COOTE, EARL OF (10.1(5-1701). 
A Colonial Governor of New York, Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire, from 1097 to 1701. He 
became a member of the English Parliament in 
1688, and in the same year was prominent as a 
supporter of William, Prince of Orange, who in 
1089 made him Earl of Bcllamont and appointed 
him treasurer and receiver gcneiul to Queen 
Mary. In 101).") he was appointed Governor of 
j\ew York, and in 1G!>7 received a commission 
as Governor of New York, Massachusetts, and 
New Hampshire, but did not arrive in America 
until the following year. Tie was expressly di- 
rected to suppress illegal trade arid put an end 
to piracy, and in 101)0, with King William's 
sanction, he organized a company \\lnch sent 
out Captain Kidd (q.v.) against the freebooters. 
By many, accordingly, Bella inont has been un- 
justly accused of having connived at Captain 
Kidd's own piiacies, though it was he who 
finally arrested him and sent him to England 
for trial. Bcllamont's rigid enforcement of the 
laws, his sympathy with the democratic as op- 
posed to tl'ie aristocratic party, and his strict 
policy with regard to land grants aroused much 
( pposition among certain classes in \e\\ York, 
though he was very popular in Massachusetts 
and in New Hampshire. He has been spoken 
of as "the first actual friend of the people and 
sympathizer with honest democratic forms of 
government who administered the ail'airs of 
New York under the English Crown." Consult 
Fiederic De Peyster, The Life and Adminis- 
tration of Richard, Earl of Bcllommnt (New 
\ork, 187<M. 

BELT AMY, EDWARD (1850-OH). An Ameri- 
can journalist and author. He was born at 
Chicopee Falls, Mass., studied at Union College, 
j:nd in Germany; in 1871 was admitted to tin- 
bar and in the' same year became a member of 
the staff of the New York Evening Post. Subse- 
quently he was a critic and editorial writer for 
the Springfield (Mass.) Union and with others 
established at Springfield the Daily AY'rs. His 
best-known work is Looking Backward; or, 2000- 
7887 (1888), which has had an extraordinary 
sale and has been translated into many lan- 
guages. Although not written for such a pur- 
pose, the book was extensively received as a gos- 
pel of Socialism, and led to the organization of 
many Bellamy clubs, and of the Nationalist 
purtv, in the promotion of which Bellamy him- 
self * was active as a writer and lecturer. 
Equality (1807), the sequel to Looking Back- 
ward, is an inferior volume on similar lines. 
Bellamy further published sociological essays, 
short stories, and some longer works of fiction, 

including Dr. Heidenhoff's Prooesa (1879) ; 
Ludington's Sister (1884); and The Duke of 
Stockbridge, the last appearing three years after 
his death, which occurred on May 22, 1898, at 
Chicopee Falls. W. D. Howells has declared 
that in Bellamy America is "rich in a romantic 
imagination surpassed only by that of Haw- 

BELLAMY, GEORGE ANNE (c.1731-88). An 
English actress. She was born, by her own ac- 
count, at Fingal, Ireland. "George Anne" was 
a name given by mistake for Georgiana. She 
was the illegitimate daughter of Lord Tyrawley 
and was educated by him. Choosing, however, 
to live with her mother, she made the acquaint- 
ance of Mrs. Woffington and other actors and 
was engaged at Covent Garden to play Monimia 
in The Orphan (November, 1744). Her success 
thereafter was rapid. Her Belvidera, in Venice 
Preserved, and her Desdemona were much ad- 
mired. She participated in the rivalry for popu- 
lar favor in Romeo and Juliet in 1750, playing 
with Garrick at Drury Lane, while Barry and 
Mrs. Cibber played at Covent Garden. She was 
thought the more charming of the Juliets. Mrs. 
Bellamy was extremely popular, and until she 
forfeited her character by her various liaisons, 
was received in the best society. She lost her 
beauty early, and her later life was unhappy, 
apparently through her own extravagance and 
reckless habits. Her last appearance was at 
prury Lane May 24, 1785, in a benefit to herself, 
in which she was unable to act, but spoke a 
short address to the spectators. Consult: An 
Apology for the Life of George Anne Bellamy, 
late of Covent Garden Theatre Written by Her- 
self, 6 vols. (London, 1785); Matthew's and 
Hutton, Actors ana Actresses of Great Britain 
and the United Rtates (New Y r ork, 1886); and 
Gait, Lives of the Players (London, 1831). 

BELLAMY, JOSEPH (1719-90). An Ameri- 
can theologian, born at New Cheshire, Conn. 
He graduated at Yale in 1735, was licensed to 
preach in 1737, and in 1740 became pastor of 
the Congregational Church of Bethlehem, Conn. 
He was prominent as an itinerant preacher dur- 
ing the "great awakening" of 1740-44. Subse- 
quently he established in his parish a noted 
theological school, in which were trained many 
distinguished New England divines. As a pul- 
pit orator he was by some esteemed the equal 
of Whitefield. As a writer he greatly assisted 
by his scholarship and logic in laying the foun- 
dations of what became known as the New Eng- 
land theology. His system of divinity was much 
like that of his friend and associate, Dr. Jona- 
than Edwards. He received the degree of doctor 
of divinity from the University of Aberdeen. 
His publications include True Religion Deline- 
ated (1750) ; The Nature and Glory of the Gos- 
pel (1762), and The Law Our Schoolmaster 
( 1 762 ) . His Complete Works were published 
in 1811-12 (3 vols., New York) and 18(50 (2 
vols., Boston, with a memoir by Dr. Tryon 
Edwards) . 


BELLANGfi, bei'laisr'zha' (JOSEPH Lours) 
HIITOLYTE (1800-66). A French battle painter. 
He was born in Paris, studied with Gros, and 
practiced first as a lithographer. His first 
marked success in painting was "The Return of 
Napoleon from Elba," exhibited in 1834. Front 
1837 to 1854 he was director of the museum at 
Rouen. His principal Works are at Versailles, 




in tlie Louvre, and in the provincial museums, 
as at Amiens, Bordeaux, Rouen. They are chiefly 
battle scenes and reveal remarkable insight into 
the human side of military life as well as a 
close familiarity with all the details of battle. 
The following may be cited as examples : "Battle 
of Fleurus" (1836); "Battle of Wagram" 
(1837); "Soldier Returning" (1842); "Keller- 
mann's Charge at Marengo* (1847); "Passage 
of the Guaddarama" (1852); "Battle of the 
Alma" (1855); "Assault on Malakoff" (1859); 
"Two Friends" (1861); "Cuirassiers at Water- 
loo" (1865); "The Guard Dies," his last work 


BELLABMINE, bellar-mln or -men. The 
name of a jug devised by the Dutch Protestants 
in ridicule of Cardinal Bellarmino. Its form 
was after the churchman's figure, and his face 
was on it. 

BELLABMINE, belliir-min or -men. In 
Italian form, BELLARMINO, bgl-l&r-me'nd, RO- 
BERTO FRANCESCO ROMOLO ( 1542-1621 ) . A Roman 
Catholic theologian. He was born at Monte Pule i- 
ano, in Tuscany, Oct. 4, 1542. He entered the or- 
der of Jesuits in 1560 and was distinguished 
among his confreres by the zeal with which he 
studied theology, the Church Councils, the Fathers, 
Hebrew history, and the canon law. In 1563 he 
gave lessons in polite literature and astronomy 
at Florence, and in rhetoric at Mondovi, 1564- 
67. In 1569, when he went to Louvain as pro- 
fessor of theology, he began that long contro- 
versy with "heretics" which formed the main 
business of his life. From 1576 to 1589 he was 
professor at the Roman College. Then he went 
to France and was in Paris at the time of the 
siege by Henry IV. In 1591 he was back in 
Rome and shared in the revision of the Vulgate. 
In 1592 he became rector of the Roman Col- 
lege. In 1599 he was made a Cardinal against 
his own inclination, and, though himself 
a Jesuit, he honorably sided with the Domini- 
cans against Molina's view in a noted contro- 
versy. From 1602 to 1605 he was Archbishop 
of Capua. After the death of Clement VIII 
(1605) he declined promotion to the papal 
chair, but was induced by Paul V to hold an 
important place in the Vatican, where he re- 
mained until the time of his death, which took 
place in the novitiate house of the Jesuits, 
Sept. 17, 1621. In his work, De Poteatate Ponti- 
ficia in Rebus Tcmporalibua ('On the Pope's 
Power in Secular Matters'), he advocated the 
doctrine of the spiritual supremacy of the Pope 
over all kings. On this account the book was 
condemned as treasonable in Paris, Venice, and 

His chief work contains the disputations held 
in the Roman College, 1576-81, Diaputat tones 
de Controveraiis Christiana Fidei adveraus hu~ 
jus Temporis Hereticoa (3 vols., Rome, 1581 ; 
4 vols., Prague, 1721; 4 vols., Mainz, 1842). 
These disputations are regarded by Catholics 
as the best arguments for their tenets. There 
can be no question of their merits with regard 
to erudition and adroitness in controversy; but 
such Protestant opponents, and he had many of 
them, as Gerhard, in his Bellaminus Orthodoariae 
Teatia (Jena, 1631-33), and Dalleus tried to 
show that many of the conclusions are far from 
being sound or logical. Industry, clearness, and 
acuteness are the chief merits of Bellariuine's 
great work. He was also conspicuously fair 
and complete in his statement of his opponents' 

positions. Among his other writings the most 
able is the Christiana Dootrince Applioatio, orig- 
inally written in Italian and now translated 
into all the European languages. Pope Urban 
VIII, at the instigation of the Jesuits, declared 
Bellarmine to be a "faithful servant of God"; 
but his canonization as a saint has hitherto 
been opposed. Curiously enough, his autobiog- 
raphy (Rome, 1675; Louvain, 1753; Ferrara, 
1762) stood in the way. The book had become 
very scarce when J. I. von Dtfllinger and F. H. 
Reusch reprinted it, Die Selbatbiographie dcs 
Kardinala Bellarmin, lateiniaoh und deutach, 
mit geachichtlichen Erlduterungen (Bonn, 1887). 
Among his famous controversies wore those 
with JameH 1 of England and the Scottish jurist 
William Barclay, of Aberdeen. His attitude 
towards the revolutionary scientific theories of 
his time was more moderate than is commonly 
supposed. He was a personal friend of Galileo, 
who dedicated one of his works to him. Never- 
theless, as the most learned and important 
member of the Sacred College, he was com- 
pelled to warn the philosopher against unwar- 
ranted theological interpretations of the new 
Copernican theory. Bellarmine did not per- 
sonally reject that theory, but he maintained 
that it should be- received only as a theory 
until the scientific proof of it was complete and 
final. His works, edited by Justin Fevre, wore 
published in Paris (12 vols", 1873-74). Some of 
his writings have been translated into English, 
e.g., The Nevcn Words from the Cross (Lon- 
don, 1870). For his biography, consult J. B. 
Couderc (Paris, 1893). 

BELLARY, bcl-lU're, or BALLARI. The 
capita] of the district of the same name in India, 
380 miles southeast of Bombay and 270 miles 
northwest of Madras, in lat. 15 8' N. and long. 
76 59' E. (Map: India, (' 5). It is an im- 
portant junction of the railroads to Bombay and 
Goa, is one of the principal military stations 
in tho presidency of Madras, and is* connected 
by good roads with Belgaum, Bangalore, Hyder- 
abad, and Madras. The fort, dating from tin- 
sixteenth century, stands on a rock 2 miles 
round and 450 feet high, and is supplied with 
water from tanks excavated in the solid granite. 
Besides the fort and adjacent cantonment, 
Bcllary includes a native town with fine Im/ars. 
It has a considerable trade in cotton and cotton 
cloth which is manufactured in the town. Pop., 
1891, 59,500; 1901, 57,700; 1911, 58,247. 

BEI/LASTON, LADY. A character in Field- 
ing's novel, Tom Jones, She is the mistress of 
the hero and for some time supports him. 

(1803-80). An Italian mathematician. lie was 
born at Bassano, near Padua, and was for years 
professor of mathematical analysis at Padua. 
He contributed extensively to modern geometry 
and is especially known for his work in pro- 
jcctive geometry and his method of equipollence. 
His published works include text-books of de- 
scriptive geometry (Padua, 1851: 2d ed., 1868), 
analytical geometry (Padua, 1870), and other 
valuable treatises. 

BELLAY, be'leA JOACHIM DU (c.1524-60). 
A French poet, member of the Pleiade (q.v.) ; 
known as "The French Ovid." He was a cousin of 
Cardinal du Bellay, and was born in Paris of noble 
family, but poor and self-educated. His friend- 
ship with Ronsard dates from 1548 and led to 
his La defense et ^illustration de la langue fran- 
(1549) an admirable piece of literary 


criticism, followed by a collection (Recueil) of 
poems and another (L' Olive) of love sonnets 
(1550). He went with Cardinal du Bellay to 
Italy (1650), published a translation of two 
books of the sUneid (1652), returned after a 
mysterious love affair, in 1655, to Paris, where 
he became ('anon of Xotre-Damc, went to Venice, 
published poems, Latin and French (Lea an- 
tiguitea de Rome), in 1558, and his best col- 
lection, Jjes regrets (1559). Ho died as Arch- 
bishop-designate of Bordeaux while preparing 
Lea feux rustiques for the press, at the height of 
advancing powers. In sublimity and pathos he 
is first in the Pl6iade. Spenser translated 60 
of his Roman sonnets into English (1591). The 
best edition of Bellay is by Marty-Laveaux (2 
vols., 18GG). Bellay'w Lcttei* are edited by Nol- 
hac (1883). There is a Life by Seche (1880). 
Consult Pater, Studies in the History of the 
Renaissance (London, 1888), and Scene, (Euvres 
choisies arcv notes (Paris, 1894). A statue of 
Bellay was unveiled at Ancenis in 1894, with 
noteworthy addresses by Heredia and Brunetiere. 
BELL'BIBD. The English name of various 
tropical birds whose voices suggest the tones of 
a bell; specifically, a chatterer (family Cot- 
ingidff), called "campanero" by Spanish-speak- 
ing people of the lower Ama/on and the Gui- 
anas, where it lives, and Chasm orliynchus niivus 
by ornithologists. It resembles the waxwings 
(Ainpclidsr) in form, but is pure white, and 
feeds mainly upon forest fruits gathered mostly 
in the high tree tops, where small Hocks move 
about all day, but are by no means common; 
and at midday, when most other birds of the 




Showing the caruncle. 

forest are silent, its note rings out "loud and 
clear like the sound of a bell. . . . You hear 
his toll, and then a pause for a minute, then 
another toll, and then a pause again, and then 
another toll, and so on." So Watcrton de- 
scribed it; others have likened the sound to 
blows upon an anvil, but all agree thnt it can 
be heard at an immense distance and is very 
striking. Another remarkable feature of tins 
bird and its relatives, several of which live in 
South and Central America, and have more or 
less bell-like voices, are the fleshy appendages 
(caruncles) about the face, especially conspic- 
uous in the present bpecies. From its forehead 
depends a slender caruncle (see illustration), 
jet black but dotted all o>er with starlike 
tufts of feathers. It was long believed that this 
caruncle was concerned in the singular voice 
of the bird, because Charles Waterton (Wan- 
derings in South America. London, 1825) as- 
serted that it could be inflated from the palate 
and would stand erect like a rigid spire above 

the beak to the height of 3 inches. This seemed 
plausible, but has been proved erroneous by ob- 
servation upon birds kept in captivity, particu- 
larly about 1891 by J. J. Quelch, a naturalist 
of Georgetown, British Guiana. 

"The caruncle," he says (The Field, London, 
Nov. 20, 1892), "is never carried upright. The 
erect position, in fact, is an impossible one, 
since the organ is made up of very line elastic 
tissue, which causes it to depend lower and lower 
over one side of the beak during extension. 
When the bird is about to utter its characteris- 
tic notes, it slowly becomes elongated, at times 
as much as 5 inches. At the conclusion of the 
note the organ may remain extended until the 
next note, or may be partially retracted; but 
when a long interval takes place the structure 
is always allowed to shrink up to about half an 
inch or an inch in length, and it then hangs 
against the beak. During extension the caruncle 
is never inflated with air, but is always in a 
state of collapse." Quelch then adds a descrip- 
tion of the curious behavior of the bird in utter- 
ing its ringing notes, which follow great 
draughts of air into its lungs. A related spe- 
cies of Costa Rica (Chasmorhynvhus tricarun- 
culatHs) has three of .these elongated caruncles 
on the head one on the forehead close to the 
base of the bill, and one at each corner of the 
mouth. A Brazilian species (Chasm or hynchua 
Hudicollis) is white, with large spaces of naked 
skin about the eyes, beak, and throat, colored 

In Australia one of the honeysuckcrs (Meli- 
phagida?) is called bellbird a small greenish- 
yellow forest bird (Manorhina melanophrys) , 
whose ching-ching from the tea-tree "scrub" is 
welcomed as an assurance that water is near. 
In New Zealand another houevsucker (Antho- 
rius melanura), now nearly extinct, is given the 
name for a similar reason; it is remarkable for 
decorating its thicket-hidden nest with the most 
gaudy feathers it can find. 

communication by bell, book, and candle was a 
solemnity belonging to the Church of Rome. The 
officiating ecclesiastic pronounced the formula of 
excommunication, consisting of maledictions on 
the head of the person anthematized, and closed 
the pronouncing of the sentence by shutting the 
book from which it was read, taking a lighted 
candle and casting it to the ground, and tolling 
the bell as for the dead. This mode of excom- 
munication appears to have existed in the 
Western churches as early as the eighth cen- 
tury. Its symbolism may ue explained by quot- 
ing two or three sentences from the conclusion 
of the form of excommunication used in the 
Scottish church before the Reformation : "Cursed 
be they from the crown of the head to the sole 
of the foot. Out be they o^*ven of the book of 
life. And as this candle is cast from the sight 
of men, so be their souls cast from the sight 
of God into the deepest pit of hell. Amen." 
The rubric adds: "And then the candle being 
dashed on the ground and quenched, let the 
bell be rung." So, also, the sentence of ex- 
communication against the murderers of the 
Archbishop of Dublin in 1534: "And to the 
terror and fear of the said damnable persons, 
in sign and figure that they be accursed of God, 
and their bodies committed into the hands 
of Satan, we have rung these bells, erected 
tli is cross with the figure of Christ; and as ye 
see this candle's light taken from the cross and 



the light quenched, BO be the said accursed mur- 
derers excluded from the light of heaven, the 
fellowship of angels and all Christian people, 
and sent to the low darkness of fiends and 
damned creatures, among whom everlasting 
pains do endure." See EXCOMMUNICATION. 

BELLE ALLIANCE, beT a'16-aNs', LA (Fr. 
fine union, beautiful alliance). A farm in the 
province of Brabant, Belgium, 13 miles south 
of Brussels. It is famous as the position occu- 
pied by the centre of the French army in the 
battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815. The Prus- 
sians gave the name Belle Alliance to this de- 
cisive battle; the French named it from Mont- 
Saint-Jean, the key of the British position, 
about 2 miles to the north; while the English 
name, Waterloo (q.v.), is taken from the vil- 
lage where Wellington had his headquarters. 

BELLEATT, ltf-16', RMY (1528-77). A 
French poet, born at Nogent-le-Rotrou. He 
was a member of the Pliade (q.v.), soldier, 
courtier, and tutor at the court of Lorraine, lie 
made several translations from the classics (Ana- 
cr6on, 1556) and published collections of de- 
scriptive and pastoral poetry with intermingled 
prose under the titles, Pelitcs inventions (15/57), 
Beryerie (1565), and Amours et noHwaux 
^changes de pierres prtcieuftcft (1576). His com- 
mentaries on Konsard's Amours showed a remark- 
able range of classical learning and a delicate 
taste. He wrote also a rhymed comedy, La 
revonnue (Recognition), which shows humor and 
life and marks progress in the French stage. 
Belleau is the French Herrick, picturesque, 
warm, but with a sweetness that cloys and with- 
out true taste or deep passion. His works have 
been collected by Gouverneur (3 vols., 1807) and 
by Marty Laveaux (2 vols., 1879). 

BELLE CHOCOLATlERE, LA, la bel shd'- 
kd'la'tyar'. A portrait by Jean Etiennc Liotard 
(q.v.) of the Princess of Dietriehstein. Before 
her marriage the subject, Annette Beldauf by 
name and famous for her beauty, was a humble 
servant in a Viennese cafe. It is as such that 
she is represented in the picture. The latter 
now hangs in the Dresden Gallery. 

BELLEEK' CHINA. A fine grade of porce- 
lain celebrated for its iridescent lustre. The 
body is Parian (q.v.), east in the usual fashion, 
wet in a plaster mold, then glazed and fired. 
The lustre is obtained by the application of 
metallic washes, which are subsequently fired. 
The inventor of these lustres was a Frenchman, 
J. J. H. Brianchon, who obtained an English 
patent in 1857. Until the expiration of his 
patent they were imported from France. Bel- 
leek ware was first produced in England in 
1858 by Walter Goss, at Stoke-upon-Trerit, but 
it first become popular at the manufactory in 
Belleek, county Farmanagh, Ireland, whence its 
name. A remarkably delicate variety of this 
ware is known as "egg-shell Bclleck." 

BELLEFONTAINE, beTfdn-tAn. A city and 
the county seat of Logan Co., Ohio, on the 
highest ground in the State, 4 miles (direct) 
northwest of Columbus: on branches of the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, 
the Ohio Electric, and the Toledo and Ohio Cen- 
tral railroads (Map: Ohio, C 5). It has manu- 
factures of carriage and automobile bodies, 
iron and steel bridges, harness, tools, mattresses, 
churns, shoe blacking, flour, and cement, and 
contains a large plant of the Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad, includ- 
ing its yards and car shops. About 8 miles 

from Bellefontaine is the well-known Lewiston 
reservoir, which has an area of 13,400 acres 
and a holding capacity of four and a half bil- 
lion cubic feet. The city was settled in 1818. 
It is governed by a mayor, elected for two 
years, two directors, appointed by him, and a 
city council, elected by the people. There is 
an administrative board of education, elected 
by the people. Bellefontaine owns and oper- 
ates its water works, gas and electric light 
plants, and sewage system. Pop., 1900, 6649; 
11)10, 8238. 

character in Longfellow's "Evangeline," the fa- 
ther of the heroine. Of primitive simplicity, ho 
was BO devoted to his Acadie that he died of 
grief over the expulsion of his people. 

BELLEFONTE, bei'fftnt'. A borough and 
the county seat of Centre Co., Pa., 34 miles 
northeast of Tyrone, on the Pennsylvania, the 
Bellefonte Central and the Central of Penn- 
sylvania railroads (Map: Pennsylvania, F 5). 
It is a summer resort noted for its fine scenery 
and a famous spring, which, since its utilization 
in 1807, has not varied in its enormous outflow, 
abundantly supplying the borough. Pennsyl- 
vania State College is 12 miles from Bellefonte. 
The borough has a soldiers' and sailors' monu- 
ment and a statue of \\ar Governor Andrew G. 
Curtin. The large State Penitentiary, formerly at 
Pittsburgh, is now situated 4 union from Belle- 
fonte. The borough has large limestone quarries 
and limekilns and other important industrial in- 
terests represented by pig-iron furnaces, machine 
shops, match factories, a sskewcr, and a shirt 
factory. Settled as early as 1770. Belief on to 
was incorporated in 1800. The go\ eminent is 
administered by a chief burgess, elected every 
three yeais, and nine councilmcn. The water 
works are owned and operated by the borough. 
Pop., 18!)0, 3*110; 1WK), 4210; ID 10, 4145. 

BELLEGABDE, bgl'gard' (Fr. belle, fern, of 
l)cnu, beautiful -f- garde, protection). A for- 
liess of the second class, perched on an isolated 
peak, 13SO feet above the sea, in the department 
of Pyrences-Orientales, France. It commands 
the road from Perpignari to Figueras. Here the 
French under Philip 111 were defeated by Peter 
1J1 of Aragon in 1285. It was captured by the 
Spaniards in 1(174 and again by the French 
under Marshal Schomberg in 1075. After the 
Peace of Nimeguen (1678-79) a regular fortress, 
with five bastions, was erected here by order of 
Louis XIV. In 1703 it was blockaded and taken 
by the Spaniards under Ricardos, but was re- 
taken, 1794. 

BELLE H^LfiNE, bel' A'len', LA (Fr. The 
beautiful Helen). An opera boufle, words by 
Meilhac and Halc'vy, set to music by Offenbach, 
and first given in 1804. 

arsTK FOUQUET, Due DE (1084-1761). A French 
soldier and statesman. He fought bravely in the 
\Vnr of the Spanish Succession (1702-13) and in 
1718 against Spain. He became lieutenant gen- 
eral in 1732, took part in the War of the Polish 
Succession, and negotiated the treaty three years 
later whereby Lorraine was united to France. 
As Minister to Austria he showed himself a de- 
termined enemy of the Pragmatic Sanction and 
labored to bring the Elector of Bavaria to the 
throne. In the War of the Austrian Succession 
he captured Prague, but, finding himself unable 
to hold it, executed a masterly retreat to Eg"r 
(1742). In 1745 he was a prisoner in the hands' 




of the English, but was exchanged. He was 
made successively duke, peer, and lastly Minister 
of War. In this last capacity he introduced 
many useful reforms into the army organiza- 
tion, especially during the Seven Years' War. 
He was elected a member of the Academy. Con- 
sult Memoirea du Duo de Belleisle (London, 
1760), and Letters (trans., London, 1759). 

BELLE ISLE, bel' 11', STRAIT OF. The north- 
ern entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence from the 
Atlantic Ocean, separating southeastern Labra- 
dor from northern Newfoundland (Map- New- 
foundland, D 1). It is about 80 miles long and 
from 10 to 15 miles wide. It offers dangerc to 
navigation, yet is traversed by ocean vessels, and 
lies on the shortest route from the St. Lawrence 
River to England. See also BKI us LSLE, NORTH. 

BELLE-ISLE-EN-MER, beTel'iiN'mAr' (Fr. 
beautiful island in the m-a), known also as 
Guerveur. An island belonging to the depart- 
ment of Morbihan, France, in the Atlantic, 8 
miles south of Quiberon Point (Map: Franco, 
N., B , r >). Its length is 11 miles and its greatest 
breadth 7 miles. Its climntr is remarkably 
mild. Pop., about 10,000, chiefly engaged in 
pilchard and sardine fishing. Salt is also made 
on the island, and excellent draught horses are 
bred; agriculture is well developed. Its north- 
ern extremity is well known to Frenchmen as 
being Sarah Bernhardt's fa\orite holiday resort. 
The chief town is Le Palais, a seaport and 
fortified place. The island contains many in- 
teresting relics of antiquity and is of great 
interest historically. Admiral Hawke defeated 
the French fleet off Belle-Isle in 17.19, and the 
English took the island in 17(51. It \\as ceded 
to France by the Ireaty of Paiis in 1703. 

An island in lat 52 N., long. fi3 20' \V., near 
the middle of the eastern entiance to the Strait 
of Belle Isle, which separates northern New- 
foundland from southeastern Labrador (Map: 
Newfoundland, E 1). It is nearly 15 miles 
from either coast and has an area of about 15 
square miles. At its southern extremity is a 
lighthouse with a fixed light, at an altitude of 
470 feet, and visible for '28 miles. Below this 
light, at a height of 128 feet, is a second fixed 
light. A signal gun is fired every half hour 
in foggy weather. 

LENTYNE, JOHN. A Scottish ecclesiastic, poet, 
and translator, born about the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. He was educated at 
St. Andrews University and in Paris, where he 
took the degree of D.D. at the Sorbonne. Bellen- 
den is best rememheml by his translations of 
Boece's Scotorum IJistoria (done in 1533), and 
of the firt five books of Livy (also done in 
1533), interesting as specimens of the Scottish 
prose of that period and remarkable for the 
ease and vigor of their style. To both of these 
works are prefixed poetical prohcmes or pro- 
logues. Bellcnden's Cronihlis of Scotland pro- 
fesses to be a translation of Boccc, but is a 
very free one and contains numerous passages 
not to be found in the original, so that it is in 
some respects to be considered almost an original 
work. The author enjoyed great favor for a 
long time at the court of James V, at whose re- 
quest he made these translations. As the re- 
ward for his performances he received grants 
of considerable value from the treasury and 
afterward was made Archdeacon of Moray and 
Canon of Ross. He opposed the Reformation 
Vol.. III. 8 

and, becoming involved in ecclesiastical contro- 
versy, left his country. According to Lord Dun- 
drennan, Bellenden was alive in 1587, but ac- 
cording to others he died much earlier. The 
translation or "traductioun" of Livy was first 
published in 1822 by Mr. Thomas Maitland 
(afterward Lord Dundrennan), uniform with 
his edition of the Cronildis. 

BELLENDEN, \\ILLIAM. A Scottish author 
in the time of Queen Mary and her son James 
VI. His personal history is obscure; all that 
we know is the cestimony of Dempster (Hist. 
Keel.) that he was a professor in the University 
of Paris and an advocate in the Parlement there, 
and that he was employed in that city in a dip- 
lomatic capacity by Queen Mary and also by her 
son, who conferred on him the appointment of 
Master of Requests. His first work, entitled 
Ciccronis Princeps, etc., was published in Paris 
in 1008; his next, Ciccroma Consul, Senator, 
Henatuxquc, Rnmanuti, in 1G12. Of these the 
first series aimed to collect all Cicero's remarks 
on royal government; the other dealt with 
government by the Consuls and the Senate. 
His next work, De Statu 1'risci Orbis, appeared 
in 1615 and consists of a condensed sketch of 
the history and progress of religion, govern- 
ment, and philosophy in ancient times. These 
three works he repuhlished in a collected form 
the year after, under the title De titatu Libri 
Trcs. His crowning labor, De Tribus Lumimbus 
Itomanorum, was published after his death 
(Paris, Hi33). The "three luminaries" were 
Cicero, Seneca, and Pliny, out of whose works 
he intended to compile, on the same plan as his 
previous works, a comprehensive digest of the 
civil arid religious history, and the moral and 
physical science of the Romans. The account of 
Cicero alone was completed and forms a re- 
markable monument of Bellenden's industry and 
ability, and a treasure-house of the historical 
inf 01 mation to be drawn from Cicero. "Bellen- 
den," says Hallani, "seems to have taken a 
more comprehensive view of history, and to 
have reflected more philosophically on it, than 
perhaps any one had done before.'"' Bellenden's 
works furnished the materials for Dr. Middle- 
ton's Life, of Cicero, though that learned divine 
makes no allusion to the forgotten Scot, whom 
he plundered wholesale. \Yarton first denounced 
the theft, which was afterward made clear by 
I>r. Parr, in his edition of De Statu, in three 
books, published in 1787. 


BELLE PLAINE. A city in Benton Co., 
Iowa, 90 miles northeast of Des Moines, on the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad (Map: 
Iowa, E 3). It is the centre of a rich dairying 
district and has railway repair shops, a brick 
and tile factory, a brass foundry, a cannery, 
and a creamery. The water works are owned 
by the city. Belle Plaine was settled in 1862 
and was first incorporated in 1879. Pop., 1900, 
3283; 1910, 3121. 

BELLER'OPHON (probably from its resem- 
blance to the helmet of Bellerophon. See BEL- 
LEROPHON ) . A genus of extinct gastropods of 
the order Aspidobranchiata. It is the type of 
the family Bcllcrophontidffi, closely related OP 
the one hand to the Pleurotomariida) and on 
the other to the Fissurellidne. The genus con- 
tains about 60 species, of which number one- 
half are American, the remainder European and 
Asiatic, and which range through rocks of Or- 
dovician to Permian Age. The shells are globose, 



*B BT/T/B V lUrfl 

symmetrically coiled in a single plane, with 
the whorls rapidly enlarging, and the aperture 
slightly expanded with a thickened margin. The 
outer margin of the aperture is somewhat sin- 
uate and is provided with a small notch or 
slit, which is homologous with the slit of Pleuro- 
tomaria and which served for the passage of 
the siphons of the living animal. Extending 
backward from the slit along the median line is 
the "slit-band," which in some species is replaced 
by a keel. The genus did not attain any con- 
siderable prominence until Carboniferous time, 
when it became abundant. The best-known 
American examples are Bellerophon crassua and 
Bellerophon precarinatus, both common in the 
coal measures of the Mississippi valley and tin; 
Southwest. A great number of species were 
formerly included under the name of Bellero- 
phon, but more careful study has resulted in 
their distribution under several new generic 
names and even under other family names. See 

BELLEROPHON (Gk. BeXXepo^nyf, Bcl- 
lerophontt's, slayer of Bellerus). The son of 
Glaucus, and grandson of Sisyphus, according to 
the narrative in Iliad vi. He was driven forth 
by King Prcrtus on account of the fnlse accusa- 
tions of his wife Anteia, who had become en- 
amored of him, but had been repulsed. Prcetus 
sent him to Anteia's father, lobates. King of 
Lycia, with a sealed message, which advised 
his death. To accomplish his death, lobates 
sent him to kill the Chimurra (q.v.), and, when 
he had accomplished this task, dispatched him 
against Solymi and the Amazons, both of whom 
he defeated, finally destroying an ambuscade 
set by lobates to slay him. Satisfied of his 
bravery and innocence, Jobates gave him his 
daughter in marriage. Later writers modified 
the story in various ways. Bellerophon was 
transferred from Argos to Corinth and made son 
of Poseidon. He was also aided in killing the 
Chimaera by Athena, who enabled him to capture 
the winged horse Pegasus (q.v.). The Homeric 
version is evidently the hereditary story of the 
Lycian kings, to prove their Greek origin; hut 
there is evidence in the coins of Corinth that the 
exploit of Bellerophon was at one time localized 
in Peloponnesus. Other stories represented him 
as fleeing to King Prcetus because of the murder 
of his brother, Bellerus, and as later returning 
to take vengeance on the wife of Proetus, here 
called Stheneboea. In Homer, Bellerophon ends 
his life wandering in the Aleian Plain, hated 
by the gods; but Pindar tells how he tried to 
ascend to heaven upon Pegasus, but was dashed 
to the earth. This version was combined with 
the earlier by making Bellerophon fall upon 
the Aleian Plain, where he wandered blind and 
lame. Bellerophon's adventures formed the sub- 
ject of a lost play by Sophocles, and of two 
lost plays by Euripides. In art Bellerophon is 
frequently represented with Pegasus alone, but 
more often in battle with the Chimera. This 
scene is also found among the reliefs of the 
Hero6n at Gtfl-bashi in L} T cia. Bellerophon was 
worshiped as a god at Corinth and in Lycia. 
There seems good reason to see in him a sea 
divinity of the Argolid, like Poseidon, who later 
sank to the position of a hero. Consult Fischer, 
Bellerophon (Leipzig, 1851). 

BELLE'BUS. A fabulous giant associated 
with Bellerium, the modern Land's End, Corn- 
wall. In Milton's poem "Lycidas" Bellerus is 
a name for Land's End. 

BELLE SAVAGE (Fr. Belle Sauvage, beau- 
tiful savage). One of the old London taverns, 
on Ludgate Hill. Built around a court, it was 
a capital place for an extemporized stage, the 
performance on which could be viewed from the 
balcony above. Dickens, in his Pickwick Papers, 
mentions it as the inn visited by old Weller. 

BELLES-LETTBES, bSl-let'ter (Fr. fine let- 
ters, from beau, feni. belle + lettre). A term 
adopted into the English and various other 
languages. It is generally used in a vague way 
to designate the more refined departments of 
literature, but has in fact no precise limits. In 
English usage it is synonymous with another 
vague expression, "polite literature," including 
history, poetry, and the drama, fiction, the essay, 
and criticism. It in sometimes used also for 
"the humanities." The term has no recorded 
use in English before 1710, when it was used 
by Swift in The Tatler. 

BELLEVILLE, bfil'vM' (Fr. beautiful city). 
A former eastern suburb of Paris, now a part 
of that city, and largely inhabited by the poorer 

BELLEVILLE. The capital of Hastings Co., 
Ontario, Canada, on the Bay of Qumte, Lake 
Ontario, at the mouth of the Moira Kiver, and 
on the Grand Trunk Railway, 113 miles east of 
Toronto (Map: Ontario, F 3). It is an impor- 
tant dairy centre, there are iron foundries, 
cement works, potteries, planing and woolen 
mills, and there is trade in lumber and grain. 
Albert University, with separate colleges for 
men and women. St. Allies ( 'ollege ( women ) , 
and the Provincial Deaf and Dumb Institute 
are located here. The city is the seat of a 
United States consulate. Pop., 1901, 0119; 1911, 

BELLEVILLE, bel'vll. A city and the 
county seat of St. ('lair Co., 111., 14 miles east 
by south of St. Louis, Mo., on the Illinois 
Central, the Louisville and Nashville, and the 
Southern railroads (Map: Illinois, C 5). It is 
the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and con- 
tains the Belleville Fair Grounds, a public li- 
brary, founded in 1836, St. Elizabeth Hospital, 
St. Vincent Hospital, and St. John's Orphan 
Asylum. The city is in a productive agricul- 
tural and coal-mining region and is noted for its 
man ill actor ies, which include stove works, iron 
and brass foundries, machine shops, a nail mill 
lack works, glass works, shoe factories, brick 
yards, ice plant, distillery, breweries, and floui 
mills. Settled iu 1814, Belleville was incorporated 
first in 1846. The government is vested in a 
mayor, elected biennially, who appoints all the 
important administrative officers, and a council. 
Pop., 1906, 18,756; 1910, 21,122; 1920. 24,823. 

BELLEVILLE. A town and the county seat 
of Republic Co., Kans., 219 miles west-northwest 
of Kansas City, on the Union Pacific and the 
Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroads 
(Map: Kansas, E 3). It is in an agricultural 
and stock-raising district and has grain eleva- 
tors, flour mills, alfalfa mill, lumber yards, etc. 
The water works and electric light plant are 
owned and operated by the city. Pop., 1890, 
1868: 1900, 1833; 1910, 2224. 

BELLEVILLE. A town in Essex Co., N. J., 
on the Pasiaic River, the Morris Canal, and 
the Erie Railroad (Map: New Jersey, D 2). It 
is a popular residential suburb of Newark, 
with which it is connected by electric roads, 
and has important manufactures of wire cloth, 
druggists' rubber supplies, metal goods, brushes, 



dynamos, baking machinery, bicycle tires, brass- 
foundry and copper products, chemicals, etc. 
The town contains an Elks' Home and a public 
library. Pop., 1910,9891; 1920, 15,660. 

BELLEVUE, bfil'vu'. A city in Campbell 
Co., Ky., on the Ohio River, opposite Cincinnati, 
and on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad (Map: 
Cincinnati and vicinity, F 5). The leading in- 
dustries are the quarrying of sand, gravel, and 
loam. Settled in 1860, Bellpvue was incorporated 
in 1871. Its charter provides for a mayor, 
elected every four years, and a city council of 
8 members, elected biennially. Pop., 1890, 3163; 
1900, 0332; 1910, 6683. 

BELLEVUE. A city in Huron and Sandusky 
counties, Ohio, 15 miles south by west of San- 
dusky, on the Pennsylvania, the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago, 
and St. Louis, the Lake Shore Electric, and the 
Wheeling and Lake Erie railroads (Map: Ohio, 
E 3). It is in a fertile agricultural region, has 
large railroad shops, extensive limestone quar- 
ries, lumber yards, and canneries, and manu- 
factures agricultural implements, ditching ma- 
chines, soda fountains and fixtures, and 
stoves. The city contains a Carnegie library 
and a hospital and owns its water works. It 
has a unique sewage system made possible by 
a peculiar geological formation. The, city is 
built over an underground stream that empties 
into Lake Erie, and eaeh residence and business 
block has a hole about 100 feet deep drilled to 
the stream which disposes of both surface and 
military drainage. Consult Knginemng A>/r, 
May 1,' 1913, article by W. J. Sherman. Pop., 
1900, 4101 ; 1910, 5209. 

BELLEVUE. A borough in Allegheny Co., 
Pa., adjoining Pittsburgh, on the Pittsburgh, 
Ft. Wayne, and Chicago Railroad, and on the 
Ohio River. It is a purely residential town and 
contains the Suburban General Hospital and 
the Halph Memorial Park. Pop., 1890, 1418; 
1900, 3410; 1910, 6323. 

BELLEVUE, beTvu'. 1. A chnteau of 
Madame de Pompadour, near Sevres, only ruins 
of which remain. 2. The name of the celebrated 
municipal hospital of Ne\v York, for which 
buildings to cost $12,000,000 are in process of 
construction (1913). See HOSPITALS. 

BELLEW, HAROLD KYRLE (1857-1911). An 
English actor and playwright. The son of a 
clergyman of Calcutta, he was born in England. 
Of his early life, seven years were spent as a 
cadet in the British navy, after which he went 
to Australia, where he was an actor, a news- 
paper man, and a lecturer. He returned to 
England and made his debut at Brighton. lie 
was soon well known in London in leading 
parts. His first appearance in America was in 
October, 1885, in In His Power, at Wallack's 
Theatre, New York, where during the following 
season he was leading man. He next year 
(1887) began his long connection with Mrs. 
James Brown Potter, with whom he played 
throughout the English-speaking world. Among 
his notable r61es were Leander to Mrs. Potter's 
Hero, in his own play, Hero and Leander t pro- 
duced at the Shaftesbury Theatre, London (June, 
1892) ; Marat, in Charlotte Corday (1895) ; and 
Romeo, which he played, with Mrs. Potter as 
Juliet, in New York in March, 1896, and later 
the Home year in Australia. His best-known 
r61es here were Raffles and Brigadier Gerard in 
the two plays by these names. He died in Salt 
Lake City while on tour. 

BBLLEY, be'leA The chief town of an arron- 
dissement of the same name in the department 
of Ain, France, picturesquely situated in the 
interesting Val Romney, 18 miles northwest of 
Chambe>y (Map: France, S., K 3). It is the 
seat of a bishopric and has a fine cathedral part 
fifteenth -century Gothic and part modern, an 
episcopal palace, a museum, and a public library. 
Lithographic stone, the best in France, is quar- 
ried and exported from the neighborhood, and 
it has silk and cotton industries. The ruins of 
a Roman temple attest the antiquity of Belley. 
Pop., 1901, 6467; 1906, 5707; 1911, 6182. 


1863). An Italian dialect poet, author of a 
famous collection of sonnets in the Roman dia- 
lect, / sonetti romaneftchi (ed. by Morandi, 4th 
ed., Citta di Castello, 1908). These sonnets are 
unsurpassed in their own peculiar vein. They 
are vivid realistic portrayals of Roman popu- 
lar life in all its panoramic variety, pre- 
sented with a truth and sincerity and a pro- 
found comic insight which makes each poem 
a masterpiece of its kind. They were mostly 
written between 1827 and 1839 and reflect oc- 
casionally the political turmoils of that time, 
usually from a conservative and Catholic point 
of view. Belli himself was much stimulated 
by the previous work of the Milanese poet 
Carlo Porta. His own success gave great im- 
petus to the modern dialect school, represented 
by Luigi Ferretti, Augusto Marini, Renato 
Fucini, and Salvatore di Giacomo, of whom the 
two latter with Belli enjoy international fame. 
Consult for biography, D. Gnoli, Studi letterari 
(Bologna. 18H3). 

COUNT ( 1769-1 832 ) . A French diplomat and sol- 
dier; born at Fontenay-le-Comte (Vendee). He 
served with distinction in the French army dur- 
ing the Revolution and was appointed brigadier 
general at the battle of Arcola. He was chief 
of staff under Murat, fought in the principal 
engagements of 1805, 1806, and 1807, and after- 
ward became Governor of Madrid. He distin- 
guished himself at Borodino and upon his recov- 
ery from a wound received at the battle of 
Leipzig was appointed commander in chief of 
cavalry. Although elevated to the peerage upon 
the accession of Louis XVTTI, he rallied to the 
support of Napoleon upon the return of the lat- 
ter from Klba and was sent as Ambassador to 
Naples, where, however, owing to the mistakes 
of Murat, he was able to accomplish little. 
After a varied career under the monarchy, he 
became the Ambassador of Louis Philippe to 
Brussels, where he signed the treaty separating 
Belgium from Holland. He also contributed 
greatly to the reorganization of the Belgian 
army. In 1836 a monument to him was un- 
veiled in the city of Brussels. His autobiogra- 
phy was published in Paris, in 1842, under the 
title, Mfrnoires du gtntral Belliard Merits par 

BELLIGKEBENT (Lat. belligerare, to wage 
war, from bellum, war + gerere, to carry). In 
international law, a government actually at 
war. It is not necessary that a political com- 
munity shall be independent in order to have 
the status of a belligerent, but it must be main- 
taining itself by regular hostilities or otherwise 
under a de facto government. When a state of 
war exists between sovereign powers, the rights 
and duties of the several parties, both as be- 




tween themselves and as to neutral powers, are 
in general clearly defined. Modern usage -re- 
quires that the existence of a state of war shall 
be made known to neutral powers by public 
proclamation. (See DECLARATION OF WAR.) As 
between the belligerent powers, the rules of mod- 
ern warfare require that the lives and property 
of non-combatants shall be respected, forbid un- 
due cruelty and the use of barbarous weapons 
and methods of warfare, and dictate that no 
more damage shall be inflicted than is necessary 
to obtain victory. Where an enemy's territory 
is occupied, the hostile authority may require 
the submission of the inhabitants and may 
lawfully exercise over them the police and tax- 
ing powers of the government. As regards neu- 
trals, the tendency of modern international law 
is to relieve them, their ships, their goods, and 
their trade, as far as possible, from the dangers 
and inconveniences of the war and, on the other 
hand, to hold them strictly to a policy of com- 
plete abstention from the concerns of the war- 
ring states. 

A more difficult question is presented when 
both parties to the struggle are not sovereign 
political communities, but one a colony in rebel- 
lion against the parent state, or a revolutionary 
section or party waging war against the gen- 
eral government. Unless the conditions are 
such as to bring about the international recog- 
nition of the rebellious party as a belligerent, 
it has no standing in international la\N, and 
its acts of war are technically acts of piracy. 
It has no belligerent rights and is not entitled 
to have its blockades respected or its vessels 
received in foreign ports. It is the recognition 
of an insurgent government us a belligerent by 
neutral powers which brings it within the pro- 
tection of the laws of war. But this act must 
be carefully distinguished from recognition of 
the independence* of the insurgent government. 
This implies that the parent state is unable to 
coerce the rebellious subject arid carries with it a 
recognition of the latter as a sovereign power. 

For tho neutral state the question of the rec- 
ognition of belligerency is one of expediency. 
Such recognition cannot be claimed by an insur- 
gent as a matter of right. It may be conceded 
on purely selfish grounds, if the trade or other 
interests of tho neutral call for such action; or 
it may be granted in response to the demands of 
humanity or of general international policy. 
But -n order to be justifiable in international 
law, the recognition must rest upon certain ac- 
complished facts, viz., the existence, in the re- 
bellious community, of a stable, well-organized 
civil government, exercising de facto authority 
in a definite territory, and the existence of actual 
ond serious hostilities, carried on by such con- 
stituted authority for a considerable period of 
time, though these need not be regular in char- 
acter nor general in extent. If, in addition to 
all this, the insurrection is of a formidable char- 
acter, and especially if it is of such a nature as 
to threaten the interests of neutral states, the 
case for recognition of belligerency may become 
so strong as to be conclusive. When an interne- 
cine struggle presents the aspect of a war be- 
tween federated states, belligerent rights are 
usually accorded to both the contending parties 
impartially. The recognition of the Southern 
Confederacy by Great Britain and France in 
1861, though strenuously opposed by the govern- 
ment of the United States, was undoubtedly 
proper and necessary. 

The grant of belligerent rights to an insurgent 
government is not an unmixed blessing, even to 
the recipient, and it carries with it certain bene- 
fits to the other party to the contest. Its princi- 
pal advantage to the former is the powerful 
moral support wliich it gains from international 
recognition. In addition to this, it acquires 
the substantial benefits, already alluded to, of 
protection by the laws of war; the recognition 
of its flag, the right to negotiate loans abroad, 
and, in general, a quasi-political status, though 
without diplomatic standing. On the other 
hand, the status of belligerency carries with it 
the obligation to observe the rules of civilized 
warfare, and it shifts the responsibility for 
damage caused to neutral commerce and to the 
citizens of neutral states from tho sovereign 
party to the party in insurrection. Accordingly, 
in the American Civil War, Great Britain and 
France, having recognized the Southern Con- 
federacy as a belligerent power, were unable 
to charge the Federal government with liability 
for injuries to their subjects inflicted by the 
Confederate government or by it* citizens in 
the territory occupied by it; choreas tin* go\- 
ernment of Turkey, which did not recognize the 
Southern States, was able to hold the United 
States responsible for Uie acts of its rebellious 

Certain acts of \uir on the part of the sover- 
eign or parent states in connection with re- 
bellious subjects as the establishment of a 
blockade of the insurgent ports, an exchange 
of prisoners, the enforcement of the rules of 
war as to the carriage of Contraband goods by 
neutrals constitute in international law an 
implied recognition by the former of the bellig- 
erent status of the latter; but this affects 
only the character of the struggle between the 
parties and does not in itself alter tho rela- 
tions of the insurgent government to neutral 
states, though it may afford a moral ground for 
international recognition. Jii practice, such rec- 
ognition is usually effected by issuing a procla- 
mation of neutrality, in wliich the rights of tho 
combatants and tho duty of neutrals in relation 
to them are briefly indicated. Consult: Snow, 
Manual of International Law (2d ed., Washing- 
ton, 1808) ; Whcaton, Elements of International 
Law (8th ed., Boston, 1800; 4th ed., London, 
1904) ; and authorities referred to under tho 

BELLINCIONI, beTlen-cho'na, GEMMA ( 1800- 
). A celebrated Italian singer. She was 
born at Como, Aug. 18, 1806, and received her 
first instruction from her father, showing her- 
self a most apt and promising pupil. After a 
few lessons from Corsi she made her delmt 
at the age of 15 in Pedrotti's Tulti in Maschera, 
at Naples (1881). Here the famous tenor 
Tamberlik heard her and was so much struck 
with her remarkable powers that he engaged 
her as prima donna for his extended tours of 
Spain and Portugal. Upon her return to Italy 
she soon was recognized as the greatest singer 
of her time and was in constant demand in 
all the principal cities. Her appearances all 
over Europe became a scrips of uninterrupted 
triumphs. With a soprano voice of unusual 
range and power, she came to be considered 
equally great as a coloratura and dramatic 
singer. In 1890 she created the part of Rantuzxa 
in Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana and contrib- 
uted considerably to the sensational success of 
that work. Subsequently she was in special 




demand by the more prominent Italian composers 
for the creation of new roles, and in this ca- 
pacity her name was associated with the success 
of many new operas. Various offers from mana- 
gers for an American tour she refused. 

79). A Prussian cavalry officer, born at Pauls- 
dorf (East Prussia). He attained distinction in 
1759-61 by his defensive operations against the 
Swedish army in Pomerania and Mecklenburg. 
In 1762 he became a major general, in 1776 lieu- 
tenant general, and 1778 appeared prominently 
in the War of the Bavarian Succession. It was 
by him that Blticher, then a cornet in the Swed- 
ish army, was taken prisoner at Kavelpass and 
persuaded to enter the Prussian service. 

BEL1/JCNGHAM. A city, port of entry, and 
the county seat of Whatoom Co., Wash., 97 miles 
north of Seattle, on the. Great Northern, the 
Northern Pacific, and the Bcllingham and Nor- 
thern railroads, and on Bellingham Bay (Map: 
Washington, C 2). It is the seat of' a State 
normal school, has a parochial and two high 
schools, two business colleges, two free libraries, 
and two hospitals. The city is noted for its ex- 
tensive lumber interests, and has large saw and 
shingle mills, logging companies, and wood- 
working factories. Salmon canning and brew- 
ing, milk condensing, and the manufacture of 
cement and cans are al^o important industries. 
Bpllingham has an excellent natural harbor, 
-\\hich is entered by all Oriental and Pacific 
coast lines. The water works are owned by 
the municipality. The first settlement hero was 
made in 1853. The city was founded in Decem- 
ber, 1903, by the consolidation of Fairhavcn and 
Whatcom. Pop., 1900, 11,062; 1910, 24,298; 
1920, 25,570. 

Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, born in 
England. He was recorder of Boston (Lincoln- 
shire, England) from 1625 to 1633, and in 1634 
emigrated to America and settled in Boston, 
Mass. In 1635, and 12 times thereafter, he was 
Deputy Governor of the Colony, and for some 
time was Treasurer, lie was elected Governor 
over Winthrop in 1641 nnd was reeleeted in 1654 
and in 1605. In 1664 he was also chosen major 
general. In the same year he stoutly resisted the 
royal commissioners, who had ordered him to 
London to undergo an examination with regard 
to his official conduct ; but lie secured the good 
will of the King by the present of "a shipload of 
masts." He was a slirewd administrator, just 
and upright. In religious matters he was stern 
and intolerant, especially towards the Quakers. 
In his will he provided that his property should 
eventually be devoted to the support of "godly 
ministers and preachers," but this provision was 
annulled as being unjust to his family. He was 
the last survivor of the original patentees of the 
Charter. His sister, Anne Hibbens, was executed 
as a witch at Salem in June, 1656. 

BELLINGSHAUSEN, bel'llngz-hou'zpn, FA- 
nEYEvrrcH B ALLINGSII AUREN ( 1 778-1 852 ) . A 
Russian admiral and explorer, born on the island 
Oscl (belonging to Livonia). He was appointed 
an officer of the fleet stationed at Reval in 
1797 and in 1803 participated in the first 
Russian circumnavigation of the globe. In 
July, 1819, he was assigned by the Emperor 
Alexander to the command of an exploring ex- 
pedition to the south polar regions. With 
two corvettes, the Vostok and the Aftmv, he 

traversed the Antarctic Circle, discovered the 
island which he named Traversay, in Decem- 
ber, 1819, and thence penetrated to lat. 70 
S., where he discovered and named Peter Island 
and Alexander Land. The expedition arrived at 
Cronstadt Aug. 5, 1821. He took part in the 
military operations against Varna in 1828, was 
advanced to the rank of vice admiral, and was 
placed in command of the Russian Baltic fleet. 
Afterward he became admiral and military 
governor of Cronstadt, where a fine bronze statue, 
designed by Schroder, wae erected to his memory 
in 1869. An account of his explorations was 
published in St. Petersburg in 1831. 

BELLINI, bgl-lg'ne. A celebrated family of 
Venetian painters which exercised a determin- 
ating influence on Venetian art. JACOPO (c. 
1400-70), the founder of the family, was the son 
of Nicoletto, a tinsmith of Venice. His master 
in painting was Gentile la Fabriano (q.v.) f then 
employed on the decorations of the Ducal Pal- 
ace. In 1423-25 he accompanied his master to 
Florence, where he adopted the principles of the 
Renaissance, then just beginning its glorious 
course. Recent studies in the Venetian archives 
have removed the obscurity surrounding the 
remainder of his life. In 1436 he finished his 
vast fresco of the "Crucifixion" in the cathedral 
of Verona, which was destroyed in the eighteenth 
century. In 1437 he became a member of the 
"Scuola" (social religious guild) of St. John 
the Evangelist at Venice, of which he was dean 
in 1441. The guild assisted in providing a 
suitable dowry for his daughter Niccolosia, who 
married Andrea Mantegna in 1453 and gave him 
a commission for a cycle of 18 paintings in their 
great hall representing the life of Christ and 
the Virgin, for which he received final payment 
in 1465. In 1441 he was active at Ferrara and 
while there engaged in the celebrated contest 
with Pisanello (q.v.) for the best portrait of 
Lionello d'Este; Jacopo received the prize. 
Among other important commissions were the 
figure of St. Lorenzo Giustiniani (1456), the 
recently canonized Patriarch of Venice, in San 
Pietro di Castello, and the great altarpiece for 
the Oat tarn alata Chapel in Sant' Antonio, Padua 
(completed in 1460), in which he was assisted 
by his two sons. In 1466 he contracted for a 
wall painting in the Scuola di San Marco, and 
he is mentioned as dead in 1471. Only three 
signed pictures of Jacopo survive: "The Cruci- 
fied One" in the Archbishop's palace in Verona, 
an early "Madonna" in the Venetian Academy, 
and a later one at Lovorp. The best of all his 
Madonnas is one recently discovered by Ricci 
and now in tho Uffizi. Another in the Louvre 
with a kneeling donor, perhaps Lionello d' Este, 
is supposed to be the portrait which won the 
contest at Ferrara. There is also an "Annun- 
ciation" in Sant' Alessandro, Brescia. From his 
sketchbooks have been identified a "Crucifixion" 
in the Museo Correr, Venice; "Christ in Limbo" 
in the Gallery of Padua; and an "Adoration of 
the Kings" in private possession, Ferrara. By 
far the most interesting of Jacopo's surviving 
works are two admirable sketchbooks, left as 
a precious heritage by his widow to his eldest 
son Gentile, and by him to his brother Giovanni. 
The earlier of these is in the British Museum, 
and the later and better preserved is in the 
Louvre. They show him as a good draughtsman 
and as an eager student of antique, perspective, 
and anatomy. 

GENTILE BELLINI (1420-1507), unquestion- 

nz&xire i 

*bly the elder eon of Jaoopo (though this 
has been disputed), was born in the early part 
of 1429, as appears from his mother's testament. 
His earliest works resemble those of his father 
in technique and in conception; but they also 
show strong influence of the Paduan school 
through his brother-in-law Mantegna. He as- 
sisted his father at Padua in 1460 -and was com- 
missioned to decorate the organ shutters of St. 
Mark's, which still survive; in 1465 to paint a 
full-length portrait of the Patriarch Lorenzo 
Giustiniani, now in the Academy, and in 1466 
two large pictures for the Scuola di San Marco, 
of which he afterward became dean. In 1469 
he was made a count palatine of the Empire, 
and in 1474 official painter to the Venetian 
state, with the income of a broker's stall as 
salary, and commissioned to restore the decora- 
tions of Gentile da Fabbriano in the Ducal Pal- 
ace. In response to the request of the Sultan 
that the Venetian government send him their 
best painter, he went in 1470 to Constantinople. 
He lived on intimate terms of intercourse with 
the Sultan, who on the painter's departure in 
1480 created him Bey (eques auratus) a title 
which henceforth appears on his paintings. 
Artistic mementos of this journey are still to be 
seen in his portrait of Mohammed II in the 
Layard collection, Venice; in the Oriental types 
and costumes which he thenceforth delighted to 
introduce into his pictures, and in a delightful 
water-color portrait of a scribe, now in Mrs. 
Gardner's collection in Boston. After his re- 
turn to Venice he labored for many year a on 
the great historic decorations of the Ducal Pal- 
ace, representing in 20 or more paintings the 
important role played by Venice in the conflict 
between Pope Alexander III and Frederick Bar- 
barossa. In these epoch-making pictures oil 
painting was for the first time used in Venetian 
mural decoration. At least six were by Gentile; 
these were all destroyed by fire, along with the 
portraits of the reigning doges, which it was his 
duty as state painter to depict. But replicas 
were often painted for the families of the doges, 
and of these, two, the portraits of Doges Mo- 
cenigo and Foseari, survive in Museo Correr, 
Venice. His chief surviving works, dating from 
the last years of his life, are pageant pictures, 
of which he was the first great painter in Venice. 
Three of these, painted for his father's guild, 
the Scuola of St. John the Evangelist, represent- 
ing the miracles wrought by a relic of the True 
Cross, are now in the Venetian Academy. Of 
especial interest is one showing St. Mark's Place 
in its pristine glory in which is seen a stately 
procession of the guild members, the doges, 
senators, and other Venetian dignitaries, and 
another depicting how the holy relic miracu- 
lously floated in the water of the canal. His 
last work was the "Preaching of St. Mark" 
(Brera, Milan), completed after his death by his 
brother Giovanni. All these pictures are filled 
with admirable specimens of contemporary por- 
traiture, in which branch Gentile especially ex- 
celled. Other important portraits by him are 
Caterina Cornaro (Pesth) and "A Mathemati- 
cian" (London). To a fine feeling for line 
Gentile united harmonious coloring, and he was 
especially strong in composition. He was a 
keen realist, and for his day the open-air effects 
of his pageant pictures are very remarkable. 

GIOVANNI BELLINI (?-1516), the younger 
and seemingly illegitimate Ron of Jacopo, was 
the most important and influential member of 

u BttLXXl 

the family. Although he received his fint in- 
struction from his father, even his earliest works 
show a greater influence of his brother-in-law 
Andrea Mantegna and reveal a careful study of 
the sculptures of Donatello at Padua. Among 
these works are several Madonnas in private col- 
lections of Milan and three in the United States 
in the Johnson collection of Philadelphia, the 
Davis collection, Newport, and the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York; "Christ on the Cross" 
and the ''Transfiguration" in the Museo Correr, 
Venice, and, best of all, the "Agony in the Gar- 
den," National Gallery, London. At this time 
he painted many versions of the Pieta, the best 
of which are in the Ducal Palace, Venice, and 
in the Brera, Milan. The works of his early 
period are characterized by an austere and 
powerful realism and by profound depth of re- 
ligious feeling; but after 1460 the characteristics 
of true Venetian painting prevail increasingly in 
his works. The color is softer and richer, and 
both line and sentiment are less austere. The 
Pieti. continued to be a favorite subject, as may 
be seen in the three versions at Rimini and in 
the examples of the Berlin Gallery, the Mond 
collection, London. Of the Madonnas of this 
period the best is in the church of the Madonna 
delP Orto, Venice. But the most important work 
of this second manner is the altarpiece of San 
Francesco, Pesaro (c.1470), now in the local 
Museum. The central panel represents the 
"Coronation of the Virgin," the sides four power- 
ful saints, and the predella certain scenes from 
Holy Writ depicted in delightful landscapes. 

This is the first of the great altar pieces to 
which he owes his principal fame. Most of them 
were painted between 1480 and 1400. In all the 
composition is similar: the Madonna enthroned 
in the apse of a church or else against the blue 
sky, on either side saints, and at the base 
angels. The decorative elements, even of the 
frames, are of great charm and in the purest 
Renaissance style. Such pieces are the great 
altar of Santi Giovanni e Paolo with 10 saints 
and angels, which was destroyed by fire in 
1807; of San Giobbe, now in the Venetian 
Academy, with particularly fine angels; an ob- 
long compORition representing the Madonna with 
the Doge Barbarigo in San Pietro Marti re, 
Murano; and the well-known triptych in the 
church of the Frari, Venice. The Madonna of 
this picture is one of his noblest and most ideal 
types, while the four admirable saints, Bene- 
dict, Nicholas, Peter, and Paul, vie in nobility 
of conception with Dtirer's four Temperaments 
(q.v.), and the frame is beautiful and har- 
monious. To the same period belong a number 
of his similar Madonnas, particularly the Ma- 
donna degli Alberetti and the oblong Madonna 
with Saints Catharine and Margaret, three 
charming types of female beauty, both in the 
Venetian Academy. To this period also belong 
the delightful examples in Berlin and London. 

Giovanni often worked in conjunction with his 
elder brother, and when in 1479 Gentile was sent 
to Constantinople, he took his place in the deco- 
ration of the Ducal Palace. In the earliest of 
these paintings (c.1479) he seems to have first 
tried the oil medium, used to such great advan- 
tage in the great altarpieces mentioned above. 
Most of his work in the Ducal Palace was done 
in the decade following 1490. He painted at 
least six subjects besides finishing one by 
Vivarini, all of which were destroyed by the 
calamitous fire of 1577. To the last years of 



the fifteenth century belong also the charming 
allegories called the "Tree of Life," Venetian 
Academy, and "Santa Conversazione," in the 
Uffizi, with lovely landscape. 

Early in the sixteenth century he resumed his 
great altarnieces with the "Baptism of Christ'* 
in Santa Corona, Vicenza (1500-02); in that 
of San Zaccaria, in which the grand old mas- 
ter's art is rejuvenated in the new style of 
Giorgione (q.v.), and in the altar of San Gio- 
vanni Crisostomo, Venice, in the same new 
style. Mention should also be made of his last 
smaller Madonnas, like in San Francesco 
della Vigna (1506) and in the Brera, Milan 
(1510); and of the only surviving example of 
his celebrated portraits, viz., Doge Loredan, in 
the National Gallery, London. 

Giovanni Bellini is the most important figure 
in early Venetian painting and stands out most 
prominently as the head of the school. The 
qualities of painting known as distinctly Vene- 
tian the combination of nobility of form with 
beautiful golden tone and soft melting color 
first appear in his works. Throngs of pupils 
issued from his studios carrying his influence 
throughout the wide domains of the Venetian 
state, such as Bissolo, Catena in Italy, and 
Prevatali of the older generation, and among 
the younger practically every painter of impor- 
tance, during the early High Renaissance; 
Giorgione, Titian, Palma Veochio, and even 
those, like Lorenzo Lotto, who did not study 
under him. 

Bibliography. The subject is ably treated in 
the following general works: Berenson, Venetian 
Painters of the Renaissance (New York, 1897) ; 
Venturi, Le ortyini della pittura reneziana 
(Venice, 1907) : Gronau, "Jacopo, Gentile und 
Giovanni Bellini," in Kiinftllermonographien 
(Bielefeld, 1909), a brief but excellent mono- 
graph. Jacopo's sketchbooks have been pub- 
lished with admirable comments by Ricci (2 
vols., Florence, 1908): and also by Golubeu (2 
vols., Brussels, 1908). For Gentile and Giovanni 
Bellini the researches of Dr. Ludwig are impor- 
tant, published in the Jahrhiicher tier koniglirh 
preussiseJien Kuntttsanintlintfien ( 1902-1904) , 
and elsewhere. For Gentile see Thuasme, Uentile 
Bellini et le sultan Mohammed JT (Paris, 1888) : 
for Giovanni the monographs by Fry (London, 
1899) and Meynell (New York, 1900). 

BELLINI, 'LORENZO (1043-1704). An Kal- 
ian anatomist and physician. He studied inedi- 
cine under Redi. WHS professor of anatomy at 
Pisa, and in Florence was physician to the 
Grand Duke Cosmo and also senior consulting 
physician to Pope Clement XL Among his dis- 
coveries were the action of the nerves on the 
muscles and the uriniferous ducts known as 
Bellini's tubes and described in his De Ktructura 
et IJsu Renum (1662). He left also an original 
and curious book of poetry, the BticcJiereide 

BELLINI, VINCEN/O (1801-35). A famous 
Italian operatic composer. He was born at Ca- 
tania, Sicily, Nov. 3, 1801, and died at Puteaux, 
near Paris,' Sept. 24, 1835. Born of a musical 
family, he entered the conservatory of Naples 
(1819), where he studied under Zingarelli. 
After writing various instrumental and choral 
compositions, he produced Adelson e ffalvini 
(1824), the success of which was duplicated by 
that of Bianea e Fernando at the San Carlo, 
Naples (1826), and Bellini was engaged to write 
an opera for La Scala at Milan. After II Pirata 


( 1827 ) , he became one of the most popular com- 
posers in Europe, and his fame grew with each 
of the following operas: La Straniera (1828)} 
Capuleti ed I Montecehi (1830); Sonnambula 
(1831); Norma (1831); Beatrice di Tenda 
(1833). He settled in Paris and gave himself 
up to the study of French music, diction, and 
verse, and then produced / Puritani (1835) at 
the Theatre Italian, Paris. Its success eclipsed 
that of all his previous efforts. He was pre- 
paring for another work when death came unex- 
pectedly at Puteaux, near Paris. All Europe 
mourned for him, and his funeral was an im- 
pressive pageant. A monument to Bellini was 
erected in Naples in 1836 and another in 
Catania in 1868, where his remains now rest. In 
1901 the centenary of his birth was celebrated 
throughout Italy and in many European cities. 
A man of wide culture and deep refinement, 
of the elegiac and sentimental type of Chopin, 
he had not the personal sorrows of the Polish 
master to make his grief morbid. His melan- 
choly nature came into the world at the most 
opportune moment: Italy was groaning under 
foreign masters; Nor ma was but a lament over 
his country's bondage. His Druids and Gallic 
warriors were thinly disguised Italians of his 
time. The opera was a great advance on his 
previous works, which were criticised for the 
thin orchestration and lack of structural unity. 
He heeded the critics, and Norma may fairly be 
called a classic production. Wagner viewed it 
as such for its heroic grandeur, tragic power, 
and pathos, combined with an unequaled flow of 
melody and striking orchestration. Norma has 
been the favorite part of the greatest dramatic 
wingers, such as Pasta, Viardot-Garcia, Jenny 
Lind, BUrde-Ney, and Lilli Lehmann, the 
famous Wagnerian soprano. Bellini's music is 
particularly grateful to the voice, and all 
famous singers, from Pasta and Viardot, through 
Schroder-Devrient and Johanna Wagner, down 
to Patti, Nilsson, and Sembrich, have kept his 
operas in their repertoires. Consult: A. Pougin, 
Bellini, sa vie, ses (purre* (Paris, 1868) ; A. 
Ainore, Vineenzo Bellini (Catania, 1892-94) ; 
G. T. Ferrih, Great Musical Composers (New 
York, 1887) ; P. Vows, Vineenzo Bellini (Leipzig, 
1001); W. A. Lloyd, Vineenzo Bellini: A Me- 
moir (London, 1008). 

BELLINZONA, bel'fn-tso'na, or BELLENZ, 
l>l'lentH. The capital of the canton of Ticino, 
Switzerland, on the left bank of the Ticino 
(Map: Switzerland, D 2). The town is most 
picturesquely situated at an elevation of 775 feet 
above sea level and commands the St. Gotthard 
route. It was fortified by the Visconti in the 
Middle Ages, and modern defenses have been 
built near the entrance to the pass to protect 
the position of the town at the junction of the 
St. Gotthard Railroad with that to Locarno. 
Pop., 1010, 10,773. 

Swedish lyric poet. He was born in Stockholm, 
the son of a professor at Upsala, and began to 
write poetry at an early age, often composing 
the melodies for his songs. The favor of Gus- 
tftviifl III relieved him from care, but he suf- 
fered from ill health, and on the murder of the 
King (1792) he was for a time a prisoner in the 
castle where he had been a frequent guest. His 
poems express the joy of life and occasionally 
a coarse revelry, but there is usually a cynic or 
pathetic undertone. Many of his poems were 
improvised at table, when Bellman would iali 


into a sort of poetic trance. Hia more impor- 
tant works are collected in Fredmans epistlar 
(1790) and Fredmans sdnaer (1791). The best 
edition of his Works is that of Carten (Stock- 
holm, 1861), His works are difficult to trans- 
late, but attempts have been made in German by 
Winterfeld (1866), Willatzen (1892), and re- 
cently by H. von Gumppenburg, Bellman-brevier 
(Jena, 1909). Consult Erdmann, Carl Michael 
Bellman (Stockholm, 1900), and F. Niedner, 
Bellman, dcr Schwcdische Anakreon (Berlin, 
1905); C. M. Bellman (Berlin, 1905). 

BELLO, bS'lyo, ANDRES (1781-1865). A 
Spanish-American author, born at Caracas. In 
1802 he was appointed Undersecretary of the 
government of Venezuela, and five years later, 
as a reward for his brilliant services, the King 
of Spain made him Venezuelan Commissioner of 
War, an honor at that time without a parallel. 
In 1810 he accompanied Bolfvar and Lopez 
M6ndez in the capacity of secretary to London, 
to solicit aid for the South American insurgents. 
Here he held the position of Secretary of the 
Colombian, Venezuelan, and Chilean legations 
until 1829, when he returned to CarAcas. After- 
ward he removed to Chile, where in 1834 he was 
appointed Secretary of State; and in 1843, when 
it was established, he became rector of the Uni- 
versity of Santiago. In 1864 the United States 
submitted to his arbitrage a question pending in 
its relations with Ecuador; and in 1865 the 
republics of Peru and Colombia chose him as 
arbiter in a similar matter. His numerous and 
valuable works include the following: Principios 
dc derecho international (1832, 1883); Urama- 
tica de la lengua castcllana, dedicado al uso dc 
los Americanos (1st ed., 1847; latest revised 
author's ed., annotated by R. J. Cuervo, Paris, 
1874, with frequent subsequent revisions and 
reprints). This is the leading authority on the 
subject. His best creative work is a poem, 
Silvas americanas, written while he was in Eng- 
land. His complete works were published by 
the Chilean government in 1881-93 (Obras dc 
Andres Bcllo, 15 vols., Santiago de Chile; re- 
printed in Madrid in the Coercion dc csvritores 
castcllanoft). For an excellent biography, con- 
sult Miguel Luis Amu nfitogui (Santiago de Chile, 
1882) ; A Balbln de Utiquera, Andres Bcllo, Su 
epoca y sus olras (Madrid, 1910). 

BELLOC, be-16k', HILAIBE (1870- ). An 
English author, born in France of French and 
English parentage; educated in England at 
Edgbaston Oratory School, and at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. He served for a time in a French 
cavalry regiment. In 1906 he was elected to 
Parliament. Strong Roman Catholic convictions 
permeate his work, the most important part of 
which, well exemplified in Danton (1899; 1911), 
Robespierre (1901), Marie Antoinette (1912), 
and his continuation of Lingard's History of 
England, is historical. His books of travel, com- 
bining learning, sentiment, and a love of the 
open road, at once entertain and instruct; wit- 
ness The Path to Rome (1902; 1910), and Esto 
Perpetua (1906; 1911). In his numerous essays 
On Nothing (1908), On Anything (1910), On 
Something (1910), This and That (1912) lie 
is a writer of sound and sometimes brilliant 
prose. His* novels have both merit and favor. 
The quality, quantity, and variety of his achieve- 
ment make him a notable figure in contempo- 
rary letters. To works of this author named 
above, may be added: The Bad Child's Book of 
Beasts (1896); Paris (1902; 1907); The Pyre- 


nee$ (1909) ; A Change in the Cabinet (1909) ; 
Verses (1910); The Green Overcoat (1912); 
The Book of the Bayeua> Tapestry (1913). 


BELLO HORIZONTE, bel'ld cr'6-zon'ta. A 
city of Brazil. See MINAS. 


BELLO'NA (Lat. from bellum, war). The 
goddess of war among the Romans. She was 
described by the poets as the companion, sister, 
wife, or daughter of Mars; she was also repre- 
sented as armed with a bloody scourge and as 
inspiring her votaries with a resistless enthu- 
siasm in battle. In the war with the Samnites, 
296 B.C., the Consul Appius Claudius vowed a 
temple to Bellona, which was erected afterward 
on the Field of Mars. In this temple the Senate 
gave audience to embassies from foreign powers 
and also to consuls who had claims to a triumph 
which would have been nullified by entrance into 
the city. The priests of another (Asiatic) god- 
dess of the same name were styled Bcllonarii, 
and practiced sanguinary rites, such as cutting 
their own arms or feet, and offering (or even 
drinking) the blood in sacrifice. Consult Fowler, 
If oman Festival* (London, 1899). 


BELLOT, be'16', JOSEPH REN (1826-53). A 
French Arctic explorer, born in Paris. He was 
a lieutenant in the navy, distinguished himself 
in the French expedition against Tarnatave in 
1S45 and joined an expedition in search of Sir 
John Franklin in 1851. During this expedition 
he accompanied a sledge party that reached the 
Strait now bearing his name. In the expedition 
fitted out by the British Admiralty under Cap- 
tain Inglrfield, he sailed as a volunteer in 
H.M.S. riuL-mx, but never returned, having been 
carried by a violent gust of wind, March 21, 
1853, into a deep fissure in the ice. His Jour- 
nal d'un voyage aux mrrs pnlaires, edited, with 
a notice of his life, was published at Paris in 

BELLOT STRAIT. A narrow passage in the 
Arctic regions which separates North Somerset 
from the peninsula of Boothia Felix, and con- 
nects Prince Regent's Inlet with Franklin Chan- 
nel (Map: Arctic Region, K 7). Its east 
entrance was discovered by Kennedy during 
his search for Franklin, and named after his 
companion, the French Lieutenant Bellot, who 
lost his life there. The channel was later 
explored by McClintock. It is about 20 
miles long and, at its narrowest part, about 1 
mile wide; it lies nearly on the parallel of 72, 
between granite shores, which, everywhere high, 
rise here and there to 1500 or 1600 feet. 
Through this funnel-shaped passage both the 
winds and the permanent currents and flood 
tides which come from the west have full play. 

BELLOTTO, bel-15t'td, BERNARDO. See CANA- 


BELLOWS, beToz, GEORGE (1882-1925). An 
American landscape, genre, and portrait painter, 
lie was born at Columbus, Ohio, graduated from 
the State University in 1905, and studied paint- 
ing in New York under Chase, Kenneth Miller, 
and Robert Henri. By the National Academy he 
was elected an associate at the age of 27. Though 
known chiefly as a landscape painter, he inter- 
ested himself also in portraiture and the paint- 
ing of figure subjects. His work, that of one of 
the younger and more radical group of American 




painters, is characterized by breadth and bold- 
ness of handling. Among his most successful 
paintings are such subjects as "Up the Hudson," 
''Coast of Maine," "Club Night," and "Forty- 
Two Kids/.' a swimming scene. He is repre- 
sented in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, and the galleries of Brooklyn, Toledo, 
Cincinnati, and others of note throughout the 
United States. In the 1913 exhibition of the 
National Academy of Design he was awarded 
the first Julius llallgarten prize. 

A well-known American clergyman. He was 
born in Boston, Mass., graduated at Harvard 
in 1832, and at the Divinity School in 1837, 
and in 1839 became pastor of the First Congre- 
gational Church (Unitarian; now All Souls) in 
New York. He acquired a great reputation as 
a pulpit orator and as a writer, and in 1846 
established the Christian Enquirer, to which he 
was the chief contributor until 1850. With un- 
usual literary taste and skill lie combined prac- 
tical and administrative ability of a high order, 
*nd as the chief promoter and president of the 
United States Sanitary Commission from 1801 to 
1878, rendered a service of almost incalculable 
value to the country. (See SANITARY COMMIS- 
SION.) During the war he directed the expendi- 
ture of more than $5,000,000 and the distribu- 
tion of more than $15,000,000 worth of supplies. 
He aided Peter Cooper in Ins plans for Cooper 
Union. The most noteworthy of his writings 
are: The Treatment of tfucial Diseases (1857) ; 
Restatements of Christian Doctrine (1860); 
The Old World in its yrin Fare, Impressions of 
Europe in 1M7-G8 (2 vols M 1808-69). 

"BELLOWS FALLS. A village in the town 
of Rockingham, Windham Co., Vt., 114 miles 
northwest of Boston, Ala^s., on the Boston 
and Maine and the Kuthmd railroads, and on 
the Connecticut River (Map: Vermont, D 7). 
The village is surrounded by mountains and is 
notea particularly for its falls, which, descend- 
ing about 40 feet, generate an enormous amount 
of power, utilized by the various manufactories 
of the village. The 'principal of these are paper 
of many kinds, paper machinery, dairy tools 
and machinery, baskets, wall plaster, boxes, 
and men's shirts. Lumbering and general farm- 
ing are also engaged in quite extensively. The 
village owns and operates its water works and 
contains the public library of the town, the 
Vermont Academy, a State armory, a hospital, 
a town meeting house, built in 1787, and a pub- 
lic playground. Settled in 1753, Bellows Falls 
was organized aa a town in 17(51 and incorpor- 
ated as a village in 1833: it is now governed 
under a charter of 1006. The officers, elected 
annually, include a president, four trustees, a 
clerk, and a treasurer. Department officers are 
appointed by the trustees. "The Great Falls" 
was the scene of a great salmon-fishing industry 
among the Indians in Colonial days. They cnme 
here in large numbers at certain seasons of the 
year, and many battles between rival tribes re- 
sulted. Pop., 1000, 4337; 1910, 4883. 

BELLOWS-FISH, bell us- fish'. See (.1 LOBE- 

DE (1727-75). One of the first French drama- 
tists who ventured to introduce on the stage 
native, instead of classic heroes. He was born 
at Saint-Flour, in Auvergne, and educated for 
the law, but became an actor, under the name 
of Dormont de Belloy. For some years he re- 

sided in St. Petersburg, where the Empress Elisa- 
beth interested herself in him. In 1758 he re- 
turned to France, to superintend the production 
of his tragedy Titus. The piece proved a failure, 
and he returned to St. Petersburg. Afterward, 
however, he obtained a decided success in Paris 
by his tragedy of Zelmire (1762). Jn 1765 ap- 
peared La Kicge de Calais, an historical and 
patriotic drama, which was immensely popular 
and is even yet held in esteem. j.n 1772 he was 
admitted to the French Academy, after the pro- 
duction of his Gas ton et Bayard. This was 
followed by Pierre le cruel, which, though it 
failed at first, was afterward successfully re- 
vived. His collected works were published in 
1770, edited by his friend Gaillard, who wrote 
his life. Consult Godefroy, Histoire de la lit- 
tcrature fran^aise, "XVIIIe siecle poetes" ( Paris, 

BELL B-INGKING. The ringing of bells in 
changes of regular peals is largely a European 
practice. It was early brought to a high degree 
of proficiency in the Netherlands. In some of 
its church towers the striking, chiming, and 
playing of bells is incessant, including the play- 
ing of regular tunes. In some instances, for 
this latter purpose, the bells are sounded by 
means of a cylinder, on the principle of a 
barrel organ; in others they are played with 
keys by a musician. The ringing of bells has 
become a distinct art also in Great Britain. 
According to the English method, the bell at 
each pull revolves round a complete circle and is 
under the full command of the ringer. The first 
known writer on the subject is the author of a 
book called Tintinnalogia (1668), said by some 
to hnve been Fabian Stedman, a Cambridge 
printer, who printed his changes on slips of 
paper in a notation of his own invention and 
taught them to his company in the tower of 
St. Benedict's Church, Cambridge. According 
to his account, there was no idea of change 
ringing until the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, though there certainly seem to be 
traces of it in the earliest English comedy, 
Udall's Ralph Roister Doister (1553). The art 
made rapid progress, and rings of bells increased 
from 5 or 6 to 10 or 12, the latter being the 
greatest number ever rung in peal. The variety 
of changes increases enormously with the in- 
crease in the number of bells. Six changes can 
be rung on 3 bells; on 4, four times as many; 
and so on until with 12 bells the enormous num- 
ber of 470,001,600 different changes can be rung. 

Bell ringing has an interesting system of no- 
menclature. The simplest peals are those called 
yrandsirc on an odd number of bells, and bob 
on an even number. Changes on 3 bells are 
enlled rounds,' on 4, changes or singles; on 5, 
doubles or grandsires; on 6, bobs minor; on 7, 
granrfsire triples; on 8, bobs major; on 9, 
yra ntf sire caters; on 10, bobs royal; on 11, 
granrtsire cinques; on 12, bobs maximus. A 
beli is set when its mouth is turned upward; at 
hand stroke when set up so far that only the 
tufting or sallic is held by the ringer; at back- 
stroke when rung so far round that the end of 
the rope is held. The treble bell is the highest, 
the tenor the lowest, of a set. Five thousand 
changes are a peal; any smaller number con- 
stitutes a touch or flourish, i.e., a practice rather 
than a performance. 

It may be interesting to note here that the 
old-fashioned bell ringer has been banished from 
one of the most notable church chimes in Amer- 




ioa by those moat modern of methods of power 
transmission, electricity and compressed air. 
The chimes of St. Patrick's Cathedral in New 
York City consist of 19 bells, weighing from 270 
pounds to 6000 pounds, and having a musical 
range from lower C to upper D, with the accom- 
panying sharps and flats. These chimes were 
first played on Jan. 1, 1901, from a keyboard 
in the sacristy, by means of a combination 
of electricity and compressed air, devised and 
constructed by Mr. H. C. Champ, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Consult: Lomax, Bells and Bcllringers 
(London, 1879) ; Ellacombe, Practical Remarks 
on Belfries and Ringers (London, 1859-60) ; 
Tyack, A Book about Bells (London, 1899); 
North, English Bells and Bell Lore; Raven, 
The Bells of England (London, 1906). See 

BELL BOCK, or INCH CAPE. A reef of 
Old Rod Sandstone rocks in the North Sea, 12 
miles southeast of Arbroath, Scotland, nearly 
opposite the mouth of the Tay. The reef is 2000 
feet long; at spring tides part of it is uncovered 
to the height of 4 feet, and for 100 yards around 
the sea is only 3 fathoms deep. Since 1810 it 
has been marked by a lighthouse 120 feet high. 
It was formerly a fruitful cause of shipwreck, 
and, according to tradition, the Abbot of Aber- 
brothock (Arbroath) placed a bell on it in the 
twelfth century. It is the scene of Southey's 
poem, The Inch Cape Rock (q.v.). 

BELLS. A term used on shipboard, and 
nearly equivalent to the "o'clock" of ordinary 
life on land. The day is divided into 6 periods 
of 4 hours each, beginning at midnight. At half- 
past twelve 1 bell is struck; at one o'clock 2 
bells; at half -past one 3 bells; and so on up to 
8 bells at four o'clock. At half-past four it is 
1 bell again; at live, 2 bells, and so on up to 
eight o'clock. Half -past eight is 1 bell, etc. 
The 6 periods nearly coincide with the watches 
(see WATCH) into which the day is divided, but 
not exactly, for the 4 hours from four to eight 
P.M. are divided into dogwatches of 2 hours 

BELLS, THE. 1. The title of a poem by 
Edgar Allan Poe. 2. The name of the drama 
adapted by Leopold Lewis from Erekmann- 
Chatrian's Le 'Juif polonais and frequently pre- 
sented by Sir Henry Irving. It deals with the 
murder of a Polish Jew by an innkeeper, from 
whose tavern he has just driven off in his sleigh. 
The innkeeper, Mathias, is so haunted by the rec- 
ollection of his crime that the sound of the 
sleigh bells begins to ring in his ears and even- 
tually drives him mad. 

). A Canadian painter. He was born and 
educated in London, England, and afterward 
studied painting in Paris. In 1867 he came to 
Canada, settling at London, Ont., where he lived 
until 1888, when he removed to Toronto. He 
became successful not only in figure and por- 
trait painting, but also in landscape work, his 
pictures of Rocky Mountain scenery taking high 
rank. In 1886 he was appointed a member 
of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, and in 
1906 was elected president of the Ontario So- 
ciety of Artists. Among his best-known works 
are: "Lights of a City Life"; "Landing of the 
Blenheim t with Sir John Thompson's Remains"; 
"Queen Victoria's Tribute to Canada." 



BELL-THE-CAT. A name given to Sir 

Archibald Douglas, who, when certain Scottish 
lords were considering how to remove the up- 
start mason, Cochrane, from James Ill's favor, 
answered "That will I," to the inquiry, "Who 
will bell the cat?" 

BELL TOWER. A tower built to contain 
one or more large bells in connection with re- 
ligious or civil structures; a campanile (q.v.). 
The use of bells for calling religious or political 
gatherings, or announcing times and seasons, 
does not seem to have obtained in antiquity; 
public criers and heralds serving for that func- 
tion. Small bells, rung by hand, were used, 
however, by the early Christians. It is certain 
that, while large towers were erected in connec- 
tion with churches as early as the fifth and 
sixth centuries, the use of large bells suspended 
in towers did not become general until much 
later. Pope Stephen III (768-772) erected a 
bell tower with 3 bells at St. Peter's, and Leo 
TV (847-855) did the same for St. Andrew's at 
Rome; but at that time, and until the thirteenth 
century, bells were only of small or moderate 
size. (See BELL.) Even after bells were 
placed in towers, the latter continued to be 
designed, not primarily as bell towers, but 
rather as watchtowers, as in the original plan 
for the Monastery of St. Gall. And even as 
late as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
there was a watchman's story or crow's-nest 
in church towers, above the belfry story. The 
mediaeval bell tower was either a separate struc- 
ture, as the round and square towers of the 
fifth and sixth centuries at Ravenna; or it was 
part of the facade, like the one or two towers 
at the end or ends of the facade at Shakka, 
Turinanin, and other churches of Syria. The 
type of the separate tower prevailed in Italy 
in its campanili (see CAMPANILE) ; the at- 
tached towers in the rest of Europe. The 
comparative freedom allowed in designing such 
structures, the rivalry in regard to their 
size and richness between monasteries and 
cathedrals, make of the church towers of the 
Romanesque and Gothic eras in some respects 
the most characteristic and finished product 
of each school. The pinnacled spires which 
are the most striking feature of the Gothic 
steeples, rising to a height of over 400 feet 
(Salisbury, Strassburg) and even 500 foet (Co- 
logne, q.v. ) , are as typical of northern and west- 
ern Europe as the square brick bell towers of 
Rome, Florence, Venice, and other Italian cities, 
flat-topped or crowned with a square pyramid 
of moderate height. The Renaissance developed 
types of its own, both for civic bell towers and 
steeples, among the most beautiful of which were 
those of Wren and Gibbs in England (1600- 
1754) and of the Colonial churches in America. 

There are several other terms in use for 
constructions supporting bells: belfry (q.v.), 
which is either a civic bell tower or the wooden 
frame supporting the bell; bell gable, a flat 
piece of wall or gable pierced with an opening 
for a bell; bell cote, a small steeple that does 
not break out much from the general design; 
lell turret, usually octagonal or circular, and of 
high, slender proportions, on a small scale. 

BELLUNO, bfil -Io75'n6 (anciently Belunum). 
An Episcopal city, capital of the province of Bel- 
luno, north Italy (Map: Italy, G 1). It is 
situated on a high tongue of land, at the con- 
fluence of the Ardo and Piave, 72 miles north 
of Venice. Noteworthy among its churches is 




the cathedral, containing some* excellent paint- 
ings. The campanile is 217 feet high. The chief 
manufactures are silk, straw, leather, and wax; 
the principal trade is in silk, lumber, wine, and 
fruit. Pop., 1881, 16,000; 1901, 18,747; 1911, 



BELIttONT. A village in Mississippi Co., 
Mo., on the Mississippi River, opposite Colum- 
bus, Ky., and on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, 
and Southern Railroad (Map: Missouri, G 6). 
In the summer of 1861 Belmont became the site 
of a Confederate camp. On November 7 Gen- 
eral Grant, then in command at Cairo; 111., 
moved upon it with about 3000 troops, and after 
four hours of fighting raptured and destroyed 
it. Meanwhile General Polk sent General Pil- 
low with a Confederate reinforcement across the 
river, and Grant \va.s forced to fight his way 
back to his transports. The total Confederate 
force engaged was about 7000. Tln> losses in 
killed, wounded, and missing wer\ for the Fed- 
erals, 485, and for the Confederates, 642. 

BELMONT. A village and the county seat of 
Allegany Co., N. Y., 03 miles west by north of 
Klmira, on the Erie and Buffalo aiid Susque- 
hanna Railroad, and on the Genesee River 
(Map: New York, BO). Tt is the centre of an 
agricultural community and lias flour mills and 
manufactures of jewelry and condensed milk. 
The city also contains a public library and a 
high school which includes a school of agri- 
culture, maintained by the State. The water 
works are owned by the village. Pop., 181)0, 
950; 1000. 1190; 1905, 1207: 1910. 1094. 

BELMONT, AUGUST (1810-90). An Ameri- 
can financier. He was born in Alzey, Germany; 
was for several years employed in the banking 
house of the Rothschilds at Frankfort and Na- 
ples and removed to New York as their repre- 
sentative in 1837. He was Consul General for 
Austria from 1844-50 and in 1853 was appointed 
by President Pierce charge d'affaires at The 
Hague, where he afterward became Minister 
Resident, resigning in 1858. He was interested 
in politics and was chairman of the Democratic 
National Committee from ISfJO to 1S72. He 
was prominent on the turf and as a patron of 
art and owned a fine collection of paintings. 

BELMONT, AUGUST ( 1 H53-1 924 ) An 

American banker born in New Voik City. Tie 
graduated at Hanaid and immcdiulch became 
associated with the New York banking firm of 
August Belmont & Co., founded by his father. 
Upon the formation of the Jnterborough Rapid 
Transit Company of New York City he became 
its president. He was chosen president of the 
National Civic Federation, in 1905, to succeed 
Senator Hanna (q.v.) and was reflected in 1900. 
In November, 1905, he was appointed treasurer 
of the Democratic National Committee. 

BELMONT, PERRY (1851- ). An Ameri- 
can lawyer, son of August Belmont. He was 
born in 'New York, graduated at Harvard in 
1872, and at the Columbia College Law School 
in 1876: was admitted to the bar and practiced 
law in New York until 1881. He was a mem- 
ber of Congress as a Democrat in 1881-87, was 
chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs in 
1885-87, and was United States Minister to 
Spain in 1887-88. 

BELMONTET. beTmoN'ta, Louis (1799- 
1879). A French poet and publicist. He was 

born at Montauban, of Italian parents, and 
educated at the Lyceum of Toulouse. In conse- 
quence of several eulogistic verses written by 
him on Napoleon I he was banished from Tou- 
louse in 1819 and went to Paris, where he ob- 
tained a position as tutor. He later became one 
of the most ardent promoters of the Bonapartist 
propaganda, in which cause he in 1830 estab- 
lished the Tribun du Peuple. He was a member 
of the legislature from 1852 until the fall of 
the Empire. His most celebrated poetic produc- 
tions are: Lcs tristcs, a collection of elegies 
(1824) ; Le souper d'Auguste (1828) ; Une fete 
de Heron, a tragedy performed more than 100 
times at the Odeon in 1829. 

BELOCH, baldg, JULIUS (1854- ). A 
German-Italian historian, born at Petschken- 
dorf, near LUben. He became professor in the 
University of Rome in 1879. His works include 
Campanien (2d ed., 1890) : Der itaUsche Bund 
wnler Koms Hegemonic (1880); Die attische 
Politilc seit Pcrikle.* (1884); Die Bcvolkerung 
fJer griechifich-rdmiscihen Welt (1886); Storia 
greea (2 vols., 1893-97). 

BELOIT'. A city and the county seat of 
Mitchell Co., Kans.. 184 miles west of Atchison, 
on the Missouri Pacific and the Union Pacific 
railroads, and on Solomon River (Map: Kansas, 
D 2). It is the seat of the State Industrial 
School for Girls and contains a fine county 
courthouse, an opera house, a handsome post- 
office building, and a library. The city has 
a large trade in, live stock, building stone* agri- 
cultural produce, grain, and flour. There are 
grain elevators and a large flour mill. The 
water works and electric light plant are owned 
by the city. Pop., 1900, 2359; 1910, 3082. 

BELOIT. A city in Rock Co., Wis., 67 
miles (direct) southwest of Milwaukee, on Rock 
River, and on the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. 
Paul and the Chicago and Northwestern rail- 
roads (Map: Wisconsin, D 6). It has paper 
mills, foundries, and extensive manufactures of 
iron, gasolene engines, windmills, agricultural 
implements, tools, wood-working and paper- 
mill machinery, scales, shoes, etc. Beloit has a 
public library* and is the seat of Beloit College 
( Co*h "relational ) .organized in 1847. The first set- 
tler on the site of Beloit came in 1824, and a city 
charter was obtained in 1856. The government, 
under a charter of 1896, is vested in a mayor, 
elected biennially, and a council. Pop., 1890, 
6315; 1900, 10,436; 1910, 16,125; 1920, 21,284. 

BELOIT COLLEGE, at Beloit, Wis., was 
founded in 1846, graduates of Yale being promi- 
nent in its organization. The value of buildings 
and grounds is about .$610,000, the endowment 
amounts to $1.240,000, and the annual income 
is about $105,000. The number of volumes in 
the library is 50.000. In 1913-14 the faculty 
numbered '35 and the student body 387. No 
special students are admitted, and there is no 
academy in connection with the college. Aaron 
L. Chapin, D.D., LL.D., was president of the 
college from 1850 to 1886; Edward Dwight 
Eaton, D.D., LL.D., after 1886. 


BELON, DP-ION', PIKRBE( 1517-64). A French 
naturalist. Tie was born at Soulletiere, studied 
medicine in Paris, and traveled extensively. He 
published accounts of his travels in the follow- 
ing works: Lcs observations de plusieurs 
singularity et ehoses mf-morables trouvees en 
Grcoe (1551): Jitdte, Egypte, Arable^ et autres 
pays etranges, redigees en trois ttvres ( 1568-68 ) ; 




Histoire naturelle des Granges poissons marina 
(1551) ; Histoire de la nature des oiseaua, aveo 
leurs pourtraica graves en boia; plus, la vrai 
peinture et description du Dauphin et de plus- 
ieura autres raies de son espdce (1555). This 
last-named book is the most important treatise 
on ornithology of the sixteenth century. Belon 
paved the way for modern comparative anatomy. 
BELOOCHISTAN, be-loo'cb-8tlln'. See 

BELOS'TOHAT'IlXflS. A family of preda- 
ceous water bugs. See FISH KILLER. 

BELOT, be-16', ADOLPHE (1829-90). A 
French novelist and dramatist. He was born 
at Pointe-a-Pitre, (Guadeloupe, Nov. 6, 1829, and 
early began to devote himself to writing. He 
was a most prolific* and sensational author, and 
in addition to original plays he dramatized, often 
in collaboration with others, nearly all of his 
own novels. Among his best-known novels are: 
Le drame de la Rue de la Paix ( 1 867 ) ; La 
Venus de Gordes (1867), in collaboration with 
Ernest Daudet: Mademoiselle Giraud, ma femme 
(1870), a study in perverse pathology and highly 
meretricious; La femme <1e feu (1872), La 
Venus noire (1878); Flcur dc crime (1881). His 
comedies, Le testament de Cesar Girodot (1859), 
written with Edmond Villetard, Lcs maris a 
systemc (1862), and Les indifferent* (1863), 
were widely popular; but Be lot will perhaps be 
longest remembered by his dramas Paricide 
(1874), and tfapho (1885), written in collabora- 
tion with Alphonse Daudet. ELe died in Paris, 
Dec. 17, 1890. 

to St. John, called in John xiii. 23, "one of his 
disciples, whom Jesus loved." 

St. Luke in Col. iv. 14. 

BEI/PER (corrupted from Fr. If I, beau, 
beautiful -|- repaire, retreat). A market town 
of Derbyshire, England, on the Derwent, 7 
miles north of Derby (Map: England, E 3). 
It is well built, in great part of gritstone, which 
is obtained in the neighborhood. Belper owes 
its prosperity to the establishment of cotton 
works in 1776, and these are run by water power. 
There are also manufactures of silk and cotton 
hosiery, linen, and pottery. Coal and lead are 
found in the vicinity. Belper was at one time 
the residence of John of Gaunt. Pop., 1891, 
10,400; 1901, 10,900; 1911, 11,640. 

BEL'PHEGOR (Gk. Bee\0e7c6p, Beelphegdr, 
for Hob. Baal-Peor, lord of Poor mountain). 
The name of an arch demon who entered into 
a marriage with a mortal, but was not able to 
endure the society of the woman and fled. La 
Fontaine treated this subject in one of his 
Contes, and Wilson produced an English tragi- 
comedy, Belphegor, or the Marriage of the Devil, 
in 1691. Two other plays of tnis name have 
been brought out since. In the pantheon of the 
Moabites a deity of this name was worshiped 
with peculiarly disgusting rites. 

BELPHCE'BE (Fr. belle, fern, of beau, OF. 
bel, beautiful -f Lat. Phoebe, Gk. Qotpii, Phoibc, 
Diana). A character in Spenser's Faerie 
Queene, who sums up Elizabeth's womanly at- 
tributes. The Virtues of the Queen are set forth 
under the other name of Gloriana. 

BEL'SHAM, THOMAS (1750-1829). An Eng- 
lish Unitarian clergyman, one of the ablest ex- 
pounders of that system of theology. He was 
bora at Bedford, was educated in the principles 

of Calvinism, and was pastor of the Dissenting 
congregation and head of the theological academy 
at Daventry from 1781 to 1789, when he re- 
signed, on embracing Unitarian views, and 
shortly after received the charge of a new theo- 
logical academy at Hackney. After the collapse 
of that institution for want of funds in 1796, he 
took private pupils. In 1805 he removed to 
London as the successor of Dr. Disney, where 
he continued till his death, Nov. 11, 1829. Most 
of his works are controversial ; his doctrine re- 
garding the person of Christ represents the 
purely "humanitarian" view, as distinguished 
from the more nearly Arian sentiments of men 
like Cha lining. He published also a work on 
mental and moral philosophy, following Hartley, 
and a memoir of his predecessor, Theophilus 
Lindspy (1812, reprinted Boston, 1873). Con- 
sult ilenioirtt, ed. by J. Williams (London, 
1S83). His brother, WILLIAM (born 1752; died 
1827), \\as an active and voluminous writer of 
history and political tracts on the side of the 
Whigs. He wrote Ififttory of Great Britain from 
/fWN to /N?0 (14 \ols., London, 1805-24). 

BELSHAZ'ZAR (Babylon. Bel sttar-usur, 
O Bel. protect the king; from shar, lord, king + 
w//r, to protect). According to the Book of 
Daniel (cliap. v. ), the son and successor of Nebu- 
chadnez/,ar, and the last King of Babylon, who 
was slain, the Empire passing into the hands of 
Darius, the ^lede. Tie is warned of his doom by 
a mysterious handwriting that appears on the 
wall of his palace. Those who accept the re- 
sults of modern biblical criticism maintain that 
the Book of Daniel was composed in 165 n c. 
If this is granted it i 4 * hardly astonishing that 
in a composition made several centuries after 
the fall of Babylonia historical events should 
have become confused in the mind of a writer 
who merely introduces Babylonian personages 
r.s a disguise, and is interested, not in Baby- 
lonian, but in Hebrew events. As a matter of 
tact, the last King of Babylonia was Xabonidus, 
in the seventeenth year 'of whose reign (n.c. 
539) Babylon was taken by Cyrus. The inscrip- 
tions of Nabonidus, however, make mention of 
a son, Bcl-shar-usur, and this name also oc- 
curs as that of the son of Nabonidus in several 
contract tablets, and since, in an inscription of 
Cyrus, "a son of the King" is spoken of as in 
control of the army in northern Babylonia, it 
is reasonable to conclude that Bel-shar-usur was 
associated with his father in the government. 
Thus the tradition could arise which would make 
him the actual last King of Babylonia. The 
association of Bclshazzar with Nebuchadnezzar 
rests upon a further confusion which can be 
easily accounted for, if it be borne in mind that 
a Jewish writer of the second century H.r. would 
not be at great pains to distinguish one Baby- 
lonian King from another. Nebuchadnezzar, as 
the destroyer of Jerusalem, was the chief repre- 
sentative, in the eyes of a Jewish writer, of the 
Chaldaean monarchy, and so appears throughout 
the Book of Daniel. 

Consult: A. Bevan, The Book of Daniel 
(1892); J. D. Prince, The Bonk of Daniel 
(1899); K. Marti, Des Buch Daniel (1901); 
S. R. Driver, The Book of Daniel (1900) : R. H. 
Charles, The Book of Daniel (1911) ; A. Bertho- 
let, "Das Daniclbuch" in Die Religion in Oe- 
schicJitf: und Geqenwart (1909). 


BELT (AS. belt, allied with OHG. bate, Lat. 
balteus 9 girdle, belt). In engineering machinery 




and the mill, a flexible cord or band passing 
about the periphery of wheels or drums for the 
purpose of transmitting motion or power from 
one to another. Commonly the name "belt" is 
given only to broad, flat bands of leather, rub- 
ber, or woven fabric; ropes, chains, etc., al- 
though serving similar purposes, being classed 
separately as rope drive, chain drive, etc. (See 
POWER, TRANSMISSION OF.) The best leather 
belts are made from the back strips of all 
oak-tanned leather, curriod with the use of 
cod oil and tallow. To form the lengths of 
leather into the long endless belt, they are con- 
nected end to end by lacing, riveting, or cement- 
ing and lacing. The strength of leather belts in 
the body of the belt is from 2000 to 5000 pounds 
per square inch ; at the joints only about from 
1000 pounds to 1500 pounds, for lacing, and 
from 1000 pounds to 2500 pounds for riveted 
joints; the safe working strain is taken gener- 
ally at not over one-third the strength at the 
joint. Leather belts should be protected from 
steam, vapor, water, oil drippings, and mois- 
ture, and should not be submitted to a heat 
of over 110 F. They are usually run with the 
grain side next to the pulleys since this side 
is smoother and gives better surface adhesion; 
it stands the wear better, and the flesh side is 
stronger and the part least subjected to wear. 
Phis arrangement gives the belt longer life and 
greater propelling power. Leather-chain or 
leather-link belting consists of short sections of 
leather joined by metal rivets. Rubber belts 
are made of two or more layers of canvas con- 
nected together with a rubber composition and 
then heated until the rubber >uleani7.os. The 
advantages claimed for rubber belting are its 
practically unlimited length without jointing; 
its perfect uniformity in width and thickness: 
ability to endure greater degrees of heat or cold 
safely: less danger of injury from mo'sture and 
steam vapor: great durability and strength, and 
greater adhesion to the pulleys than is afforded 
by leather belting. Crease, or any other solvent 
of rubber, rapidly deteriorates and destroys 
rubber belts. Besides leather and rubber belt- 
ing, cotton, hair, ami most of the more common 
textile fibres are used for manufacturing them. 
Transmission of power by belts is more com- 
mon in the United States than in European 
countries, but of late years there has been an 
increase in the use of belts outside of the United 
States. There is a variety of woven fabric belts 
employed. The great favor with which power 
transmission by belting is received is due to 
the fact that the belt is relatively silent and 
elastic and will slip without injury to the 
machinery if unduly strained. Ordinarily, flexi- 
ble belts transmit power by the adhesion due to 
their tension or pressure on the contact surface, 
which develops friction between them and their 
pulleys if they start to slip. The pulley which 
communicates motion is the driving pulley; that 
which receives, the driven pulley: that part of 
the belt which runs from the Driven pulley to 
the driver is the driving part of the belt, since 
it is pulled by the driver, and in turn pulls on 
the driven pulley; the part of the belt which 
runs from the driver to the driven pulley is 
the bight or slack belt. If the pulley is higher 
at one side than at the other, the belt will 
creep towards the lowest part: for this reason 
the surface of the pulley is usually not made 
cylindrical, but of greater diameter at the centre. 
If this be overdone, the belt does not pull with 

its whole cross-sectional strength, but mainly 
along its central part. The pulleys usually lie 
in the same plane and with their axes parallel; 
but this is not necessary, provided that the 
course of each part of the belt the driving and 
the slack part alike be in the plane of the 
pulley towards which that part of the belt runs; 
the belt being always delivered by one pulley 
into the plane of the other. 

Chains of flat metal links which hook or are 
riveted into one another are now extensively 
used and are often loosely called belts, under the 
commercial designation of link belts or drive 
chains. The links are all alike, and no tools are 
required to assemble certain designs. They run 
on sprockets or on the toothed surfaces of gears, 
and furnish a positive drive. Belts are made in 
a great variety of sizes, some of them being very 
large. As extreme cases, may be noted: A 
leather belt of the New Jersey Zinc Works, 4 
thicknesses, 48 inches wide and 102 feet long; 
a rubber belt in Chicago, 6-ply, 48 inches wide 
and 320 feet long; a leather belt for a paper 
mill in Wilmington, Del., 60 inches wide and 
186% fret long. For a summary of modern 
practice in belts arid belting consult Kent, 
Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book (New York, 

BELT, GREAT and LITTLE. Names given to 
the two straits of eastern Denmark which, with 
the Sound, connect the waters of the Kattegat 
with the Baltic (Map: Denmark, C and D 3). 
The Great Belt, which includes the Store Belt 
and the Langeland Belt, is about 70 miles long 
and varies from 8 to 20 miles in width, in fact 
broadening to 30 miles towards the south in 
Vordinborg Bay; it separates Seeland and Laa- 
land on the east from Funen and Langeland on 
the west. The Little or Lille Belt, which is 
shallow, is about 50 miles long and varies from 
less than a mile in width at the north to an ex- 
treme width of 30 miles, its average width being 
less than 10 miles; it separates FUnen on the 
east from Jutland and Sehleswig on the west. 
Both straits are difficult to navigate on account 
of currents and sand banks and ice adds an- 
other impediment in winter; the smaller route 
is little used. 

BEL'TANE (Scottish Gael. Bealltainne ) , 
BELLTAINE, or BELTINE. A pagan Celtic 
festival, traces of which have survived to this 
day. The name is still used for Mav Day in 
Ga'elic Scotland. The etymology and original 
meaning are uncertain. "Cormac's Glossary," 
an Irish text of the tenth century, contains the 
earliest mention of the institution (spelled bell- 
taine, and bcltine), and two different explana- 
tions are there given of its meaning. In one 
place it is said to mean "lucky fire," and in 
another *'fire of Bel," who is declared to be "an 
idol god." The second of these interpretations 
has been commonly accepted, but without any 
sufficient evidence. The identification of bel 
as the name of a god is doubtful, and even the 
connection between the second element and Irish 
teine, 'fire/ is open to question. In any case, 
however, the Semitic Baal has nothing to do 
with the matter. 

Cormac's description of Beltine is very brief. 
He simply says that the Druids used to make 
two fires with great incantations and drive their 
cattle between them as a safeguard against dis- 
ease. This custom of driving domestic animals 
through fire is still known in Brittany and the 
islands of Arran, and in certain May-day feativi- 


ties it was practiced until recently in Scotland. 
A young man, selected by a prescribed cere- 
monial, was similarly compelled to leap three 
times through fire. Both these ceremonies look 
like symbolical sacrifices, and there may have 
been a time when the victims were actually 
burned. The whole set of observances, like the 
German Johannisfeuer at the summer solstice, is 
usually explained (and doubtless correctly) as 
a branch of sun worship. 

Consult, for the statement in Cormac, Glos- 
sary, the edition by O'Donovan and Stokes 
(London, 1862) ; for the Scottish Beltane, Jamie- 
son, Scottish Dictionary (Edinburgh, 1808) ; for 
the significance of the ceremonies, A. Bertrand, 
La religion des Oaulois (Paris, 1897); Mac- 
Culloch, The Religion of the Ancient Celts 
(Edinburgh, 1011). Rhys makes some com- 
parisons with the Athenian Thargelia in his 
Hibbert Lectures (London, 1887). 

BELTON. A city, and the county seat of 
Bell Co., Tex., 56 miles (direct) north by east 
of Austin, on the Leon River, and on the 
Missouri, Kansas, and Texas and the Gulf, Colo- 
rado, and Santa Fe railroads (Map: Texas, 
D 4). It has a county courthouse, a Carnegie 
library, and jail buildings, and is the seat of 
Baylor Female College (Baptist), opened in 
1845. Building stone, quarried in the vicinity, 
and cotton constitute an extensive export trade, 
and among the industrial establishments are 
cotton, cotton-seed oil, and flour mills, foun- 
dries, lumber yards, marble works, and an ice 
factory. The water works and sewage system 
are owned by the city. Pop., 1890, 3000;' 1900, 
3700; 1910, 4167. 

BELTBAFFIO, btf-trafyo, or BOLTBAF- 
Milanese painter of the High Renaissance. lie 
was born of noble parentage, studied painting 
with Leonardo da Vinci, whose favorite pupil 
he was, and practiced his art as an amateur. 
His earliest works are quite in the manner of 
Leonardo and often after his designs; such 
as "Madonna Handing the Christ Child a 
Flower" in the Salting Collection, London, and 
the Crespi Collection, Milan, "St. Sebastian" in 
the Frizzoni Collection, Bergamo, and " Nar- 
cissus" in the Uflizi, Florence. He gradually 
evolved an independent style, harder in line 
and smoother in finish, but more important in 
content. His paintings, usually of small form, 
are most numerous in the galleries of Milan 
and Bergamo. Among the best examples are 
the "Madonna with the Vase of Flowers" in 
the Poldo-Pezzoli Collection, Milan, esteemed 
by Morelli his finest work, and two others in 
the National galleries of London and Buda- 
pest, the "Madonna Casio" in the Louvre, and 
the "Resurrection of Christ" (wrongly attrib- 
uted to Leonardo) in the Berlin Gallery. In 
portraiture Bel traffic is one of the very finest 
of Leonardo's school. The best examples of 
his work of this type are the Giovanni Casio 
in the Brera and Frizzoni collections, Milan; 
"A Scholar," in the Isola Bella; probably, 
also, the celebrated "La Belle Ferroniere," 
usuallv attributed to Leonardo, in the Louvre; 
and die "Lady with the Weasel," at Cracow. 
Among his excellent drawings the best known 
are two pastels of a young man and woman 
in the Ambrosiana, Milan. 

BELTBAME, bfil-tra'ma, GIOVANNI (1824- 
1906). An Italian philologist and missionary, 
born at Valeggio, in north Italy, and educated 


at the American monastery of San Lazarro, 
Venice. In 1854 he was sent to Khartum and 
Fazogl by an Austrian missionary society, and 
in 1858 he accompanied Knoblecher to the 
newly established missionary station, "Holy 
Cross" on the White Nile. He returned to 
Europe in 1862 and became professor at Ve- 
rona. In 1878 he was elected to the Venetian 
Institute. The following are his principal pub- 
lications: Qrammatica delta lingua Denka 
(1880); Vocabolario Italiano-Denka e Denka- 
Italiano (1880); II Rennaar e lo Sciangallah 
(2 vols., 1880) ; II fiume bianco e i Denka 
( 1881 ) ; In Palestina ( 1895 ) . 

BELTRAMI, bfil-tra'me:, EUGENIO (1835- 
1900). An Italian mathematician. He was born 
at Cremona and taught mathematical physics 
at the University of Rome and at several other 
Italian universities. The Lincei, a celebrated 
academy of Rome, honored Beltrami by electing 
him president. His contributions to mathemat- 
ics are largely on the subject of non-Euclidian 
geometry. (See GEOMETRY.) He reached the 
remarkable conclusion that the propositions of 
non -Euclidian geometry relate to figures lying 
upon surfaces of constant curvature. The con- 
clusion that there are three geometries the 
hyperbolic on a surface of constant negative 
curvature, the elliptic on a surface of constant 
positive curvature, and the Euclidian on a sur- 
face of zero curvature rests upon the researches 
of Beltrami, Helmholtz, and Riemann. Thus Bel- 
trami has taken a conspicuous part in laying the 
foundation of modern geometry. The most im- 
portant among his numerous essays is the 
monograph, "Saggio di interpretazione della 
geomotria non-euelidia," published in the Gior- 
nule di Matentatica \I (Rome). The following 
theorem is known as Beltrami's: "The centre 
of a circle circumscribing a triangle is the centre 
of gravity of the centres of its inscribed and 
escribed circles." Besides his work in pure 
mathematics, his contributions to mathematical 
physics deserve mention, his original publica- 
tions in the latter field including papers on 
electricity and magnetism, elasticity, etc. 

BELTRAMI, GIOVANNI (1779-1854). An 
Italian lapidary, born at Cremona. With the 
exception of a preliminary course with Giacomo 
Guerrini, he was self-taught. His fine work se- 
cured for him a patron in Eugene Reauharnais, 
for whom he executed 16 cameos, represent- 
ing episodes from the story of Psyche. At the 
request of the Empress of Austria he prepared, 
in 1815, a cameo portrait of her father, the 
King of Bavaria, and 10 years afterward a 
similar portrait of her husband, Francis 1. 
Such was his skill that on one occasion he re- 
produced "The Lord's Supper," by Leonardo da 
Vinci, upon a single topaz. 

BELUCHISTAN, be-lo^che-stan'. See BA- 


BELUGA, or BIELAGA (Russ. byelufja, 
from lyely, white). A Russian sturgeon. See 

BELTJS (Lat., Gk. B^fXoj, Belos). 1. The 
name of the Babylonian god Bel (q.v.) was 
given by Greek writers as Belos, and in Latin 
as BeluH. Herodotus identifies Belos with ZPUR 
(i, 181). 2. Passing into Greek mythology, the 
god of Babylon became a hero and found his 
place in various genealogical schemes. He ap- 
pears as the son of Poseidon and father of 
Danaus and ^Egyptus; as the son of Alceua, 



son of Hercules, father of .Minus, the first King 
of Assyria, and grandfather of Agron, the first 
King of Sardis; as father of Cepheus, whose 
daughter Andromeda bore to Perseus Perses, 
the eponymous hero of the Persians; and as 
father of Dido, the founder of Carthage. 

BELUS. The name of a river in Syria 
famous for the fish found there in abundance 
from whose shells the ancient Phoenicians ob- 
tained the Tyrian purple, and for the fine sand 
from which glass was made. The modern name 
of the river is Nahr Na'mein. It empties into 
the Mediterranean near Acre. 

BELVEDERE, bei'v$-der, It. pron. bel'va- 
da'ra (It. bel, beautiful -f vedere, to sec; a 
view). An Italian term, applied originally to an 
erection like a loggia on the top of a house, or 
a detached summcrhouse or terrace set upon an 
eminence, for the purpose of commanding a 
view. It is also sometimes used of a large in- 
closed usually glassed-in structure; for ex- 
ample, that part of the Vatican Palace (q.v.) 
in Rome known as the Belvedere, which is now 
part of the sculpture gallery. The name is also 
given to an arcaded summcrhouse of the royal 
palace at Prague; to a loggia or open hall in 
the Imperial gardens of Schonbrlinn, near 
Vienna, and to the entire palace of Prince 
Kugene in Vienna. 

BELVEDERE, bel'va-da'ra, CORTILE DEL. 
A court in the Vatican, about which are placed 
Home of the most famous works of ancient 
sculpture the Torso of Hercules, the Laocoon, 
the Apollo Belvedere, and the Sarcophagus of 
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. 

BELVTDEBE, bSl-vl-der'. A city and the 
county scut of Boone Co., 111., 76 miles (direct) 
west-northwest of Chicago; on the Kishwaukee 
IJiver, and on the Chicago and Northwestern 
Kailroad (Map: Illinois, D 1). It contains a 
public library, city park, a fine opera house, 
and a courthouse and county-record building. 
The city is noted as a manufacturing centre, 
producing extensively sewing machines, corsets, 
safety razors, bicycles, automobiles, boilers, 
condensed milk, butter, screen doors, and flour. 
It is surrounded by a fertile agricultural dis- 
trict and has important dairying and sheep- 
raising interests. Settled in 1836, Belvidere 
\\as incorporated first in 1857. The govern- 
ment is administered under a charter of 1881, 
which provides for a mayor, elected every two 
years, and a city council. The water works 
lire owned and operated by the municipality. 
Pop., 1900, 6937; 1910, 7253. 

BELVIDEBE. A town and the county seat 
of Warren Co., N. J., 62 miles by rail north- 
northwest of Trenton; on the Delaware River, 
and on the Pennsylvania and Lehigh and Hudson 
Kiver railroads (Map: New Jersey, B 2). It de- 
rives good water power from Pequcst Creek, 
A\hich here empties into the Delaware, and has a 
large silk mill, a felt factory, flour mills, and 
furniture and hosiery factories. Pop., 1890, 
1768; 1900, 1784; 1905, 1869; 1910, 1764. 

BELZONT, bfil-tsS'no, GIAMBATTISTA (1778- 
]823). An Italian explorer and archaeologist. 
He was born in Padua and was educated in 
Rome for the priesthood ; but, having a natural 
inclination for mechanics, and especially hy- 
draulics, he abandoned his theological studies 
and returned to Padua when Rome was occu- 
pied by the French troops. He went to Hol- 
land in 1800 and to England in 1803. There he 
lived for nine years in great poverty, being often 

compelled to earn a living by giving athletic 
performances at the theatre. Later, be trav- 
eled to Spain, Portugal, and Malta, and in 
1815 went to Egypt in order to construct a 
hydraulic engine for Mohammed All, to raise 
the waters of the Nile. In Egypt he met 
Burckhardt and Salt, through whose advice and 
encouragement he began the exploration of 
Egyptian antiquities. In 1817 he cleared away 
the sand from the entrance to the great rock- 
hewn temple of Abu Simbul (q.v.), and in the 
same year discovered the finest of the royal 
tombs (that of Seti I) at Thebes. It is still 
known as "Belzoni's tomb." At Gizeh ho 
found the entrance to Khafra's Pyramid (1818) 
and made the first thorough examination of 
the great pyramids. He also explored the 
desert between the Red Sea and the Nile and 
visited the oasis of Siwa. The discovery of 
the ancient emerald mines at Gebel Zabara 
is often ascribed to him, but erroneously, aa 
the place had previously been visited by Bruce 
and Cailliaud. Belzoni engraved his name upon 
many ancient monuments in commemoration of 
his discoveries. 

In 1819 he returned to Italy and thence to 
England, bringing with him, for exhibition and 
for sale, a valuable collection of antiquities; 
among them the splendid alabaster sarcophagus 
of Seti I (now in the Kensington Museum), and 
the upper half of a colossal statue of Raraeses 
II (now in the British Museum), found at the 
Ramesseum. Two years later he published his 
Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discov- 
eries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs, and 
Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, and of a 
Journey to the Coast of the Red Sea in Search 
of the Ancient Berenice, and Another to the 
Oasis of Jupiter Ammon (London, 1821). In 
1823 Belzoni undertook a journey to Timbuktu, 
in Central Africa, but was attacked by dysen- 
tery at Benin, and died at Gato, Dec. 3, 1823. 
Belzoni's skill as a draughtsman was of great 
service to him in his archaeological investiga- 
tions. His fine drawings of the royal tombs 
at Thebes were published in 1829 by his widow. 

BEM, JOZEF (1795-1850). A Polish revolu- 
tionist and Hungarian patriot. He was born at 
Tarnow, in Galicia, fought under Napoleon in 
the campaign of 1812, and entered the Polish 
army, serving till 1825. He distinguished him- 
self in the Polish revolution of 1830-31, rising 
to the position of commander in chief of the 
artillery. On the collapse of the revolution 
he took refuge in France. He took a prominent 
part in the insurrection of October, 1843, in 
Vienna. He succeeded in escaping and joined 
the Hungarians. He was intrusted with the 
command of the Army of Transylvania, amount- 
ing to 8000 or 10,000 men. Checked at first, 
he defeated the Austrians at the Bridge of 
Piski, and finally succeeded, in March, 1849, in 
driving both them and their Russian allies into 
Wallachia. After expelling the troops under 
Puchner from the Banat, Bern, with his army 
increased to 40,000 men, returned into Transyl- 
vania, where the Russians had defeated the 
Hungarians. Here he endeavored unsuccess- 
fully to prevent the union of the Russians with 
the Austrians. On July 31 he was defeated 
by vastly superior forces at Schassburg. At 
kossuth's request he now hastened into Hun- 
gary, where ne took part in the battle near 
Temesvar. Retreating into Transylvania, he 
there defended himself for some days against 




overwhelming numbers and then made his escape 
into Turkey. There he embraced Islam, took 
the name of Amurath Pasha, and received a 
command in the army. He was wounded while 
suppressing an anti-Christian riot at Aleppo. 
He died there of the fever. Bern was a man of 
unselfish character, of great zeal and devotion, 
and possessed fine military talents. He wrote 
a work on mnemonics, the Expose general de la 
methode mnemonique polonaise, etc. Consult N. 
N. La JOB, Le general Bern (Paris, 1851) and 
Gzetz, Bern a Feldzug in Siebenburgen (Ham- 
burg, 1850). 

BETH' A (Gk. PWCL, bema, a step, raised 
place). The sanctuary of a church, so called 
by the Greek church because the sanctuary end 
was raised above the rest of the pavement. It 
begins at the outer edge of the choir and is 
separated from the body of the church by the 
iconostasis, or reredos, or choir screen. See 

An American mathematician, born in South- 
ington, Conn. He graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Michigan in 1870, becoming in the same 
year instructor in Greek and mathematics at 
Kalamazoo College. By the University of 
Michigan he was appointed instructor (1871), 
assistant professor (1874), associate professor 
(1882), and professor (1887) in the depart- 
ment of mathematics. With David Eugene 
Smith he wrote Plane and Solid Geometry 
(1895); Higher Arithmetic (1897); Famous 
Problems in Elementary Geometry (1897); 
"New Plane and Solid Geometry ( 1899 ) ; Ele- 
ments of Algebra (1900); A Brief If is tort/ of 
Mathematics (1900); Academic Algebra 
(1902). From the German of Dedekind he 
prepared The Nature and Meaning of Numbers 

BEMBERG, biiN'bar', HENRI (1861- ). 
A French composer and conductor, boru in 
Paris. He studied at the Conservatory of that 
city, among his teachers being Dubois, Franck, 
and Massenet. He is widely known by many 
successful songs and piano compositions, but 
in France is chiefly recognized as a dramatic 
composer. His principal works are Le laiser 
de tiuson, a one-act opera, which met with but 
moderate success when first presented at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, in 1888, and the more 
ambitious and successful four-act opera -legende, 
Elaine, which was first heard at Covent Garden 
Theatre, London, in 1892 and afterward in 
New York (1894). 

BEMBICIDJE, bem-blBl-cte (Neo-Lat., from 
Gk. j&/u/8(, bembia;, a spinning top, a buzzing 
insect, probably from the loud, whirring sound 
which accompanies their flight). A family of 
fossorial Hymenoptera, which, with the Spheci- 
dffi, are popularly known as sand wasps (q.v.). 
BE1PBO, PIETRO (1470-1547). One of the 
most celebrated and influential writers of his 
century. Born of a powerful Venetian family, 
his life was passed in the most elegant and 
learned circles of Florence (1479), Ferrara 
(1498), Urbino (1506-12), Venice (1500-06, 
1620-39) and Rome (1513-20, 1539-47). At 
Rome he was first secretary to the Pope and later 
a Cardinal; at Venice he acted as historiographer 
of the Republic and curator of St. Mark's Li- 
brary. Bembo's influence was deeply felt in the 
literature of Italy during the following three 
centuries. In his own time he played much the 

rdle that Petrarch had filled before him. His 
Prose della volgar lingua (1525), supported by 
the rigorous example of his own correspondence 
and published works, brought about the triumph 
of the classic tradition in the Italian language, 
which came to be modeled rigidly on the language 
of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. In poetry he 
aroused a tremendous interest in Petrarch, and 
in application of the pseudo-Aristotelian doctrine 
of imitation he fastened the direct imitation of 
Petrarch upon Italian poetry for a lon^ time 
to come. The resulting style, which avoids the 
vagaries of the earlier Petrarch ism, has been 
known as bembism. Its dignified sterility is 
exemplified in Bembo's own Rime. His dia- 
logues entitled Gli Asolani are an interesting 
exposition of that idealism in the concept of 
love which exerted much influence on the so- 
phisticated social life of Italy. Bembo was 
equally renowned in his own age as a human- 
ist, editor, and historian. Consult Symonds, 
Renaissance in Italy (London, 1881); Spingarn, 
Uistori) of Criticism in the Renaissance (2d ed., 
New York, 1900) ; J. B. Fletcher, The Religion 
of Beauiy in Woman (New York, 1911); Tra- 
balza, Rtoria della grammatica italiana (Pa- 
dova, 1908). 

BEMIDJI, be-mid'jf. A city, and the county 
seat of Bel tram i Co., Minn., 180 miles west by 
north of Duluth, on the Great Northern, the 
Minneapolis, Red Lake, and Manitoba, the Min- 
neapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie, and the 
Minnesota and International railroads (Map: 
Minnesota, C 3). Situated on a lake, Bcmidji 
is a popular summer resort, and has a State 
normal school, a fine Federal building, and a 
public library. It is the centre of a consider- 
able lumbering industry, and manufactures 
crates and axe handles. Bern id ji was settled in 
1892 and was incorporated as a city in J905. 
The city owns its water works. Pop., 1900, 
1213; 1910, 5090. 

American political economist. He was born in 
Springfield, Mass., and graduated at Amhcrst 
College in 1880. He was professor of history 
and political economy at Vanderbilt University 
(1889-92), assistant professor of political econ- 
omy at the University of Chicago (1892-95), 
assistant statistician of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics for the State of Illinois (1890), and 
professor of political science at the State Agri- 
cultural College, Kansas (1897-99). He was 
involved in a controversy with President Har- 
per when he left the University of Chicago. 
Professor Bemis charged that he was perse- 
cuted because of his radical attacks on corpo- 
rations in his extension lectures. He was di- 
rector of the department of municipal monopo- 
lies in the Bureau of Economic Research, New 
York, in 1899-1901, when he became superin- 
tendent of water works at Cleveland, Ohio. His 
publications include: History of Cooperation in 
the United Mates (1888); Municipal Monopo- 
lies (1899) ; Municipal Ownership of Qas-Works 
in the United 8latett (1891); and magazine 
articles on similar subjects. In 1913 was pub- 
lished his Report on the Investigation of the 
Chicago Telephone Company. 


BEMONT, btf-m6N', CHABLES (1848- ). 
A French scholar, born Nov. 16, 1848, in Paris. 
His writings comprise the results of his re- 
searches into English and European history, ana 


liis most important works are Lea chartes dee 
liberty anglaises (1892), and, with G. Monod, 
Medieval Europe from 395 to 1270 (New York, 
1906). In 1890 lie produced a supplement to the 
first volume of the Gascon Rolls which Francis- 
que Michel had begun, and in 1900 issued the 
second volume, covering the years 1273-90. This 
was followed in 1906 by the third volume for the 
years 1290-1307. In 1909 the University of 
Oxford conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Litt.D. 

BEN*. The Hebrew word for "son." It is 
sometimes used aw a part of a name, e.g., Ben- 
hadad, translation of Bar Hadad, son of Hadad, 
the chief deity of the Aramaeans; Benjamin, son 
of the right hand, etc. 1. The plural, Bene, is 
used to indicate a combination of families into 
a clan or tribe, or of clans into a confederation 
Bene Ammon, Bene Israel. 2. In Arabic one 
finds the corresponding word Iln similarly 
used, which sometimes appears modified in 
European languages as Elm, Aben, or Aven. 
Its plural, Banu or Beni, is found in the names 
of many Arab tribes as Banu Umayya, the 
sons of Umayya, the family known in history 
as the. Umayyads; and sometimes in the name 
of places as Beni-Hassan. 

BEN, BEINN, or BHEIN. A Gaelic word 
signifying 'mountain' or 'mountain head.' It 
is prefixed to the name of a great many moun- 
tains in Scotland as Ben Nevis, Ben Macdhui, 
Ben Cruachan, etc. The corresponding term in 
various parts of Europe is 7'en, which in found 
in many of the names in Cornwall and Wales, 
in the Pennine Alps, and also in the word 
"Apennines," and probably in the Cevennes of 

BEN, OIL OF (Ar. ban, name of the tree). 
A fixed oil used in perfumery in extracting the 
fragrant principles of various plants. It is 
itself odorless and does not readily decompose. 
It is obtained by expressing the seeds (called 
ben or ben nuts) of several species of Moringa, 
a genus of trees growing in northern Africa, 
Arabia, and the East Indies. The ben oil of 
commerce is derived mainly from the Moringa, 
apt era. 

BENA'CTJS, LACUS (Lat. Bonncus Lake). 
The Roman name of the Lake of Garda (Lago 
di Carda), a long stretch of water in Venetian 
territory, which in 1839 formed part of the 
boundary line between Austria and Italy. 

BENADIB, ben'a-der'. An administrative di- 
vision of Italian Somali land, on the east coa-vt 
of Africa, extending from the mouth of the 
river Juba to lat. 20 30' N. Originally the 
territory now included in the Bonadir coast 
was leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1K92 
and was purchased outright for about $700,000 
in 1905, the administration being taken over 
by the government from the Benadir Company. 
There is a police corps and troops to the num- 
ber of about 3500. Cattle raising and the 
growing of cotton are the leading occupations. 
The principal towns are Brava, Merka, Mercg, 
Warsheik, and Mogadisho, the last mentioned 
with a population of about 10,000 and the seat 
of the civil government of the colony. 

BENALCAZAB, ba'nAl-kii'thiir, SEBASTIAN 
HE, properly SEBASTIAN MOYANO (c.1499-1550). 
A Spanish conqueror, born in Bcnalcftzar, Es- 
tremadura. He accompanied Pedrarias to Da- 
rien in 1614, came to stand high in the confi- 
dence of Francisco Pizarro, and in 1533 defeated 
the Peruvian army on the plains of Riobamba 
VOL. III. 9 

and took the city of Quito. Subsequently he 
proceeded to the invasion of Popayan, a region 
comprising the southwestern portion of the 
present Colombia. He was appointed Governor 
of Popayan Province in 1538. 

(1844- ). A French architect, born at 
Goderyille. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts in Paris and was awarded the Prix de 
Home in 1867. For some time he practiced in 
Havre and Paris in the employ of the govern- 
ment. In the international competition for plans 
for the University of California in 1899 he won 
the first prize against a hundred competitors. 
His plans, which call for the expenditure of 
$10,000,000, are being followed with somewhat 
material changes of detail. 

BENABES, ben-a'rez. A division in the 
Northwest Provinces of British India. Area, 
10,423 square miles; pop., 1891, 5,368,600; 1901, 
5,032,500; 1911, 4,809,478. 

BENABES (Skr. Varanati, of unknown 
etymology; its ancient Skr. name was Kagi) . 
The holy city of the Hindus, capital of the 
Benares division, Agra, United Provinces of 
Agra and Oudh, British India, situated on the 
left bank of the Ganges, by rail 479 miles 
from Calcutta and 941 from Bombay. The 
Ganges here varies, according to the season, be- 
tween 50 and 90 feet in depth, and in width 
between 600 yards and a little more than half 
a mile (Map: India, D 3). Since 1887 the 
river has been spanned at Benares by the Duf- 
ferin Railway Bridge, 3518 feet long. The city 
is in lat. 25 18' N. and long. 83 1' E. The 
native city extends for 4 miles along the in- 
curving river and from 1 to 2 miles back. The 
river bank, which is comparatively steep, is 
chiefly occupied by 47 flights of steps, or ghats, 
where crowds of all classes spend the day in 
business, amusement, or devotion. Backed by 
hundreds of temples, the white minarets of Au- 
rangzcb's mosque rising above the rest, this 
scene presents a picturesque appearance. On 
closer inspection, however, the city, as a whole, 
is disappointing. The streets, or rather alleys, 
impracticable for carriages, barely afford a pas- 
page to individual horsemen or single beasts of 
burden; and these thoroughfares, besides be- 
ing shut out from sun and air by buildings of 
several stories, are shared with the sacred bulls 
that roam about at will. As the central seat 
of Hinduism, Benares attracts immense crowds 
of pilgrims. West of the native city lies the 
suburb of Sigra, the seat of the principal mis- 
sionary institutions, and to the north is the 
Sikraul cantonment, with the official establish- 
ment and European residences. 

In the traditions of the country Benares is 
believed to have been coeval with creation; and 
tolerably authentic history assigns to it a high 
antiquity. In its actual condition Benares is a 
modern city. In extent and in embellishment it 
owes much to the influence of Mahratta ascend- 
ency, and it possesses, perhaps, not a single 
structure that reaches back to the close of the 
sixteenth century. 

The Benares College was opened in 1791. It 
is maintained by the government and includes 
the Sanskrit college, with over 400 students, 
and the English college, with about 100. It 
occupies a fine building, completed in 1852, 
and is attended bv Hindus and a few Mussul- 
mans and native Christians. Benares is indus- 
trious and wealthy as well as sacred. Besides 


manufactures in cotton, wool, silk, and orna- 
mental brass work, its commanding position on 
the grand line of communication road, river, 
and rail alike renders it the principal em- 
porium of the neighboring regions. It is the 
great mart for the shawls of the north, the 
diamonds of the south, and the muslins of the 
east; while it circulates the varied products of 
Europe and America over Bundelkhand, Gorakh- 
pur, Nepal, etc. The municipal institutions in- 
clude fourteen hospitals, dispensaries, asylums 
for lunatics, lepers, and the blind, jail, swimming 
bath, fine public gardens, water works, and a 
sewerage system. Pop., 1891, 219,500; 1901, 
213,079; 1911, 203,804. After Lucknow it is the 
largest city in the United Provinces. Benares was 
ceded to the East India Company in 1775. The 
fanatical character of the inhabitants was a 
cause of anxiety in the mutiny of 1857, but a 
rising was promptly suppressed, and the popu- 
lation was kept in check by the frequnt passage 
of troops from Calcutta to the north. Consult 
Sherring, The Sacred City of the Hindus (Lon- 
don, 1808), and Ralph, "The Sacred City of the 
Hindoos," in Harper's Magazine, vol. c (New 
York, 1900) ; Havell, Benares, the Kaered City 
(London, 1911); Rajani Rajan Sen, The Holy 
City (London, 1912). 

BENARES. A division, a district of the 
division, and a city in the district, in Agra, 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British 
India. Outside of the city the district is de- 
voted to agriculture and stock raising. The 
chief crops are rice, barley, wheat, maize, gram, 
and other varieties of gram. About 50 per cent 
of territory is irrigated by wells and canals. 
The area of the division is 10,431 square 
miles; pop., 1901, 5,008,618; 1911, 4,809,478 
(about 90 per cent Hindu). District, 1008 
square miles; pop., 882,084 and 897,035. See 
BENARES ( city ) . 

BEN BOLT. A song by Thomas Dunn Eng- 
lish (1843), first published in the New York 
Weekly Mirror and widely reprinted. It owed 
its popularity largely to the old German air to 
which it was set. The song was revived in re- 
cent years through figuring in the extraordi- 
narily successful Trilby of Du Maurier. 

B^N'BOW, JOHN '(1653-1702). A famous 
English admiral. He was born at Shrewsbury; 
entered the navy in 1678 and first distinguished 
himself as captain of a merchantman in a 
bloody action with Salleo pirates in 1686. He 
attracted the notice of James II, but he does 
not seem to have reentered the royal navy until 
June, 1689. His progress was rapid, and in the 
course of a few years he was made rear admiral 
by William III. The most memorable of this 
gallant sailor's exploits was his last, where his 
stubborn valor contrasted noblv with the das- 
tardly behavior of his captains. Off Santa 
Murta, in the West Indies, on Aug. 19, 1702, he 
came up with a superior French force under 
Admiral Du Casse. For four days he kept up a 
running fight with the enemy, almost deserted 
by the rest of his squadron. On the morning of 
the 24th his right leg was smashed by a chain 
shot. His officers condoled with him. "I had 
rather have lost them both," said the sturdy 
admiral, "than have seen this dishonor brought 
upon the English nation. But, hark ye if 
another shot should take me off, behave like 
men, and fight it out!" As soon as his wound 
was dressed, he was carried to the quarter- 
deck and directed the fight while it lasted. The 


enemy sustained severe loss; but the infamous 
cowardice of the other captains, who refused 
to obey the admiral's signals, made the contest 
hopeless, and Benbow sailed away to Jamaica. 
He died of his wound on November 4. The 
recusant officers were tried by court-martial 
and two captains were shot. Benbow's employ- 
ment of explosive vessels at St. Malo seems to 
have been an anticipation of Lord Dundonald's 
method at Basque Roads. Consult: Clowes, 
Royal Navy, vol. ii (London, 1897); Fletcher, 
"Admiral Benbow," in Macmillan's Magazine, 
vol. Ixxxiv (London, 1901). 

BENCH. As a legal term, originally, the 
seat occupied by judges when holding court; 
later, the court or tribunal itself; and, then, the 
judges as a class, in contradistinction to the 
bar. The Court of Common Bench is another 
name for the Court of Common Pleas. The 
King's Bench (called the Queen's Bench during 
the reign of a queen) was formerly the highest 
court of common law in Britain. During the 
Commonwealth it was known as the Vpper 
Bench. It is now, by virtue of the Judicature 
Act of 1875, included in the High Court of 

BENCH, BENCH MARK. A mark made 
on some permanent body and used in tidal ob- 
servations and leveling surveys. The bench is 
an assumed datum level to which the reading 
of the tide gauge or height of level plane is 
referred. A beneh rum k is a reference mark 
made upon some durable material, as the stone 
foundation of a building or a pier; its height 
abo^e the zero of the tide gauge or other datum 
plane is determined and made a matter of rec- 
ord, so that by its means any desired level which 
has been once determined may be reestablished. 
In tidal observations a bench mark should be 
made and its height above the zero of the 
gauge ascertained as soon as the latter is put 
up; should the gauge then be injured or de- 
stroyed before the completion of the observa- 
tions it may, by means of the bench mark, be 
set up again with its zero at the same level 
as before: and, if renewed observations arc 
desired after a lapse of time, the bench maik 
enables them to be referred to the original plane 
of reference. In the ordinary leveling of the 
engineer or surveyor bench marks are exten- 
sively employed and all levels measured are 
referred to them. See LEVELING. 

BENCH'ERS. The name given to the gov- 
erning bodies of the four great law societies 
of England Inns of Court, Lincoln's Inn, Inner 
Temple, and Middle Temple. They are generally 
Kind's counsel or barristers of distinction. They 
have the entire management of the property 
of their respective inns and the power of ad- 
mitting to the bar as well as of punishing a 
barrister guilty of misconduct, by disbarment 
or otherwise. Their presiding officer is called 
the treasurer. He is elected annually and takes 
the chair at their corporate meetings, speaking 
and acting in their name. See BAR; INNS OF 

BENCH WAB/BANT. In England, a war- 
rant issued by a court of record for the arrest 
of a person who has been indicted, or against 
whom articles of the peace have been exhibited. 
If it proceeds from a court of assize, it is signed 
by one judge; if from quarter sessions, by two 
justices of the peace. It is rarely used now. In 
the United States its use, its form, and the 


officer by whom it may be issued are generally 
regulated by statute. In some States it may 
be issued by the clerk of the court or by the 
district attorney. It is also employed in some 
jurisdictions for the arrest of one guilty of 
contempt of court. Sec ARUEST; WARRANT. 


BENCZTJB, beVtsoor, GYULA (1844- ). 
An Hungarian painter. He was born at Nyire- 
gyhaza and studied with Hiltonsperger, An- 
schtttz, and Piloty. In 1880 he became profes- 
sor at the Academy of Munich and afterward 
director of the Academy of Parnking in Buda- 
pest. His distinction was recognized by his 
nomination as a member of the Hungarian 
House of Magnates. Benczur is, perhaps, the 
most faithful disciple of Piloty. His paintings 
show originality of conception and splendid 
coloring. The following are among the most 
noteworthy examples of his art: "Farewell of 
hadifilas llunyady" (1807; Museum of Buda- 
pest) ; "Arrest of Rakoczy in 1701" (1809; Ru- 
manian Court) ; "Louis XV in the Boudoir of 
Dubarry" (1870) ; "Family of Louis XVI during 
the Assault on Versailles" (1S72; D. O. Mills, 
New York); "Baptism of St. Stephen" (1875; 
Museum of Budapebt); "Bacrhanti" (1881); 
"The Re-conquest of Buda by Charles of Lor- 
raine" (1888; Museum of Budapest). 

BEND (OF. bcnde, bandc, Fr. bandc; cf. Eng. 
band). One of the honorable ordinaries, or 
moie important charges in heraldry (q.v.). 

BENDA, GEORG (1722-9f>). A German musi- 
cian. He was born at Junghunzlnu, Bohemia, 
and studied with his father, ITans Gcoig Benda. 
lie became kapellmeister to Duke Frederick III 
of Saxe-Gotha in 1748, and in 1704 went to 
Italy at the Duke's expense for the purpose of 
study. He returned to Gotha in 17(50, and de- 
voted himself to composition, writing, in all, 
about 10 operas, several operettas, and the 
stirring melodramas Ariadne auf Naxos, Medea, 
Almansor, and ffadinc. In 1778 he resigned his 
position and visited Hamburg, Vienna, and 
other cities, and finally settled at the little 
hamlet of Kostntz. The important place which 
he holds in the history of German opera is due 
to his introduction of the inutic drama with 
spoken text. In other words, he was the origi- 
nator of the pure melodrama, in which the 
whole musical part is confined to the orchestra, 
while the dialogue is spoken. Consult F. 
Bruckner, Qcorg Benda und das dcutschc Sing- 
timel (Rostock, 1904). 

BENDA VID, ben-diiMt, LAZARUS (17G2- 
1832). A German-Jewish philosopher and 
mathematician. He was born in Berlin, studied 
at Berlin and Gottingen, and for a number of 
jears lectured very successfully in Vienna in 
exposition of the Kantian philosophy. Expelled 
thence by a general decree against foreigners, 
he continued to lecture and write in Berlin. 
His publications include: Vcrsuch ubcr das 
Vcrgnilgen (2 vols., 1794) ; Vorlcsungcn ubcr 
die'Kritik dcr rcinen Vcrnunft (1795); Yorlcs- 
ungcn uber die Kritik der praktischcn Vcrnunft 
(1790) : Philotheos odcr iiber den Ursprung un~ 
scrcr Erkenntni8 (1802); Selbst biographic 

FRIEDRICII (1811-89). A German historical 
and portrait painter. He was born in Berlin, 
the son of a cultured Jewish banker, Dec. ,'J, 
1811, and went at 16 to Dtisseldorf with his 
master, Schadow, who had been chosen direc- 


tor of the Academy. Together they went to 
Italy in 1829, and Bendemann remained till 
1831. On his return he began his first great 
picture, "The Jews Mourning in Exile," which 
was exhibited the following year at Berlin, and, 
as the work of a youth of 21, created a sensa- 
tion. It is now in the Museum at Cologne. 
With it may be classed two other important 
pictures on kindred subjects, "Jeremiah amid 
the Ruins of Jerusalem" (1834), belonging to 
the German Emperor, and "The Departure for 
Exile" (1872), in the National Gallery, Berlin. 
After practicing at DUsseldorf and Berlin 
Bendemann went to Dresden in 1838, as profes- 
sor of painting at the Academy, and was soon 
commissioned by the King of Saxony to deco- 
rate some of the principal rooms in the royal 
palace there. For the throne room he designed 
a frieze depicting the course of human life, 
in one continuous design, and in the ball- 
room and concert hall he glorified thu life 
and civilization of the Greeks. This exacting 
work occupied the greater part of his time 
for the next 15 years. From 1859 to 1867 
he was director of the Academy at Dttssel- 
dorf, where he resided until his death. Bende- 
mann was one of the founders and principal rep- 
resentatives of the Dusseldorf school. His art 
is essentially romantic in character, lacking in 
real pictorial elements, without truth to na* 
turc, and only valuable as illustrations. Far 
better than his historical paintings are por- 
traits, like those of his wife, the poet Reinich 
(Dantzig Museum), the historian Droysen (Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin), his master Schadow 
(Academy, Dtisseldorf ), and his charcoal heads 
of celebrated contemporaries. He illustrated, 
among other works, the Nibelungenlied. 

BEN'DER, or BENDERY, ' ben-dyft'rl (Ar., 
Turk., market, harbor). A district town in the 
government of Bessarabia, Russia, situated on 
the right bank of the Dniester, 53 miles from its 
mouth, and 36 miles from Kishinev, the capital 
of the government (Map: Russia, E 5). It is 
poorly built, but contains a number of churches, 
synagogues, a mosque, and a gymnasium for 
women. The trade is in grain, timber, cattle, 
animal products, and wine. The fort, situated 
near the town, was abandoned ki 1897. Pop., 
1885, 44,700; 1897, 31,800; 1900, 33,800. A 
large portion of the population is Jewish, and 
the rest consints of Russians, Armenians, and 
Tatars. In 1770 the Russians captured the 
plate and put the garrison and inhabitants, 
then amounting to about 30,000, to the sword. 
After changing hands repeatedly between the 
Turks and the Russians, Bender was finally 
ceded to the latter by the Peace of Bucharest, 
1812. Charles XIE of Sweden lived from 1709 
lo 1712 at Varnitza, a village near Bender. 

BEN'DER, WILTIELM (1845-1901). A Ger- 
man theologian and philosopher. He was born 
at Miinzenberg, in Hesse, Jan. 15, 1845. He 
studied at Gottingen and Giesaen, became pro- 
fessor of theology at Bonn, 1876, and was trans- 
ferred to the philosophical faculty, 1888. An 
address he gave at the Luther celebration of 
1883 made a great sensation (Reformation und 
Kirchentum, Bonn, 1884), because of its ex- 
treme rationalistic tone, and he renewed the 
sensation by his Inter publications, Das Wesen 
dcr Religion und die Orundgesetse dcr Kirchen- 
blldunrj '(1886; 4th ed., 1888) ; and Der Kampf 
tun die Scligkeit (1888), in which he explains 
religious phenomena by purely naturalistic 




lutionary philosophy. In 1899 he published the 
first volume of Mythologie und JUetaphysik: 
Orundlinien einer Geschichte der Weltanschau- 
vngen (Stuttgart). 

BENDEB ABBAS, ben'der ftb'bas (Ar., 
Pers., harbor of Abbas). A seaport of Persia 
on the Strait of Ormuz, opposite the inlet of 
Ormuz (Map: Persia, F 7). It is very poorly 
built, and its former commercial importance 
has diminished considerably. The roadstead is 
exposed to south and southeast winds, but there 
is still some trade, the chief exports being 
opium, fruit, tobacco, wool, and en r pets. The 
annual imports amount to about $2,250,000, and 
the exports to about $900,000. The town is con- 
nected by lines of steamships with Abushehr, 
Muscat, Bombay, and Basra. The population, 
estimated between 10,000 and 20,000, is made up 
of Persians, Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs. The 
most flourishing period in the history of the 
town was during the seventeenth century, after 
the exclusion of the Portuguese by Shah Abbas 
in 1622. Owing to the disturbed state of the 
country, the trade was transferred to Abushehr 
and the northern ports. 


BEN1)IGO, formerly SANIXHTJRST. The 
capital of Bendigo Co., Loddon district, Vic- 
toria, Australia, on Bendigo Greek, 101 miles 
north-northwest of Melbourne, and on the rail- 
way between Melbourne and Echuca (Map: Vic- 
toria, D 4). The town is the centre of a min- 
ing district, many important deposits of gold 
being at considerable depth. The surrounding 
region is fertile, and much grain and fruit is 
raised. There are manufactures of wine, car- 
riages, and pottery, and breweries, tanneries, 
foundries, and brick and tile yards. It is well 
built, has tine government buildings and offices, 
a very fine townhall, churches, a mechanics' in- 
stitute, a hospital, fine public parks, botanical 
gardens, and owns a good water supply. Founded 
in 1851, it became a municipality in 1855, a 
borough in 1863, and a city in 1871. The dis- 
trict has been created a bishop's see in con- 
nection with the Roman ( atholic dciinini na- 
tion. Pop., 1901, 31,020, including 290 Chinese; 
1911, 39,417. 

BENDIREj.bftn-de'ra, CHABLES EMIL (1830- 
97). An American ornithologist. He was born 
in Darmstadt, Germany, April 27, 1836. He 
came to the United States in 1852, and two 
years later entered the army as a private. He 
retired April 24, 1886, with the rank of cap- 
tain. In 1890 he was made brevet major for 
distinguished services rendered in 1877, while 
fighting the Indians at Cafion Creek, Mont. He 
died in Jacksonville, Fla., Feb. 4, '1807. During 
his many campaigns, and while stationed at va- 
rious remote army posts in the West, South- 
west, and Northwest, he was most active in im- 
proving roads, surveying and constructing tele- 
graphic lines so as to better military service, 
made independent explorations, and availed him- 
self of the excellent opportunity to study birds. 
It is supposed that he began to collect the nests 
and eggs of birds about the year 1870. In all 
he published about 50 papers and books, the ma- 
jority of which relate to birds, especially with 
reference to nidiflcation. His largest work, Life 
Histories of North American Birds, with Special 
Reference to their Breeding Habits and Eggs 
(Smithsonian Contributions, Washington, 1892 
and 1896), was left incomplete at the time of 
his death. Hia large collection of birds' eggs, 

15,000 in all, he presented to the United States 
National Museum. 

BEN'DIS. A female divinity of Thrace, iden- 
tified by the Greeks with Artemis and later 
with Hecate. She was probably a moon god- 
dess. In Plato's time a festival in her honor, 
called Bendideia, was celebrated with proces- 
sions and torch races at the Pine us. 


BENDZIN, ben'jSn (Polish). The capital 
city of a district in the government of Piotr- 
kow, Russian Poland, on the banks of the Black 
Przemsza, 264 miles from Warsaw, and near 
the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (Map: Russia, A 
4). The industrial activity of the population of 
Bcndzin is centred in the large government zinc 
works, and there is considerable manufacture 
of fireproof bricks. In the neighborhood are the 
rich llavier coal mines. The interesting ruins 
of an ancient castle (built in the thirteenth 
century) are a feature of the town. Pop., 1897, 
21,200, more than one-half of which is Jewish. 
By the "Pact of Bcndzin," concluded here in 
1589, Sigisrnund IV was recognized by Austria 
as King of Poland, and the Archduke Maximil- 
ian, brother of Rudolph II, renounced his claims 
to the throne. 

BENE, ben'. See SESAMUAC. 

BENECKE, bn'ne-ke, ERNST WILHELM (1838- 
). A German geologist. He was born in 
Wiirzburg and studied at the universities of 
Halle, \Viirzlmrg, Berlin, and Heidelberg. He 
was extraordinary professor at Heidelberg Uni- 
versity from 1869 to 1872, when he became full 
professor at Strassburg. His chief researches 
have boen upon the invertebrate fossils of the 
Mesozoic rocks of Germany. He lias been a 
member of the commission for the geological in- 
vestigation of Alsace-Lorraine. Among his prin- 
cipal works are the following: Ueher Trias 
und Jura in den Sudalpin (180*6) ; Ueoynoslisch- 
paluuntulogische Bcttrugc (2 vols., 1808-72); 
Abriss dt'r Geologic ron Elsass-Lothringen 
(187D); Ccognostivhc Jtrschrcibung dcr Umge- 
gend von Heidelberg (1880); Oeobgisehen Fuh- 
rer durch (Jen Elsass (1900). 

A German philologist. He was born at Mcinchs- 
roth, in the former principality of Ottingen, and 
studied at the University of" Guttingen, where 
lie became professor of philosophy in 1814 and 
chief librarian in 1829. lie was the first aca- 
demic lecturer on Old-German literature and 
ranks with Grimm and Luchmann as an au- 
thority on Middle High German. His editions 
of mediaeval poetry include: Boner's Edelstein 
(1816); Wirnt von Grafenberg's Wingalois 
(1819); Hartmann von Aue's Iwein, "with 
Laehmunn (1827). 

BENEDEK, ba'ne-dek, LUDWIG VON (1804- 
81). An Austrian general, son of a physician 
of Odonhurg, Hungary. He received his military 
education at the Academy Wiener-Neustadt and 
entered the army as ensign in 1822. In 1846 he 
had reached the rank of colonel and distin- 
guished himself in suppressing the insurrection 
in Galicia. In 1847 he was sent to Italy, where 
he fought with bravery in the campaign of 1848, 
especially at Curtatone. The following year he 
took a conspicuous part in the capture of Mor- 
tara and in the battle of Novara (March 23), 
and in April was sent as major general to Hun- 
gary, where he also served with gallantry. In 
the Italian campaign of 1859 Benedek com- 
manded the Eighth Corps of the Austriaas aad 




was the last to leave the field at Solferino; 
wae Military Governor of Hungary in 1800 and 
soon afterward was given the command of the 
Austrian army in Venotia. He led the Austrians 
m the war with Prussia in 1866 until he was 
disastrously defeated at Sadowa. He was re- 
moved, placed on the retired list, and withdrew 
to Gratz, where he died in 1881. See SEVEN 

(1809-94). A Belgian zoologist, born in Mech- 
lin. He was appointed director of the Museum 
of Natural History in Louvain in 1831, profes- 
sor at the University of Ghent in 1835, and pro- 
fessor of zoology and paleontology at the Catho- 
lic University of Louvain in 1836. In 1842 he 
was made a member of tho Belgian Academy of 
Sciences, of which institution he was elected 
president in 1881. His principal works are: 
Zoologie m6dica1e t with Ccrvais (2 vols., 1859) ; 
Osteographic des cetan's rirants rt fossiles, 
with Gervais (1868-80) ; La ric animate et sett 
mystdres (1863); Les commensauar ct les para- 
site* dans le rrgne animal (1875) ; Die Schma- 
rotzer deft Tierreichs (1876). 

(1817-1900). A French diplomatist of Greek 
origin, born in Corsica, lie was French Consul 
at Cairo and Palermo, Secretary of Legation in 
Constantinople; held office in the French Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs, and was secretary dur- 
ing the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris in 
1856. In 1860 he went to Turin to negotiate the 
cession of Nice and Savoy to France, and in 
1804 he was Ambassador to Berlin. Benedetti 
was personally concerned in the affair of the 
protest of Napoleon III against the candidacy 
of the Prince of Hohenzollern for the throne of 
Spain, and forced himself upon King William in 
the public walk at Ems, July 13. 1870, in so 
offensive a manner that he was informed that 
the King had nothing further to communicate 
to him. It is a moot question how far he was 
really responsible for precipitating war with 
Prussia. Certainly Bismarck used Benedetti's 
blunder to the best advantage in carrying out 
his own plans, and six days after the incident 
at Ems France declared war. Benedetti ac- 
cused Bismarck of having in 1866 originated 
a Franco-Prussian treaty for the partition of 
Belgium and Luxemburg, but Bismarck showed 
that France herself had originated the scheme. 
Benedetti sought to justify his diplomatic ac- 
tivity in Ma mission en 1'russc (Paris, 1871), 
and also published Essais diplomatique,? (Paris, 

da ma-ya'nft (1442-97). One of the principal 
Florentine sculptors and decorators of the early 
Renaissance; also a distinguished architect, lie 
was born at Florence, the son of a stonecutter 
and carpenter, and labored at first as assistant 
to his older brother Giuliano da Majano (q.v.), 
a well-known architect and wood carver. Bene- 
detto was chiefly active as a sculptor in marble, 
and he also excelled in terra cotta. His earliest 
known work is the large marble altar of St. 
Savinus in the cathedral of Faenza (1471-72). 
In 1475 he designed and carved the beautiful 
marble altar of St. Fina in her Collegiate 
Church in San Gimignano, at the same time a 
tabernacle and a shrine. His other masterpieces 
include the ciborium on the high altar of San 
Domenico, Siena, the tabernacle in the badia 
of Arezfo, and especially the pulpit of Santa, 

Croce, Florence, adorned with marble reliefs 
from the life of St. Francis- the finest example 
of marble pictorial relief in Italian sculpture. 
Another masterpiece in decoration is his marble 
door frame in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. 
About 1480 the two brothers, in conjunction 
with the third, founded a chapel near Prato, 
the beautiful sculptures of which were unfortu- 
nately dispersed, some surviving in the cathe- 
dral of Prato. His later works are in the cathe- 
dral of Loreto (1484-87), the church of Monte 
Oliveto (c.1489), Naples, in San Gimigfiano, 
and include the well-known tomb of Filippo 
Strozzi (1491) in Santa Maria Novella, Flor- 
ence. He died May 27, 1497. 

Of his Madonnas the most attractive is a 
seated terra -cotta statue in the Museum of 
Berlin one of the very few examples of such 
sculpture in which the colors are perfectly pre- 
served. His portrait busts unite trenchant 
realism with fine characterization. The best 
known are those of Pietro Mellini (1474) and 
Filippo Strozzi; the more expressive clay model 
of the latter is in Berlin, the finished marble in 
the Louvre. Benedetto's masterpiece in archi- 
tecture is the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, one of 
the finest and strongest specimens of Florentine 
palace architecture. The cornice and the court 
were completed after his death by Cronaca. He 
was one of the ablest marble and terra-cotta 
sculptors of the later fifteenth century. In his 
best work the figures are charming and charac- 
teristic; his decoration is always tasteful and, 
though rich, is never overloaded, but clear and 
harmonious. From about 1480 his art declined. 
Consult, for reproductions and comments on 
his spulpture, Bode, Dcnkmalcr der Renaissance 
fckulptur Toskanas, vol. vii (Munich, 1892- 
1903) : for his architecture, Steginann and Von 
Geymiiller, Architektur der Renaissance in Tos- 
tana, vol. iv (Munich, 1885-1908). 

BENEDICITE, ben'e.-dls'1-te. A song of the 
''Three Children" in the fiery furnace, given in 
the Old Testament Apocrypha, an expansion of 
Ps. cxlviii, was sung in the Christian Church 
as early as the time of St. Chrysostom and is 
used in the Anglican morning prayer, when the 
Tc Deum is not sung, from Septuagesima to 
Easter and also during Advent; and in the 
office of lauds in the Roman Breviary. The name 
originated in the opening sentence, Benedicite 
omnia opera Dei ('Praise ye all the works of 

BEN'EDICK. A cynical, witty lord of Padua, 
in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. He 
i ails at marriage, but falls an easy prey to the 
plot to unite him and Beatrice. Hence the term 
"a Benedick" for a newly married man. 

BENEDICT. The name of 15 Popes. BENE- 
DICT 1, Pope 574-578, during the Lombard devas- 
tation of Italy, grief at which is said to have 
killed him. BENEDICT II, Pope 684-685, canon- 
ized for his virtues. He decided the English 
controversy in favor of Wilfrid of York (q.v.) 
and labored in vain to reclaim Macarius, the 
Patriarch of Antioch, who was living in exile 
in Rome, from his Monotheletic belief. BENE- 
DICT III, Pope 855-858. His election was op- 
posed by the Emperor Lothair; but he was 
finally acknowledged, and did much during his 
short reign for the building and adornment of 
churches in Rome. BENEDICT IV, Pope 900-903, 
famous for his charity to the poor and other 
virtues only too rare in the unhappy tenth oen 
tury. BENEDICT V, Pope 964-965, elected 




gainst tlio will of the Emperor Otho I, who took 
him off to Germany, where he died a prisoner 
in Hamburg. BENEDICT VI, Pope 972-974. He 
met with a similar fate, at the hands of the 
Consul Crescentius, son of the notorious Theo- 
dora. BENEDICT VII, Pope 974-983. He was a 
promoter of monasticism and ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline and summoned a synod for the suppres- 
sion of simony. His later years, like those of 
Benedict I, were saddened by the devastation of 
Roman territory, this time by the Emperor 
Otho II. BENEDICT VIII, son of Coun' Gregory 
of Tusculum, was elected in 1012; but he Anti- 
pope Gregory, who had been elected at the same 
time, fled to the court of the Emperor Henry II 
to get his assistance, but Henry decided in favor 
of Benedict, who a little later crowned him in 
Rome (1014). Benedict afterward defeated the 
Saracens and took ^rom them, with the help of 
the Pisans and Genoese, the island of Sardinia; 
and also various places in Apulia from the 
Greeks, by the help of Henry. He distinguished 
himself as a reformer of the clergy and inter- 
dicted, at the synod of Pavia, both clerical mar- 
riage and concubinage. He died in 1024. See 
his Life by P. G. Wappler (Leipzig, 1897). 
BENEDICT IX, a nephew of the preceding, named 
Theophylact, was elected Pope while merely a 
youth, in 1033; but a little later the Romans 
banished him. He was reinstated by Conrad II 
(1038); again formally deposed by the Consul 
Ptolemteus, who set up Sylvester III in his 
place (1044) ; and after three months was once 
more installed as Pope. By a new compact John 
Gratianus was declared Pope under the name 
of Gregory VI (1045). The Emperor Henry 
III deposed all the three Popes Benedict, Syl- 
vester, and Gregory and caused Suidger, Bishop 
of Bamberg, to be elected as Clement II (10-l(>) ; 
but on his death, in 1047, the deposed Benedict 
IX again regained the papal sec, and held it 
eight months, until 1048, wnen he was displaced, 
first by Damasus II and afterward by Leo IX. 
According to one report he died in the Convent 
of Grotta Ferrata, near Rome, in 1056. Sec 
his Life by Giovagnoli (Milan, 1900). BENE- 
DICT X, a' disputed Pope, 105 8-59. BENEDICT 

XI, Pope 1303-04. BENEDICT XII, Pope 1334- 
42, one of the Avignon Popes. BENEDICT XIII 

(born Pietro Francesco degli Orsini), Pope 1724- 
30, was a learned and well-disposed man, of 
simple habits and pure morals, though rather 
strict in his notions on the papal prerogative. 
He unfortunately yielded himself to the guidance 
of Cardinal Corcia, a greedy, unscrupulous per- 
sonage, who greatly abused the confidence re- 
nosed in him. Benedict always exhibited great 
moderation in politics and an honorable love of 
peace, and was instrumental in bringing about 
the Seville Treaty of 1729. During this pontifi- 
cate a remarkably large number of saints, 
chiefly from the monastic orders, including Pope 
Gregory VII and John of Nepomuk, were added 
to the calendar. The name Benedict XITI was 
also claimed by the Antipopc Pedro cle Luna 

(q.v.) from 1394 to 1409. BENEDICT XIV (Pros- 
pero Lambertini), Pope 1740-58 the most 
worthy to be remembered of all the pontiffs 
so named. He was born in Bologna in 1675. 
Before his elevation he had distinguished him- 
self by extensive learning and by ability in 
the several offices of promoter fidei Bishop of 
Ancona (1727), Cardinal (1728), and Arch- 
bishop of Bologna (1731). Succeeding Clement 

XII, he began his pontificate in 1740, with 

several wise and conciliatory measures; founded 
chairs of physics, chemistry, and mathematics 
in Rome:' revised the Academy of Bologna, and 
instituted others; dug out the obelisk in the 
Campus Martius, constructed fountains, rebuilt 
churches; caused the best English and French 
books to be translated into Italian, and in many 
other ways encouraged literature and science. 
His piety was sincere, enlightened, and tolerant, 
and his doctrines were well exemplified in his 
practice. He was extremely anxious that the 
morals of the clergy should be untainted, and 
to that effect established a board of examiners 
for all candidates to vacant sees. In proof of 
his toleration he showed the frankest kindness 
to all strangers visiting his capital, whatever 
the nature of their religious opinions. The only 
accusation brought against him by his Roman 
subjects was "that he wrote and studied too 
much, but ruled too little," or left affairs of 
business too much in the hands of Cardinal 
Valentine. After a painful illness, Benedict 
XIV died May 3, 1758. His most important 
works are that On the Diocesan tfi/nod ; On the 
Sacrifice of the Mass; and On the Beatification 
and Canonisation of Plaints, a standard work, of 
which a part was translated under the title 
Heroic Virtue (3 vole., London, 18r>0). An edi- 
tion of his writings was published under the 
care of the Jesuit Azevedo (12 vols., 1747-.")!), 
but more completely at Venice (15 vols, 1 Tti7 > ; 
and at Prato (17 vols., 1839-4t>). Hit, letters, 
written in Italian, to Carnu Peggi between 
1729 and 1758, were published by F. X. Kraus 
(Freiburg, 1884, 2d ed. as a biography by F. 
Scarselli, with a bibliography, 1888). Some 
more of his letters, edited by B. Manzone, ap- 
peared at Bra in 1890. See also Pastor, The, 
History of the Popes (London, 1900-1912) ; Mr- 
Hilliam, A Chronicle of the Popes (London, 
1912). BENEDICT XV (Giacomo della C'hiesa), 
Pope 1914-22, the successor of Pius X. Ho \\JIH 
born of a noble family at Pegli, near (jcmm, 
Nov. 21, 1854. Ordained to the priesthood in 
1878, he was long closely connected with Car- 
dinal Rampolla (q.v.) in Madrid (1883 87) and 
at Rome; was appointed Consultor of the Holy 
Office (1901), Archbishop of Bologna (1907; 
see above, Benedict XIV), and Cardinal (May 
25, 1914) ; and was elected Pope (Sept. 3, 1914). 
He had become known as a foe of modernism in 
religion. Benedict XV made persistent efforts 
to bring the War in Europe to an end. (See 
VOLUME XXIV.) He died, Jan. 22, 1922. 


BENEDICT, DAVID ( 1 779-1874) . An Ameri- 
can Baptist historian. He was born at Nor- 
walk, Conn., Oct. 10, 1779. He graduated from 
Brown University, 1806, arid was pastor at Paw- 
tucket, R. I., from 1800 till 1831, and then 
carried on an active ministry at large till his 
death there, Dec. 5, 1874. He is remembered 
for his researches in Baptist history embodied 
in his General History of the Baptist Denomina- 
tion in America and Other Parts of the World 
(Xew York, 1848) and Fifty Years among the 
Baptists (I860). 

BENEDICT, FRANK LEE (1834-1910). An 
American novelist. Of his numerous stories, 
the more noteworthy are: John Worthington's 
Name; Miss Van Kortland (1870) ; Her Friend 
Laurence (1879); The Price She Paid (1883). 
His verses are collected in The Shadow Wor- 
shipper and Other Poems (1857). Mr. Howelh 
regards Benedict as having given evidence of 




true genius. Consult Howclls, My Literary 
Passions (1897), where Benedict is set almost 
in the front rank of American authors. 

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (1804-85). A Ger- 
man-English musician and composer, born of 
Jewish parents in Stuttgart. He studied under 
Abeille, Hummel, and finally Weber, who pro- 
cured for him (1824) the post of music director 
of the KJlrnthnerthortlieater, Vienna. In 1825 
he obtained a similar position in the San Carlo 
theatre, Naples. Here he produced an opera 
buffa, Giacinta ed Ernesto, and in Stuttgart 
(1831) a serious opera, / Portoghcsi a Goa. 
Both were failures. He appeared, however, with 
great success as a pianist in Paris in 1835, 
and later in London, -where lie settled, directing 
opera huff a at the Lyceum, in 1830. He was 
conductor of English opera at Drury Lane 
(1838), where his works, The Gypsy's Warning 
(1838), The Bride, of Venice (1843). and The 
Crusaders (1846), were produced. After con- 
ducting opera in Coven t (harden and at festivals, 
he went to America (1850) with Jenny Lincl 
and, returning in 1852, resumed his work as 
teacher of the piano, composer, and conductor of 
the opera at Covent Garden, where his operatic 
masterpiece. The Li lit of Killarney, created a 
furore in 1802. He wrote two symphonies and 
several cantatas (Undine, JfieJiard Cwitr de, 
Linn, tiaint (iccilia). His oratorio, tiaint TV/er, 
written for the Birmingham Musical Festival, 
1870, met with extraordinary success. His 
operas have much dramatic and melodic beauty 
and in style and feeling are singularly English 
for compositions by a foreigner. He was 
knighted in 1871 and received many foreign 
decorations. Weber's biography, in HueiTer's 
Great Musicians, A\as written by Benedict. 

BENEDICT, SAINT (480-c 543). The founder 
of moiiHrhi&m in the West, lie was born of aiicli 
and respected family at Nursia (now Norcia), 
70 miles northeast of Home, in 480 A.I). At an 
early age Benedict was sent to- the schools of 
literature and jurisprudence in Home, but soon 
grew dissatisfied with the sterile character of 
the instruction dispensed. Only in the devotions 
of religion, in the holy silence of solitary medi- 
tation, did Benedict see a safe refuge from the 
sins of the time, and the possibility of realizing 
a spiritual strength which would enable him to 
stem the tide of corruption that was setting in. 
He resolved to leave the city and betake himself 
to some deep solitude, and in pursuance of this 
resolution, he departed from Rome, at an early 
age (14, tradition says; 10 or 20, later studies 
make probable), and retired to a deserted coun- 
try near the ruins of Nero's palace at the arti- 
ficial lake of SuMacuvn (now Subiaco). Here, in 
a cavern (afterward known as the Sacro Speco), 
he dwell for three years, until his fame spread 
over the country, and multitudes came to see 
him. He was now appointed abbot of a neighbor- 
ing monastery, but soon left it, as the morals of 
the half-wild' monks were not severe enough for 
his taste. This, however, only excited a livelier 
interest in his character, and as he lived in a 
period when the migration and interfusion of 
races and nations were being rapidly carried 
on. he could not fail to draw crowds of wan- 
derers about him. Wealthy Romans also placed 
their sons under his care, anxious that they 
should be trained for a spiritual life. Benedict 
was thus enabled to found 12 cloisters, over 
each of which he placed a superior. He now 
Bought another retreat, and, together with a few 

followers, founded about 529 a monastery on 
Monte Cassino, afterward one of the richest and 
most famous in Italy. In 515 he is said to have 
composed his Regula Monachorum, in which he 
aimed, among other things, at repressing the 
irregular and licentious life of the wandering 
monks by introducing stricter discipline and 
order. It eventually became the common rule 
of all Western monachism. The monasteries 
which Benedict founded were simply religious 
communities, intended to develop a high spirit- 
ual character, which might beneficially influence 
the world. To the abbot was given supreme 
power, and he was told to acquit himself in all 
his relations with the wisdom of God and of 
his Master. The discipline recommended by St. 
Benedict is, nevertheless, milder than that of 
Oriental monachism with regard to food, cloth- 
ing, etc.; but enjoins continual residence in the 
monastery and, in addition to the usual re- 
ligious exercises, directs that the monks shall 
employ themselves in manual labors, imparting 
instruction to youth, copying manuscripts for 
the library, etc. By this last injunction St. 
Benedict, though this was not directly intended, 
preserved many of the literary remains of 
antiquity; for the injunction, which he gave 
only with regard to religious books, was ex- 
tended afterward to many secular productions. 
It is remarkable that the founder of the most 
learned of all the monastic orders was himself 
so little of a scholar that St. Gregory the Great 
described him as being scienter nesciens, et 
sapienter indoctus 'learnedly ignorant and 
wisely unlearned.' St. Benedict died probably 
in 543. See MONASTICISM. 

Bibliography. For editions of his rule, con- 
sult: German, E. Wolfflin. Ji. von Nursia und 
seine Mbnchsregel (Leipzig, 1895) ; English, 
G. F. Henderson, Historical Documents of the 
Middle Ages, pp. 274-314 (London, 18!)2). In 
general, consult: E. Spreitzenhofer, Die his- 
toritche Voraussetzungcn der Regel dcs hciligen 
Benedict von Nursia (Vienna. 1805) ; and for his 
biography, F. C. Doyle, The Teachings of St. 
Benedict (London, 1887) ; Lechner, Life and 
Tinier of fit. Benedict (London, 1000) ; also 
his Life by Gregory the Great (Old English 
translation, edited by P. W. Luck, London, 
1880) and J. G. Waitzmann (Augsburg, 1835). 

1015). An American author, educator, and 
clergyman, born at Rochester, N. Y., and a 
graduate of the University of Rochester (A.B. 
1805, A.M. 1868). After' finishing his under- 
graduate studies he spent several years as a 
teacher in various secondary schools, was trained 
for the Baptist ministry at the Rochester Theo- 
logical Seminary, and spent an additional year 
of study abroad at the University of Giessen. 
It was not, however, to pastoral but to educa- 
tional work that he devoted the greater part of 
his active life, for after two years as minister 
of a Mt. Auburn, Ohio, church, he accepted a 
chair in the University of Cincinnati (1875). 
There he remained for 32 years, at various 
times during his service acting as professor 
of philosophy, history, psychology, and logic, 
and as dean. In 1907 he retired as professor 
emeritus. Among his numerous works on a 
variety of subjects are: The Nervous System 
and Consciousness (1885) ; Theism and Evolu- 
Hon (1886); Outlines of the History of Edu- 
cation (1888); Ethics and Evolution (1889); 
New Studies in the Beatitudes (1890) ; Religion 




as an Idea. (1903); Greek Thought Movements 
and their Ethioal Implications (1005). 


BENEDICT BIS'COP (c.629-690). An Eng- 
lish ecclesiastic of the seventh century, who 
exercised a most important and beneficent influ- 
ence on Anglo-Saxon civilization and learning. 
He was born about the year 629, of a noble 
Northumbrian family (his patronymic, accord- 
ing to Eddius, being Baducing), and until about 
his 25th year was a courtier of Oswiu, King 
of Northumbria. About that time he gave up 
his court life and accompanied Wilfrith to 
France, whence he went on to Rome (654), 
where he spent about 10 years in study and 
whence he seems to have returned soon after 
the Synod of Whitby in 664. In 665 he was 
in Rome a second time, being sent on a mis- 
sion by Alchfrith, King of Northumbria. After 
a stay in Rome of a few months he proceeded 
to the island of Lerins, where he became a monk 
and spent about two years, thus acquiring a 
knowledge of monastic discipline. He returned 
to Rome in 667, came to England with Theodore 
and Adrian, and was made abbot of the Monas- 
tery of St. Peter (afterward that of St. Augus- 
tine) in Canterbury. This charge he resigned 
two years later and went to Rome for a third 
time, for the purpose of bringing home the 
literary treasures which he had already col- 
lected. He returned about 672, bringing witli 
him a large collection of valuable books, and 
repaired to Northumbria, where he founded the 
famous Monastery of Wearmouth. Workmen 
were brought from France to build and glaze the 
church and monastery, this being one of the 
earliest instances of the use of glass for win- 
dows in England. He also introduced from Gaul 
and Rome (which he visited again in 687) 
church utensils and vestments, relics, pictures, 
images, and again a vaBt number of books. He 
also introduced the Roman choral service. Bene- 
dict made his fifth and last journey to Rome in 
687 and, as on former occasions, came home 
laden with books and pictures. Shortly after 
his return from Rome he was seized with palsy, 
under which he languished three years, dying on 
the 12th of January, 690. During his long ill- 
ness he often anxiously exhorted his monks to 
look carefully after his books and to preserve 
them from loss or injury. 

The benefits conferred by Benedict on Anglo- 
Saxon civilization and the impulse given by his 
labors to Anglo-Saxon learning, were greater 
than can now be estimated. It is not certain 
that he wrote any books, and those ascribed to 
him are of little value; but by his personal 
teaching, and especially by his founding at 
Wearmouth such a valuable and for the time 
extensive library, he implanted in the nation a 
taste for literature and learning, which soon 
was fruitful in results and continued to be so 
for many centuries. Bede, a pupil, wrote his 

BENEDICT COLLEGE. A coeducational 
institution for negroes at Columbia, S. C., con- 
ducted under the auspices of the American Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society. It was founded as 
an institute in 1871 and incorporated as a 
college in 1894. It provides elementary, high 
school, and collegiate instruction, and courses 
for the ministry. All work on the campus is 
performed by students, and the courses are 
to make the students self-supporting. 

The college occupies 11 buildings and has an 
endowment of $127,000. Its student enrollment 
in 1913 was 626, when the instructors num- 
bered 30 and the library contained 8000 volumes. 
President, Rev. B. W. Valentine. 

BENEDICTINE, ben'6-dlk'tln. A liqueur 
distilled at Fecamp (q.v.) in France. It gets 
its name from the fact that it was originally 
manufactured by the Benedictine monks. Since 
the French Revolution, however, the preparation 
has been in the hands of a secular company, and 
the components entering into its preparation are 
considered a trade secret. It is believed by some 
that the volatile constituents of cardamom seeds, 
arnica flowers, angelica root, lemon peel, thyme, 
nutmegs, cassia, hyssop, peppermint, and cloves 
enter into its composition. Several firms doing 
business with essential oils and other volatile 
plant constituents prepare and sell mixtures 
which are supposed to contain the essential 
principles of benedictine. These mixtures, or 
so-called extracts, go to make up the bulk of 
the imitations ' of benedictine which are sold 
in various parts of the world, especially in those 
countries where the food, drug, and beverage 
laws are lax or not rigidly enforced. See 

FA'THEBS. Scarce and costly volumes con- 
taining the works of Barnabas, Lanfranc, Ber- 
nard, Anselm, Augustine, Cassiodorus, Ambrose, 
Hilary, Jerome, Athanasius, Gregory of TourH, 
Gregory the Great, Hildebert, Irenaeus, Lucius 
Ca?cilius, Chrysostom, Cyril of Jerusalem, Basil, 
Cyprian, Justin Martyr, Origen, and Gregory 
Nazianzen in all, 61 volumes. So called be- 
cause edited by scholars of the Benedictine 
Order of monks in the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries. 

BENEDICTINES. The general name of the 
monks following the rule of St. Benedict. The 
first Benedictine monastery was founded at 
Monte Cussino, in the Apennines about midway 
between Rome and Naples, by St. Benedict him- 
self, about 529. It was partly modeled on what 
he had learned of the earlier Eastern monas- 
tic-ism, but differed from that in giving greater 
prominence to the community idea, while the 
monks of the East had tended more to live a 
solitary life. In Benedict's idea the monastery 
was to be to the monk what the family was 
to persons living in the world an ordered home, 
with reciprocal duties and claims. Each mon- 
astery formed a separate community, with its 
own internal organization; the founder did not 
legislate for a world-wide organization, like the 
mendicant orders or the Jesuits. In fact, strictly 
speaking, he did not found an order, but laid 
down a rule by which to govern a state of life. 
The earlier monasticism differed from the later 
in having no relation to the clerical state; most 
of the monks and even some abbots were laymen 
at the first. The vows taken by those who joined 
a Benedictine monastery were originally three 
of stability, i.e., to remain attached to the mon- 
astery, not to wander at will; of conversion of 
life, i.e., to labor until death to attain the per- 
fection of the state to which they were called; 
and of obedience to their superiors. 

The order increased so rapidly that after the 
sixth century the Benedictines must be re- 
garded as the main agents in the spread of 
Christianity, civilization, and learning in the 
West. The provision of the rule for incessant 
industry resulted, among other things, in the 



promotion of systematic agriculture and the re- 
claiming of large tracts of land which would 
otherwise have lain waste. Without them the 
continuity of Christian art, like that of Chris- 
tian literature, would doubtless have been broken 
in the West. In the Dark Ages between the 
seventh and eleventh centuries, when confusion 
and barbarism prevailed in the political and 
social spheres, the artistic tradition which had 
been carried on by the bishops was taken up by 
the great monasteries of this order; and they 
also afforded the only common meeting ground 
for sharply distinct social classes, thus exerting 
a unifying influence upon the new nationalities 
then springing into life. 

Each of these establishments was a world in 
itself. It included not only fully professed 
monks, but lay brothers, or convcrsi, who had 
greater freedom of movement and occupation. 
The high wall of the monastery inclosed a great 
variety of structures centring around the 
church, to which were attached, generally on 
the right side, the principal group of monastic 
buildings the dormitories above (one for choir 
brothers and one for convcrsi) and the refec- 
tory, chapter house, and general hall, library, 
kitchen, storerooms, etc., all grouped about a 
main cloister. Then there were other groups; 
one in particular with a hospital, a chapel and 
cloister for convalescents, doctor's quarters, and 
the like; another group for the schools and for 
teaching of arts and trades; sometimes another 
devoted to the external laity with a hospice, re- 
fectory, chapel, stable, and barns. A drawing of 
about the year 820 shows the plan of the pro- 
jected buildings at Saint Gall (q.v.), altogether 
the most elaborate known, where everything is 
labeled with a detailed description, even to the 
garden devoted to growing herbs and simples for 
the doctor's pharmacopeia, and the workshops 
assigned to the different arts and trades. The 
weaving and dyeing of cloth, the curing and 
tanning of skins, were followed by the work of 
the tailor, the shoemaker, and the embroiderer. 
The preparation of vellum led up to writing, 
illuminating, and binding of manuscripts. Glass 
blowing was practiced from its commonest to 
its most artistic developments. Carpentry and 
joinery, masonry in brick and stone, were taught 
practically in construction. Then came the more 
purely artistic occupations of bronze casting and 
hammering, work in gold, silver, and silver gilt, 
ivory, wood, and gem carving, enameling and 
inlaying, layer sculpture, fresco painting, and 
sometimes mosaic work. No known branch of 
art or industry was neglected. One monk was 
usually at the head of this entire department, 
with others in charge of the subdivisions; but 
often lay brothers were at the head all were 
admitted equally in these branches. 

It cannot be said that the Benedictines ac- 
complished any great progress in architecture. 
They adhered* to the old basilican style (see 
BASILICA), often replacing the antique columns, 
which had become scarce, by plain square piers 
or built-up shafts. They showed a certain pov- 
erty of architectural detail and of sculptured 
ornament, except at the very close, in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries. On the other 
hand, they always maintained a mastery of 
fresco painting. 

While, as has been said, the order had the 
very greatest influence on the preservation of 
learning throughout the West, its chief literary 
glories are associated with the Congregation of 

Saint-Maur in France, founded by letters patent 
of Louis XIII, in 1618, which had later its chief 
seat at Saint-Germain-des-Pres, near Paris. 
When the Order of the Benedictines was sup- 
pressed, with the other religious orders, by the 
Revolution in 1792, its splendid conventual build- 
ings were destroyed. Numbering among its 
monks such scholars as Mabillon, Montfaucon, 
Sainte-Martha, D*Ach6ry, Martene, Durand, 
Rivet, Cle"mencet, Carpentier, Toustain, Con- 
stant, and Tassin, it rendered services to litera- 
ture which would be difficult to overestimate. 
Besides admirable editions of many of the 
FATHERS), the world of letters owes to these 
men the Art de verifier lea dates (3 vols., fol., 
1783-87) ; a much enlarged edition of Ducange's 
(JloHSarium Media et Infimcu Latinitatis (6 
vols., fol., 1733-36); a supplement (1766, 4 
vols., fol.); the De Re Diplomatica (1681 and 
1709, fol.) ; the Kouveau traite de diplomatique 
(6 vols., 4to, 1750-65); L'antiquite -expliqute 
(15 vols., fol., 1719-24); the Monuments de la 
monarchic fran^aise (5 vols., fol., 1729-33) ; the 
Acta tianctorum Ordinis 8. Benedicti (9 vols., 
fol., 1688-1702) ; a new and much improved 
edition of the Gallia Christiana (14 vols., fol., 
1715-56) ; the Annales Ordinis 8. Benedioti (6 
vols., fol. 1713-39) ; the Veterum Scriptorum 
Spicilegium (13 vols., 4to, 1653-77); the De 
Antiquis Monachorum Ritibus (2 vols., 4to, 
1690) ; the De Antiquis Ecclesice Ritibus (3 
vols., 4to, 1700-02); the Veterum Scriptorum 
et Monumenturum Amplissima Collectio (9 
vols., fol., 1724-33) ; and the IJistoire litteraire 
dc la France (9 vols., 4to, 1733-49). Since the 
Revolution the revived French Benedictines, 
until troubled by recent government interference, 
had resumed some of the unfinished labors of the 
Congregation of Saint-Maur; that of Solesmes, 
established in 1837, under the direction of Dom 
Gueranger, Cardinal Pitra, and others, has en- 
tered on literary enterprises of its own, such 
as the Spicilegium Solesmense (10 vols., 4to), 
and has also been famous for its revival of the 
ancient ecclesiastical music in all its purity. 

By degrees, however, corruption of manners 
began to accompany increasing wealth, until it 
became the practice in many places to receive 
almost exclusively the sons of noble and wealthy 
persons as novices among the "black monks." 
Several of the Popes attempted to regulate these 
disorders; and reforms of great consequence 
sprang from within the bosom of the order 
itself. The first serious inroad into the influ- 
ence of the regular Benedictines was made by 
the reform of Cluny (q.v.), under Abbot Odo, in 
927; but as it did not break away from the 
order, it really gave it new life and splendor. 
The mother house of Cluny was an immense 
establishment with a church, destroyed at the 
Revolution, larger than any Gothic cathedral, 
a superb specimen of Romanesque. The patron- 
age of the arts by this house and the 800 or 
more monasteries affiliated with it was offensive 
to St. Bernard, who objected to the lavish ex- 
penditure for great church towers, elaborately 
sculptured facades and capitals, rich hangings 
and vestments, and treasuries filled with sacred 
vessels of gold and silver. From him came the 
spread of the reform of Cfteaux (see CISTER- 
CIANS) in 1098. The new spirit was less liter- 
ary, less exclusive; the arts and industries were 
not so thoroughly cultivated within the pre- 
. Greater opportunity was offered to lay 




artists; the conversi were encouraged to break 
loose and form associations of artists who com- 
peted with the monastic artists. This culmi- 
nated during the twelfth century, which wit- 
nessed not only the transition to the Gothic 
style of art, but the transference of artistic su- 
premacy from monastic to secular hands. An- 
other famous reform on stricter lines was that of 
the Trappists (q.v.), in 1664, an offshoot from 
the Cistercians. 

At one time the order is said to have had no 
less than 37,000 monasteries; in the fifteenth 
century 15,107 are enumerated, of which the 
Reformation abolished a great many. In England, 
at the Dissolution under Henry Vll T, there were 
(as given by Tanner, Notitia Hfonastica, 1605) 
113 abbeys and priories for monks, and 73 houses 
of Benedictine nuns. They now have less than 
a score in that country. In the United States 
the order was introduced in 1840, by a colony 
from the famous Abbey of Metten, in Bavaria, 
St. Vincent's Priory, Latrobe, Westmoreland 
Co., Pa., made an abbey in 18f>5, being the first 
foundation. In the older days the most im- 
portant monasteries for wealth, possessions, and 
patronage of art and literature were in Italy, 
Monte Cassino, Cava de' Tirreni, Farfa, Bobbio, 
Nonantula, and Subiaco; in Germany, Fulda, 
Corvei, Saint Gall, Hirsau, and Reichcnau; in 
France, Saint-Denis, Saint-Martin of Tours, 
Corbie, Fontanelle, Saint-Be'nigne of Dijon; in 
England, Jarrow and Wearmouth. Before the 
Reformation many of the mitred abbots in the 
last-named country sat in the House of Lords 
with the bishops. The abbot of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, was tlie first to obtain these rights 
of pontificalia from Pope Alexander II in 1063. 

For the history of the order, consult the An- 
nalcs Ordini? $. Bcnedirti and Ada Sanctorum 
Ordinis 8. Benedict* already referred to ; Reyner, 
Apostolatutt Benedict inr^r um in Angha (Douai, 
1626) ; the Hullarium Cassincnsc (2 vols., fol M 
Venice, 1650) : Tassin, Histoirc dc la Congrega- 
tion de tiaint-Maur (Paris, 1770) ; Cr6nica del 
ordcn de tian Bcnito (1 vols., fol., Salamanca, 
1609-15) ; Montalembert, Monks of the West 
(Eng. trans., 6 vols., by Gaaquet, London, 1895) ; 
Gasquet, English Monastic Life (London, 1004) ; 
Taunton, The English Black Afonkx of the Order 
of St. Benedict (London, 1897); Dantier, 
Etudes sur les B6ndictins (Paris, 1804) ; Lcs 
monasteres benedictins de Vltalie (Paris, 1866). 
For the artistic side, consult more particularly 
Schlosser, Die abendUindische Jflosteranlage dcs 
fritheren Mittclaltcrs (Vienna, 1889) ; Le- 
noir, ^architecture monastiguc (Paris, 1852) ; 
Springer, Kloslerleben nnd KlosterJcunst (Bonn, 
1886 ) . The methods of the monastic schools for 
all branches of art except architecture are best 
recorded in the interesting technical manual of 
the eleventh century called Diversarum Artium 
Kchedula, by a monk named Theophilus. Many 
contemporary annals of the monasteries are pub- 
lished in the Monunicnta Germanics Historica of 
Pertz and in Muratori's 8criptores Rerum Jtali- 
carum. For a vivid picture of life in an English 
monastery, consult Carlyle, Past and Present. 

BENEDICTION (Lat. benedictio, a praising, 
blessing, from beric, well + dicere, to speak). 
A solemn invocation of the divine blessing upon 
men or things. The ceremony in its simplest 
form may be considered almost coeval with the 
earliest expressions of religious feeling. In the 
Eastern as well as the Western church it is a 

common ceremony. The benediction, however, 
is not confined to a form of prayer, but is ac- 
companied with sprinkling of holy water, the 
use of incense, the sign of the Cross, etc. The 
chief cases in which a benediction is bestowed 
are: the coronation of kings and queens, the 
confirmation of all church dignitaries, and the 
consecration of church vessels, bells, and sacred 
robes; the nuptial ceremony, the absolution, and 
the last sacrament. The most solemn form of 
benediction in the Roman Church is that "with 
the most holy sacrament," which is administered 
by the bishop or priest with the monstrance or 
ostensory containing the consecrated elements. 
Besides these, lands, houses, cattle, etc., often 
receive a benediction from the priest. In the 
Cireek church, when the benediction is being pro- 
nounced, the priest disposes his fingers in such 
a manner as to convey symbolically to the faith- 
ful who are close enough to observe the arrange- 
ment the doctrine of the Trinity and the two- 
fold nature of Christ. 


BEN'EDIC'TTTS ( Lat. blessed, praised ) . 
A portion of the service of the mass of the 
Roman Catholic church; also the so-called 
'"canticle of Zachary" (Luke i. 68-79) used in 
the Roman breviary at lauds and adopted into 
the, Anglican morning service. 

(1 SI 1-73). A German playwright. He was 
born in Leipzig and had a wandering career 
with the celebrated Rethmann troupe by turns 
actor, opera singer, dramatic author, theatrical 
manager, and editor of a literary journal. II is 
dninuitic works lill 27 volumes (Leipzig, lS4(i - 
74). Of his one-act comedies and monologues, 
4G are collected in his JlauKthcattr (- voN., 
10th ed., 1801). The best of the longer plays 
are Dos bemooxte llfntpt (1841). Dcr Licbcsbrirf, 
and Dr. \Ycttpe. Of the shorter comedies, Der 
J'rozess, Dcr Wcibcrfcind, Gunstiyc Vorzcichcn, 
and Die Honnt ay 'ftjayrr are favorites in (ierinany 
and America. Benedix's plays are healthy in 
tone, simple in structure, lively in wit, and 
robust in humor, usually farcical and frequently 
burlesque, showing always an intimate knowl- 
edge of stage technic that contributed greatly 
to thfir lasting success. After his death ap- 
peared Die tfhaJfespearomanic (187.S), in which 
lie challenges the adulation of the English poet. 
For his autobiography, see the Oastcnlaubc 

BENEFICE, ben'e-fis (ML, bcncficiuin, a fief, 
Lat. bencficiuni, favor, from bcnc, well -f /error, 
to do). In the feudal system of land tenure (wee 
FEUDALISM) a grant of land by the lord to a 
vassal to be held by the latter on certain terms 
of service: in its later history the term was 
identical in meaning with fief (q.v.), or feud 
(q.v.). In this sense it has become obsolete, 
however, and it is now in England used almost 
exclusively to denote an ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment or living. It has no reference to the 
dignity or office of the incumbent, but describes 
the beneficial property right enjoyed by him by 
virtue of his office. The right to appoint a 
curate or vicar to a benefice is in itself a species 
of property and is enumerated by Blackstone 
among incorporeal hereditaments. See ADVOW- 
soN; PATRONAGE; also consult Phillimore, 
Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England 
(2d od., London, 1805). 

BENEFICIABY, ben'e-flahl-a-rf (Lat. bene- 




ficiarius, pertaining to a favor. See BENE- 
FICE). A legal term applied to the holder 
of a benefice or fief (q.v.). The word is 
employed to a large extent in American and 
later English law as a substitute for cestui 
que trust, a technical torin of equity juris- 
prudence derived from the Norman French, to 
denote a person in the enjoyment of an interest 
or estate held in trust by others. The legal 
title to a trust estate being vested in the 
trustee, the interest of the beneficiary therein is 
variously described as the "beneficial estate" 
or the "equi table estate." Jt is in this sense of 
a person entitled to the benefits of a trust estate 
that the term "beneficiary" is technically used 
in the law of Scotland. As a term in the law 
of insurance, tbe beneficiary is the party en- 
titled to the benefit or proceeds of the policy. 
Patent rights and copyrights are sometimes de- 
nominated beneficiary privileges. See TRUST. 


OF. bienfct, from Lat. benc, well + factum, 
something done, a deed, act), or PRTVILEGIUM 
CI.KBICALE. The privilege, claimed by the Me- 
diaeval Church for its clergy, of exemption from 
the process of the secular courts when charged 
with crime. The privilege was generally ac- 
corded by the Christian nations of Europe, and 
it operated to render the clergy amenable, espe- 
cially in cases involving barbarous punishments, 
only to the authority of the Church. The an- 
cient usage was, says Blackstone, "for the bishop 
or ordinary, to demand his clerks to be tried 
in the bishop's instead of the King's court." 
This exemption, enjoyed by all persons in holy 
orders, from the jurisdiction of the secular or 
ordinary tribunals, was a privilege highly valued 
and stoutly defended by the clergy. This senti- 
ment was "powerfully supported by the growing 
sense of the sanctity attaching to the priestly 
office, and the result was the creation of a 
priestly caste owing allegiance primarily to the 
Church and subject only to her penalties. 

Jn England the privilege was conceded in all 
cases of felony, except that of treason against 
the King; but not in cases of misdemeanor nor 
in civil litigations. Originally available only in 
the case of persons in holy orders, it was ex- 
tended in 1330, by a statute of Edward III to 
all clerks, whether religious or secular, the last 
class comprehending all persons who could read. 
The gradual amelioration of the penal laws and 
the spread of education rendered the benefit of 
clergy more and more of an anachronism, and it 
was, bv successive acts of Parliament, gradually 
shorn of its privileges and finally, in 1827, 
abolished. It survives only in the statute for- 
bidding the judicial impeachment of archbishops 
or bishops for crime without the consent of the 
King, and in the exemption of the clergy from 
arrest while in the performance of the services 
of the Church. 

The process whereby the benefit was claimed 
varied with the growing power of the ordinary 
tribunals. Originally the bishop was entitled to 
demand the person of the clerk immediately upon 
his apprehension, whereupon the jurisdiction of 
the secular authority ceased. Later the courts 
asserted the right to compel the presence of the 
accused, in order to inquire into the question of 
his guilt or innocence, as well as his right to 
the privilege; and finally the courts took full 
jurisdiction and proceeded against him as in the 
case of an ordinary criminal, until a verdict was 

rendered, when he was allowed to plead* hi* 
benefit in arrest of judgment. (See ARREST CMP 
JUDGMENT.) The test of the prisoner's ability 
to read was thereupon made in open court, and 
if his claim was sustained, he was turned over 
to the bishop, or ordinary, to make his purga- 
tion. (See COM PURGATION.) The punishment 
of branding on the thumb, which the secular 
court was authorized to inflict before discharg- 
ing the convicted clerk from its custody, was 
mitigated and finally abolished by Statute of 
19 Geo. Ill (1770). 

In the United States the right was recognized 
in a fe\v early cases in the Colonies of North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. It was 
expressly forbidden by an Act of Congress passed 
April 30, 1790, in all cases of conviction of 
capital crime. The early history of the practice 
in England is fully given in Pollock and Mait- 
land, History of English Law (2d ed., Boston, 
1890). For its later history, consult: Hale, His- 
tory of the Picas of the Crown; Blackstone, 
Commentaries on the Law of England; Stephen, 
History of the Criminal Law of England (Lon- 
don, 1883). 

BE1TEFIT OP nrVENTO'RY. A term of 
the civil law denoting the privilege which the 
heir obtains of being released from liability for 
the debts and obligations of his ancestor beyond 
the value of tbe assets coming to him, by mak- 
ing and filing an inventory of these assets with- 
in the time and in the manner prescribed by 
law. By the earlier Koman law the heir 
(hercs), whether inheriting property or not, 
was absolutely liable for the debts of his an- 
cestor. It was not until the time of Justinian 
that this liability was restricted to the value of 
the assets received by him in tbe manner above 
stated. Benefit of inventory is still employed in 
the practice of Louisiana, ' which inherited the 
civil law through the Code Napoleon. It was 
formerly of importance also in Scotch law; but 
by the abolition of the annuft dclibrrandi and 
other liberal provisions of the statutes 10 and 11 
Viet., c. 47, sees. 23 and 25, its value has been 

formed to provide for a cheap form of insurance, 
which secures to their members, through regular 
dues or special assessments, a provision for old 
age, funeral expenses, death payments to widow 
and orphans, or sick allowances. Societies exist 
with this beneficial feature as their primary 
object: but more often it is added to the work 
of special associations in order to make mem- 
bership more attractive. The associations formed 
by men in the same business or profession, 
trade organizations, philanthropic societies, and 
churches frequently provide for such a fund. 
Certain trades unions tend to emphasize the 
benefit feature, sometimes paying out-of-work 
allowances. Women are permitted to belong to 
some societies. Since the success of all such 
societies depends upon the financial manage- 
ment, the funds have been occasionally dissipated 
by ignorance, incompetence, or fraud. In Eng- 
land, societies witli beneficial features are called 
"friendly societies," and "benefit societies" are 
associations entered into for the purpose of 
raising by periodical subscriptions a fund to 
assist members in buying land and erecting 
buildings upon it. The latter societies have 
been very successful, and they have invested 
large sums in bonds and mortgages. See 




HOODS; TRADES UNIONS. Consult F. H. Bacon, 
Law of Benefit Societies and Life Insurance (St. 
Louis, 1905). 

BENEKE, bft'ne-ke, FRIEDRICH EDUARD ( 1798- 
1854). A noted German psychologist. He was 
born in Berlin, Feb. 17, 1708. He studied 
theology at Halle and afterward philosophy at 
Berlin. In 1820 he began lecturing at the 
latter university, but two years later his lec- 
tures were interdicted by the Minister Alton- 
stein. Beneke then held a position as lecturer 
at Gtfttingen for three years, until in 1827 he 
was allowed to resume lecturing in Berlin. 
Upon the death of Hegel in 1832 he was ap- 
pointed assistant professor of philosophy. On 
March 1, 1854, he disappeared from his home, 
and his corpse was discovered in the canal at 
Charlottenburg in June, 1856. 

Beneke's most important works were his 
psychological treatises. His standpoint through- 
out was empirical, opposed to Hegelian specula- 
tion, and closely allied to British associationism. 
He believed that a true psychology, which is the 
basis of all knowledge, must be formulated in 
accordance with the rigid methods of physical 
science and that the genetic method is most 
valuable. Despite this empirical vein he found 
the elements of mind in certain formal capaci- 
ties, termed the "primal faculties." His work 
is often theoretical and inexact. 

His principal works are: Erfahrungsscelen- 
lehre, ale Grundlage alles Wissens, in ihrcn 
Hauptziigen dargelegt (1820); Neuc Grim die- 
gungen ssur Mctaphysik (1822); Psycholoyisclie 
Skiezen (1825-27) ; Lehrouch der Psychologic als 
Xaturwissenschaft (1833; 4th ed., 1877) : Erm- 
hungsund Unlerrichtslehre (2 vols., 1835-36; 
4th ed., 1876) ; System der Logik als Kvnstlchrc 
dea Denkens (2 vols., 1842) ; Pragmatiscfie 
Psychologic, oder Scclenlehre in der Anwcnditng 
auf das Leben (2 vols., 1850). Consult: 0. H. 
T. Kilhn, Die Sittenlehre F. E. Benches (1892) ; 
Brandt, Beneke, the Man and his Philosophy 
(New York, 1895); H. Rcnner, Benekes fir- 
kenntnistheorie (Halle, 1902); A. Wandsch- 
neider, Die Metaphysik Benekes (Berlin, 1903). 

BENENGELI, ba'n6n-Ha'le, Cm HAMET. Tlie 
name of the old chronicler whose work Cervantes 
pretends to have used in his Don Quixote. 

American soldier, born in St. Augustine, Fla. 
He graduated at the University of Georgia, and 
in 1849 at West Point, where he was assistant 
professor of geography, history, and ethics from 
1859 to 1861, and was instructor of ordnance 
and the science of gunnery from 1861 to 1864. 
He was appointed assistant to the chief of 
ordnance in 1869, and from 1874 until bin retire- 
ment in 1891 was chief of the department with 
the rank of brigadier general. He translated 
Jomini's Political and Military History of the 
Campaign of Waterloo (1853) : and in 1862 pub- 
lished Military Law and the Practice of Courts- 

BEN'EVENTO (for derivation, see below). 
An archiepiscopal city in south Italy, capital of 
the province of Benevento (Map: Italy, J 6). 
It is situated on a hill between the rivers Galore 
and Sabato, on the winding Naples-Foggia Rail- 
way, 60 miles by rail northeast of Naples, but 
only 32 miles by direct route. The walls are 
constructed almost entirely from Roman ruins, 
and on the north side of the town is Trajan's 

triumphal arch, the Porta Aurea, one of the 
best-preserved Roman structures in south Italy, 
erected in 114 A.D. in expectation of the Em- 
peror's return from the East, where he died in 
116. It is 50 feet high, and is built of Greek 
marble. The twelfth -century Lombard-Saraeenic 
cathedral contains beautiful paintings and has a 
bronze door adorned with reliefs of New Testa- 
ment subjects and said to have been made in 
Constantinople in 1150. There are several fine 
palaces, a castle, erected in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and several churches, among which may 
be mentioned that of Santa Sofia, a circular 
edifice of the Lombard period. In the cathedral 
is a relief showing the Calydonian boar adorned 
for sacrifice. Egyptian obelisks have been set 
up in many of the public squares. The prin- 
cipal manufactures are of gold and silver-plated 
ware, leather and parchment, and the trade in 
grain is important. 

According to tradition, the Samnite Maleven- 
tum (Lat. ill wind, or ill-come), the name of 
which was changed to Beneventum (fair wind, 
or well-come) after the Roman victory over 
Pyrrhus in 275 B.C., was founded by Diomedes. 
During the Punic wars Beneventum remained 
faithful to the Romans and was plundered by 
Hannibal after his victory at Cannae 216 B.C. 
It was destroyed by Totila in 545 A.D., and was 
rebuilt by Narses. In the sixth century th* 
Lombards mude it the capital of an independent 
duchy, of which Pope Leo IX in 1049 had the 
possession guaranteed to him by Emperor Henry 
III. Frederick 11 partly destroyed it in 1241. 
From 1800 to 1815 Benevento was the capital 
of a principality granted to Talleyrand by 
Napoleon. Jn 1815 it was restored to the Pope 
and in 1 800 beeanie part of the Kingdom of Italy. 
Five councils were held here in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries. Pop. (commune), 1881, 
22,000; 1001, 24,647; 1911, 23,767. Consult 
Borgia, Memoriv istorwhr della pontifigia citta 
di Benevento (Koine, 1763-(iJ)) ; A. Meomartini, 
Monument i c Opcre d' Arlc di Benevento (Bene- 
vento, 1899). 


BENEVOLENCE (Lat. benevolentia, good 
will from lenc, well -f velle, to wish). In Eng- 
lish legal history, a compulsory contribution 
levied by certain kings, without other authority 
than the pretense of prerogative. The designa- 
tion dates from 1473, when Edward IV asked it 
"as a mark of good will towards his rule." 
Benevolences were declared illegal by Parliament 
in 1484, but nevertheless were resorted to with 
considerable HiiccesH by Henry VII and Henry 
V11I. Subsequent kings tried the expedient 
with ill success, and Charles I declined to resort 
to it. The people protested against it in the 
Petition of Rights, etc., and it has been made 
illegal without grant of Parliament. Consult 
Hallam's Constitutional History of England, 
and Stephen's Commentaries, vol. i (4 vols., 
New York, 1843-46). 

BEN'EZET', ANTHONY (1713-84). An Amer- 
ican philanthropist who defended the interests 
of the negroes and Indians. He was born in 
France, but emigrated to America, and in 1731 
settled in Philadelphia. Among his tracts were: 
A Caution to Great Britain and Her Colonies, 
in a Short Representation of the Calamitous 
State of the Enslaved Negroes in the British 
Dominion (1707); Nome Historical Account of 
Guinea, with an Inquiry into the Rise and 
Progress of the Slave-Trade (1774); A Short 




Acvount of the Society of Friends (1780) ; and 
Observations on the Indian Natives of this Con- 
tinent (1784). Consult Roberta Vaux, Memoir 
of the Life of Anthony Benezet (Philadelphia, 

BENTEY, bSn'fl, THEODOR ( 1809-81 ) . A Ger- 
man Orientalist, born at N?>rten, Hanover. He 
studied at Gfittingen and Munich; from 1834 was 
a lecturer at the former university and from 1848 
professor. His researches in tin Sanskrit language 
and literature were particularly extensive and 
valuable. In the introduction to bin translation 
into German (2 vols., 1850) of the collection of 
fables known as Pancatantra (q.v.), he began 
a most interesting study of the influence of an- 
cient Indian material upon the folklore of Asia 
and Europe. This investigation he continued 
in his periodical, Orient iind Occident (pub- 
lished at Gflttingcn in 1863-65, 3 vols.), and in 
his introduction to G. W. II. Birkell'H edition 
and translation into German (Leipzig, 1876) of 
the Syrian Kalilag and Damnag. HP thus 
opened to other scholars a most profitable field. 
In English he published A Practical Urammar 
of the Sanskrit Language (1863, 2d ed., 1868), 
and a Sanskrit -English Dictionary (1866), by 
which he is probably best known. TILn writings 
further include an etymological dictionary of 
the Indo-Germanic languages (in 2 vols.), a 
valuable edition, with a glossary and a transla- 
tion into Gorman (1848), of the Hamaveda, and 
a Yollstundige (irammatik dvr Ranskritsprachc 
(1852), supplemented by a Chrcstomathic 
(1853-54). His Klcinere Rchriflen, edited by 
Adalbert Bezzenberger, appeared in Berlin in 
1800-01 (2 vols.). 

BENGAL, ben-gfll' (Hind. Bangato, Ski. 
Van ga lam, from Yanaa, om of the five Aryan 
kingdoms). A province of India forming a 
presidency since 1912. It is bounded on the 
north by Bhutan and Assam, on the cast by 
Assam and Burma, on the south by the Bay of 
Bengal, and on the west by the province of 
Bihar and Orissa (Map: India, K 4). Radical 
changes in boundary occurred in 11)05 and I!) 12. 
An unofficial estimate of the province as 
newly constituted places the area at about 
70,000 square miles and the population at about 
42.000,000. Prior to Oct. 16, 1005, the province 
(then a lieutenant governorship) had an area uf 
106,408 square miles, of which 15T,70(> square 
miles were British territory and 38.012 square 
miles native states: it consisted of the four sub- 
provinces BengH proper, Bihar, Orissa, and 
Ohota Nagpur (including the native states of 
Cooch Behar, Sikkim, Hill Tipnera, and the 
tributary states of Orissa and Ohota Nagpur), 
and the total population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1001, was 78,403,410. This territory was 
about the same as the Diwani grant of 1765. 
The area of the lieutenant governorship before 
and after the territorial division of 1005, with 
the 1001 census population, was as follows: 


<-T 16,1905 


T 10, 1905 

Sq. m. 

Pop. 1901 

Sq. m. 

Pop. 1901 

Bengal proper . 






Chota Nagpur . 








British territory 
Native States 





These changes of boundary were made to 
lighten the excessive burden imposed upon the 
Bengal government by increasing population. 
commerce, and complexity of administration. 
It was decided that relief could be afforded, not 
by organic governmental change, but only by 
actual transference of territory. Hence a new 
province, Eastern Bengal and Assam, was 
erected; to it was assigned Eastern Bengal, 
i. e., the territory generally east of the Madhu- 
mati River and the Ganges and including the 
Bengal divisions of Dacca, Chittagong, and 
Rajshahi (except Darjeeling), the district of 
Malda, and the native state of Hill Tippera. 
At the same time the five Hindi -speaking native 
states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Korea, and 
Chang Bhakar were transferred to the Central 
Provinces; while the district of Sambalpur (ex- 
cept two zamindaris) and the Or iy a- speaking 
native states of Patna, Kalahandi, Bamra, Son- 
pur, and Rairakhol in the Central Provinces 
were attached to Bengal. Minor territorial 
changes (as the detachment of Sikkim), aggre- 
gating no very considerable alteration in area 
or population, took place between 1905 and 
1011; the returns by divisions of 'the census 
taken on March 10 of the latter year, as com- 
pared with the adjusted returns of the 1901 
census (for the same territory), together with 
the percentage of increase, are shown below: 

Pop. 1901 

Pop. 1911 


British Territory 
Burdwan Division 
Presidency . . . 
Tvrhut . . . 
Bhagalpur . . . . 
Chota Nagpur Division . 








Native States 
Coorh Behar ... . 
Onewa Feudatory States 
Chota Nagpur States 




Orund total . . . 




Of the total population of the province as 
constituted in 1001, about 63 per cent was re- 
turned bv the census of that year as Hindu and 
about 33 per cent as Mohammedan. Hindus 
were most numerous in Bihar (except Malda and 
East Purnea), Orissa, and West Bengal, and 
Mohammedans in the districts east of the Bha- 
garathi and the Mahananda. In British terri- 
tory Hindus numbered 40,737,543, Mohammedans 
25,205,342, and Animists 2,242,770. The Mo- 
hammedans of the old province formed over two- 
fifths of the total number in India. The 1901 
census showed that in the British territory of 
the old province Bengali was spoken by 40,714,- 
000 persons, Hindi 26,151,361, Oriya 4,561,323, 
and Rantali 1,510,881. 

Of the total population of the province as 
constituted at the 1011 census, 52,668,269 in 
British territory and 4.538,161 in native states, 
Hindus numbered 40,280,843 and 3,797,979; 
Mohammedans, 0,385,763 and 199,133; Animists, 
2,005,002 and 409,052; Christians, 319,384 and 

The province as reconstituted Oct. 16, 1905, 
for administrative purposes, by the division of 



old Bengal and other changes mentioned above, 
did not prove satisfactory to the inhabitants; 
the division was regarded as an attempt to 
weaken the national political and religious feel- 
ing, and it had considerable bearing on the 
native "unrest" of the ensuing years. A new 
shifting of boundaries was determined upon. On 
April 1, 1912, in accordance with the announce- 
ment of the Emperor at the Delhi Durbar 
(December, 1911), and under a subsequent act 
of Parliament, Eastern Bongal was reunited to 
Bengal (Assam becoming again a separate 
province), while Bihar, Chota Nagpur, and 
Orissa were separated to form a now province 
(lieutenant governorship) ; and the new province 
of Bengal was at the same time raised to the 
rank of a presidency, under a governor with 
powers and privileges similar to those of the 
governors of Madras and Bombay. The legisla- 
tive council was enlarged to consist of 52 mem- 
bers, including 25 elected by variously consti- 
tuted constituencies; in the total were 20 Hindus 
and 7 Mohammedans. Calcutta (which was 
super-ceded by Delhi as the capital of India) 
remained the capital of Bengal, with Darjeeling 
as the summer residence of the governor; and 
it was provided that Dacca, former capital of 
Eastern Bengal and a centre of Islam, should 
be the administrative headquarters for a certain 
period each year. As stated at the beginning 
of this article, a statistical treatment of the 
new presidency was not feasible in 11)13. 

In its topographical conformation Bengal be- 
fore the division of 1905 was considered as con- 
sisting of two river valleys, the western part 
forming the basin of the Ganges, and the eastern 
that of the Brahmaputra. While in the northern 
part the surface partakes to some extent of the 
mountainous character of the neighboring re- 
gions, the central, and especially the southeastern 
part around the vast delta of the Ganges and 
Brahmaputra, is a low plain whose character is 
determined by tlie two great water arteries of 
the region, and the soil is mostly alluvial. Ex- 
cept Egypt, there is hardly another country in 
the world in which the hydrographic svstem is 
such a determining factor in the agricultural 
and general economic conditions as it is in B'n- 
gal. This is especially true of the Ganges. 
After a long and swift course it is checked by 
the more level surface of Bengal, and the im- 
mense quantities of silt brought by the current 
are deposited through numerous canals upon the 
surrounding level country. This process of 
natural manuring and periodic rejuvenation of 
the soil results in extraordinary fertility. In 
the southeastern part, where the country for 
hundreds of miles is overflowed by the waters of 
the vast number of streams, streamlets, and 
creeks forming the complicated delta of the 
Ganges, numerous embankments have been 
erected to check excessive inundation. 

Agriculture. Whether the old province be 
considered or the province as constituted in 
1905 or in 1912, Bengal is a distinctively agri- 
cultural country. In the old province more 
than 56 millions, or 71 per cent of the entire 
population, were supported by agriculture. Of 
every 100 agriculturists 89 * were rent-paying 
tenants, 9 were laborers, and 2 lived on their 
rents. In 1903-04 52.5 per cent of the total 
area was cropped, 7.2 per cent was fallow, 13.3 
per cent was cultivable waste other than fallow, 
24.1 per cent was not available for cultivation, 
and 3 per cent was forest. Food crops occupied 

82 per cent of the gross cropped area, and oil- 
seeds 6 per cent. Of all crops rice is by far 
the most important, covering 71 per cent of 
the net cropped area. There are many varieties, 
each possessing special characteristics which 
adapt its cultivation to particular localities; 
but they may all be classified, according to the 
harvesting season, under three main heads: 
winter rice (the principal crop), early rice, and 
spring rice. Various other cereals and pulses 
are grown, and jute is a very valuable crop. In 
1908-09 tlie area under leading crops was, in 
thousands of acres: food grains and pulses, 
32,833 (including rice 22,519, maize 1815, wheat 
125-2, barley 1118, gram 850, millet 815, great 
millet 95, spiked millet 79, other 4283); oil- 
seeds, 1723 (including linseed 548, sesamum 
207, rape and mustard 635, other 313); sugar 
cane, 368; other sugar, 47; condiments and 
spices, 83; fibres, 691 (including jute 549, cotton 
67, other 76) ; indigo, 135; other dyes, 5; opium, 
116; ten, 54; tobacco, 144; other drugs and 
narcotics, 2; fodder crops, 66; orchard and 
garden produce, 882; miscellaneous food crops, 
607; miscellaneous non-food crops, 547; total 
cropped area, 38,303; area cropped more than 
once, 5771; net area cropped, 32,532. 

The manufacturing industries of Bengal have 
not kept pace with the agricultural development 
of the country. Many of the native industries, 
such as the manufacture of dyes and the finer 
silks, as well as minor articles of general con- 
sumption, have almost disappeared, and the 
local demand for these articles is supplied 
largely by British manufactures. Jn sonic of 
tlie cities there are a number of large mills 
equipped with modern machinery. In the ruriil 
districts, however, a large part of tlie popu- 
lation, formerly engaged in industrial pursuits, 
have turned their attention to agriculture. 
Tlie decline of the native industries is due 
largely to the development of railway transpor- 
tation which has enabled tlie machine-made 
goods of Oreat Britain to compete with the 
local hand-made articles. 

The foreign commerce of Bengal, which is 
increasing, is largely with the United Kingdom. 
The great bulk of the trade passes through Cal- 
cutta. Tlie imports consist mostly of cotton 
piece goods and cotton twist and yarn, \\hich 
come almost exclusively from Great Britain; 
metals, mineral oil, machinery, and sugar. Of 
the exports, about one-fifth consists of opium 
and rice, and the rest of seeds, indigo, wheat, 
cotton, etc. Internal communication is facili- 
tated by numerous navigable rivers as well as 
by roads and railway lines. Of roads, Bengal 
had, in 1903-04, 53J038 miles, of which onlv 
about one-eighth were macadamized. The rail- 
way system included three main lines one 
leading from Calcutta toward the northwest; a 
second eastward; the third to Madras. In 1904 
the total length of railwavs in the province 
was 4578 miles, of which 3895 miles were owned 
bv the State: in the same year the railways in 
the territory which was constituted as the 
province in 1905 had a length of 3485 miles, of 
which 3041 miles were owned by the state. 

Education. Instruction is provided partly by 
public (government and government-aided 
schools) and partly by private institutions. In 
1908-09 the public institutions numbered 42,- 
305, with 1,368,280 scholars (of whom onlv 
159,562 were female) ; of these the primary 
schools numbered 37,509 (1,108,843 scholars)"; 




secondary schools, 1545 (107,077); arts col- 
leges, 31 (4655) ; professional colleges, 13 
(2070) ; training schools, 232 (4003) ; and all 
other special schools, 2975 (81,572). In the 
same year there were 3148 private elementary 
schools, with 40,533 scholars, and 1132 private 
advanced schools, with 12.576 scholars. Grand 
total, 46,585 schools; 1,421,398 scholars. The 
census of 1011, out of a total population of 
62,668,269 in British territory, showed 3,305,821 
literate (of whom 220,311 wore female) and 
412,706 literate in English (29,822 female) ; in 
the native states, out of a total of 4,538,101, 
only 134,306 (of whom 6092 were female) were 
returned a a literate and 5135 literate in English 
(178 female). 

The "Bengal Army" was the term applied to 
the troops raised in Bengal for service with the 
Indian native army. The cavalry troops of the 
Bengal Army, and particularly the lancer regi- 
ments, are world-famous. When in 1904 under 
Lord Kitchener the Indian army was recon- 
stituted, the Bengal Armv was abolished; its 
successor is called the Eastern Command. 

The Imperial revenue is demed chiefly from 
the opium monopoly (over ,'5.> per cent), land 
rent (ahout 22 per cent), the salt monopoly, and 
customs. The Imperial expenditures amount 
usually to less than one-fourth of the revenue. 
The cost of the administration of the province is 
covered by the provincial and municipal taxes. 

Bihar, formerly the northern part of Bengal, 
and anciently a powerful Sanskrit monarchy, 
was conquered ahout 1197 A.D. by the Moham- 
medans. So-called Mohammedan goveinors of 
Bengal ruled from 1202 till 1339; then followed 
independent Mohammedan kings, and from lf>76 
to 1705 the country was ruled by governors 
under the 1 Delhi (Morul) emperors. The fust 
British commercial settlement was made about 
10'2(). In 1080 the English bought, from the 
grandson of Aimmcrzeb, the site of the present 
Calcutta. In 1757 dive's victory, gained 
against odds of 20 to 1, transferred Bengal from 
the Mogul's governor to the English East India, 
Company, which was secured in its possession 
bv the Mogul's own grant of 1705. Warren 
Hastings consolidated the British power in Ben- 
gal (1772-85). Under him and his successors 
the civil administration was thoroughly organ- 
ized and important land legislation enacted. 
After the treaties of 1705, which placed Bengal, 
Bihar, and Orisaa under British administration, 
the history of Bengal merges with that of 
British India. 

The province of Eastern Bengal and Assam (a 
lieutenant governorship), which existed from 
Oct. 16, 1905, to April 1, 1912, had an area of 
100.130 square miles, including the native states 
of Manipur and Hill Tippera. The population 
of British territory in 1911 was 34,018,527, as 
compared with 30,510,344 for the same territory 
in 1901, the increase being li.5 per cent; native 
states, 575,835 in 1911 and 457,790 in 1901, the 
increase being 25.8 per cent. Mohammedans in 
British territory numbered 20,157,345 in 1911, 
and Hindus 12,093,940; in the native, states, 
79,457 and 359,480. The capital was Dacca. 

BENGAL, BAY OF. A part of the Indian 
Ocean, of almost triangular form, projected 
northward between India and Farther India. 
It receives many large rivers the Ganges and 
the Brahmaputra on the north, the Irawadi on 
the east, and on the west the Mahanadi, the 

Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri. On 
the western coast there is hardly anything 
worthy of the name of harbor; while on the 
east there are many good ports, such as Akyab, 
Cheduba, Negrais, Syriam, Martaban, Tavoy 
Kiver, King's Island, besides several more in 
the islands between Pegu and Sumatra. The 
Andaman and Nicobar islands are in the eastern 
part of the bay. The northeastern and south- 
western monsoons prevail, respectively, in sum- 
mer and winter over the whole of the northern 
part of the Indian Ocean, which includes the 
bay, and also over the maritime tracts of 

BENGALESE, ben'ga-lez'. See BENGAL. 

BENGALI (be-n-gii'16) LAN'GUAGE AND 
LIT'EBATUBE. The Bengali lan<niage is a 
modern Indian dialect, akin to the Uriya, the 
Assamese, the Bihari, and the Hindustani" (<j.v.) . 
Like all the modern Indian languages, it is 
analytic in type, and the structure of its gram- 
mar thus resembles that of modern Persian or 
English. According to the census of 1901 Ben- 
gali is spoken by 44,024,048 souls. There are 
numerous dialects, but the Calcutta dialect may 
be regarded as the standard, although the 
literary language differs from any of its ver- 
naculars, on account of the introduction of 
Sanskrit words, which are employed more freely 
in Bengali than in any other modern Indian 
language. The Bengali uses a peculiar but 
beautiful character derived from the Devana- 
gari or Sanskrit alphabet. 

The vernacular literature of Bengal is inti- 
mately connected with the religious bistorv of 
that country. So intimate is the bond which links 
together poetry and religion, that even purely 
erotic literature has come to be interpreted as an 
allegoric exposition of religious precepts. The 
basis for such a view of poetry was furnished by 
the stories current in India about the love adven- 
tures of Krishna, and Krishna himself came to 
be regarded by the theological poets of India as 
an incarnation of the Love attribute of Vishnu. 
One of the earliest of these Krishnaitic poets 
was Chandi Das, who flourished about 1403 
A.D. The poetic school headed by him was 
strengthened by the religious movement in- 
augurated by Chaitanya in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, which occasioned numerous theological 
works, many of which were, however, written in 
Sanskrit. Another impetus was given to Ben- 
gali literature by the translation, in the fif- 
teenth century, of the Mahabharata and the 
Ramayana. In the seventeenth century a Siv- 
aite tone was imparted to the literature. The 
female deities Sakti, Manasa, and Chandi share, 
however, in the praise of the Bengali poets. To 
this period belongs the poem written in the 
honor of Sakti by Mukunda Ram (1589). 
Bharata Chandra (1722-60) is another poet 
famous for his mastery of poetic form. His 
Yidya Rundar, an episode of an epic poem de- 
scribing the conquest of Bengal by Man Singh, 
is one of the most popular Bengali poems. Rama 
Prasada Sen (1718-75), a follower of the 
goddess Kali, was the great religious poet of 
this epoch. The modern period of Bengali 
literature is marked by the struggle of two 
opposing schools, the one drawing its inspira- 
tion from the Sanskrit classics and the other 
working in sympathy with European ideals. 
Several novels have been produced under this 
new inspiration in Bengali, and an attempt has 
also been made to revive the Bengali plays, or 



yatras. In 1013 the Bengali poet, Rabindra- 
nath Tagore (q.v.), received the Nobel prize for 

Consult: Beames, Grammar of the Bengali 
Language (Oxford, 1894) ; Nicolls, Manual of 
the Bengali Language (London, 1894); Sen, 
English-Bengalee Dictionary (Serampore, 1834) ; 
G. C. Haughton, Bengali, Sanskrit, and English 
Dictionary (London, 1833); Ganguli, Students 9 
Bengali-English Dictionary ( Bhawanipur, 1903 ) ; 
Dutt, The Literature of Bengal (Calcutta, 
1895); Grierson, Specimens of the Bengali and 
Assamese Languages (Linguistic Survey of In- 
dia, vol. v, Calcutta, 1903) ; D. C. Sen, History 
of Bengali Language and Literature (Calcutta, 


BENGAZI, bSn-gii'ze 1 (anciently, Berenice). 
A seaport town, the capital of ftarca (q.v.), 
on the coast of North Africa, finely situated on 
the Gulf of Sidra (Map: Africa, F 1). It has 
a ruined castle, a pretentious bazar, and a 
Franciscan monastery. Its harbor is exposed, 
but of considerable commercial importance. The 
chief exports are barley, sponges, ivory, and 
ostrich feathers, although much of the com- 
merce in the last mentioned has been diverted 
to Tripoli. Beiigazi is the centre of a fertile 
region and controls an important trade with 
the interior by caravans. The population, esti- 
mated between 25,000 and 35,000, includes 
Maltese, Greekb, and Italians. Bengazi is the 
ancient Hesperides, which was named Berenice 
by Ptolemy III, in whose time it was a flourish- 
ing town. In the Turco-Ttalian War Bengazi 
was occupied by the Italians, Oct. 20, 1911, and 
was the scene of numerous skirmishes. 

1752). A German theologian and commentator. 
He was born at Winnenden, in Wurttemberg, 
June 24, 1687. After completing his theological 
curriculum in 1707 at Tubingen, he became cu- 
rate of Metzingcn; a year after he was appointed 
tutor in theology at Tubingen. Later in life 
he held several high offices, among others that 
of consistorial councilor and prelate of Alpirs- 
bach, in Wurttembcrg, where he died Nov. 2, 
1752. He was the first Protestant author who 
treated the exegesis of the New Testament in a 
thoroughly critical and judicious style. He did 
good service also in the rectification of the text 
of the Bible and in paving the way for classify- 
ing the biblical manuscripts into families. The 
short notes in his Gnomon Novi Testamenti 
(Ttibingen, 1742) have been generally regarded 
as valuable and translated into various lan- 
guages (Eng. ed., Philadelphia, 1862). They 
were especially made use of by John Wesley in 
his "Notes on the New Testament, which forms 
one of the standards of Wesleyan Methodism. 
Indeed, Wesley's work may be regarded as little 
more than an abridged translation from Bengel. 
In Erklhrte Offenbarung Johannis (Stuttgart, 
1740), and a chronological work, the Ordo Tern- 
porum a Principio per Periodos (Economics 
Divines Historicus atque Propheticus (Ttibingen, 
1741), he calculated, on the basis he supposed 
to be laid down in the Apocalypse, that the 
world would endure for the space of 7777 7-9 
years, and that the "breaking loose and the 
binding of Satan" would take place in the sum- 
mer of 1836. For his biography, consult: H. P. 
Burk (Stuttgart, 1831; Eng. trans., London, 
1837) ; Oscar von Wftchter, BengeL Lebensabriss 
(Stuttgart, 1866). 

Canadian cartoonist and poet. He was born in 
Toronto and received a grammar-school educa- 
tion. In 1873 he founded Grip, a comic weekly, 
and during 19 years his generally good-natured 
but sometimes caustic caricatures of public men 
and social foibles in that paper were a feature 
of Canadian life. After 1892 he contributed 
to other Canadian publications, and during 
1903 his cartoons appeared in the London Daily 
Express, St. James's Gazette, and Morning 
Chronicle. A Liberal in politics, he often satir- 
ized the members of his own party for their 
faults and failures. ' He lectured throughout 
Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New 
Zealand, and in many cities of the United 
States. In 1880, when the Royal Canadian 
Academy was constituted, he was appointed an 
associate. His verse is excellent, and some of 
his dictatory poems have attracted attention. 
Among his publications are: A Caricature His- 
tory of Canadian Politics (1886); Motlei/: 
Verses Grave and Gay (1805) ; In Many Keys 

BENGUELA, b$n-ga'l&, or BENGUELLA. 
One of the six districts into winch the Portu- 
guese colony of Angola (q.v.) is divided (Map: 
Belgian Congo, B ft). It is situated between 
Loan da and Mossamedes, in the most mountain- 
ous part of that colony. Minerals are found 
extensively. Chief towns are Lobito Bay and 
the capital, Bengucla. 

town, the capital of the district of the same 
name (Map: Belgian Congo, B 5). Situated 
in about lat. 12 34' 8., and long 13 20' E., 
it lies in an exceedingly unhealthful region, near 
the mouth of the Kavako River, on the Bahfa 
das Vacaa. It has an open roadstead, and ex- 
ports rubber, ivory, wax, and skins. Tobaeco, 
fruit, and vegetables are gro\\n. Pop., 1911, 
about 3000, of which between 1000 and 1500 arc; 
whites. Benguela was founded in 1017 as San 
Felipe de Benguela. Before the suppression of 
the slave trade it had a greater population than 
at present, and was of considerable importance 
as a slave-trade centre. A railway connects it 
with Lobito, where there is a good natural har- 
bor with docking facilities greatly improved in 

BENGUET-IGOROT, ben'get Ig'o-rot. The 
pagan inhabitants of Benguet, Amburayan, and 
Lepanto subprovinces, and the mountains of